Council Resources

COMMUNICATOR for a CYBER AGE in Africa. Bosco Eastern Africa Multimedia Services Kenya

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COMMUNICATOR for a CYBER AGE in Africa.

 

Edited by Fr. K D Tom Kunnel sdb Bosco Eastern Africa Multimedia Services (B.E.A.M.S) Salesians of Don Bosco Karen, 00502 Kenya

COMMUNICATOR FOR A CYBER-AGE IN AFRICA TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgement vi Foreword vii Introduction ix Guidelines x SECTION - 1 1.1 Communication and our Human Identity 3 1.2 The Challenge of Communication 7 1.3 Definition, Components and Forms of Communication 12 1.4 Simplified Models of Communication 18 1.5 Noise in Communication 23 1.6 Body Language 27 1.7 Eye Communication 31 1.8 The Language of Signs and Symbols 36 1.9 Etiquette for Better Communication 41 1.10 A Brief History of Communication 49 SECTION - 2 2.1 Intra-Personal Communication 57 2.2 Communication and Self Management 65 2.3 Advanced Models of Communication 72 2.4 Visual Media 77 2.5 Characteristics of an Audio-Visual Culture 87 2.6 A Biblical Framework for Human Communication 92 2.7 Significance of Words According to Scripture 96 2.8 Guidelines for Liturgical Music 100 2.9 Drama in the Liturgy 107 2.10 Dance in the Liturgy 113 SECTION - 3 3.1 Human Person as Communicator 119 3.2 Media and Meaning 123 3.3 The Levels of Meaning in Communication 127 3.4 People, Context, and Communication 131 3.5 Perception, Bias and Stereotypes 136 3.6 What is Truth? 144 3.7 Tolerance and the Communication of Truth 150 3.8 Reconstructing Reality 157 3.9 Dialogue – A Way of Being Fully Human 161 3.10 Enunciation Skills 167 3.11 Public Speaking Skills 173 3.12 The Power of Mass Media 180 3.13 Listening, the Biblical Perspective 184 3.14 Feelings and Relationship 190 SECTION - 4 4.1 Mass Media Culture 197 4.2 Techniques of Mass Media Persuasion 203 4.3 Voice Training Skills 207 4.4 The Advertising Audience 212 4.5 Plastic Image versus Real Value 216 4.6 Selection, Interpretation, Distortion, Emphasis 221 4.7 Mass Communication, Influence and Control 224 SECTION - 5 5.1 Starting a Newsletter 233 5.2 Group Dynamics of a Mission Team 239 5.3 Organising a One day Media/Literature/Science Festival/ Bible Camp/Mission Event 242 5.4 Presentation Skills 246 5.5 Fundamental Research Methodology 251 5.6 Publication Skills 257 5.7 Caring as an Expression of Christian Communication 261 5.8 Words in Relationships 265 5.9 Classroom / School Management 269 5.10 Understanding Film – Grammar and Cultural Expression 273 5.11 Film Criticism and Review 282 SECTION - 6 6.1 Foundation of Communication Theology 289 6.2 Introduction to Communication Theology 292 6.3 Jesus Christ – The Ideal Communicator 296 6.4 Scripture: Word, Image, Tradition 300 6.5 Church Documents on Social Communications – I 304 6.6 Church Documents on Social Communication – II 311 6.7 Communication and Church Models 315 6.8 Church Structures and Organisation for Social Communication 321 6.9 Issues in Media and the Christian Response 327 6.10 Catechesis and Communication 332 6.11 The Human Approach in Catechesis 335 6.12 Communication and Culture 339 6.13 The Need for Inter-Religious Dialogue 345 6.14 Forms of Inter-religious Dialogue 350 6.15 Inter-religious Dialogue: Obstacles and Blessings 353 6.16 Youth Retreats 356 6.17 Communicating the Word of God through Fruitful Sermons 363 6.18 Practical Guidelines for Pastoral Planning for Social Communication 369 6.19 Communication Challenges with Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) Development 375 6.20 Evangelisation for the Cyber Age 382 6.21 Spirituality for Cyber Age 387 ANNEXURES Annexure 1 Proficiency and Effectiveness Evaluation 393 Annexure 2 Tips for Communication 394 Annexure 3 Add POWER to Power Point Presentation 396 Annexure 4 Useful Websites 399 Annexure 5 Getting the most out of Google 402 Annexure 6 Quotes 404 Annexure 7 Works of St. Augutine of Hippo, the African Genius 408 Annexure 8 St. Francis de Sales. Patron Saint of Journalists 411 Annexure 9 Don Bosco and Media 413 Annexure 10 Blessed Alberione: Apostle of Communication 415 Annexure 11 Pope John Paul II and the Media 418 Glossary Communication, Computer, Film and Multimedia 421

Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Thank you for taking time to read these instructions. This manual is intended to help the formation of leaders in Communication. It has six sections. Each section has a varied number of topics and each topic is divided into two sections: one for the trainer and the other handout for the participant. In the right hand column the AIM of the topic and the MATERIALS REQUIRED for the teaching are given. Each topic is sub-divided into various areas: they are PROCEDURE in which the participants are invited to perform an activity on which they will reflect later during the session, INPUT in which teaching of the topic takes place, REVIEW in which a summary of the whole topic is given, REFLECTION in which the participants will be invited to reflect on life in relation to the topic discussed, RELEVANT SKILLS in which the participant will be asked to perform various activities and finally the RESOURCES and REFERENCES. INPUT deals with the ‘Knowledge’ element. Please bear in mind that teaching of Communication in the Twenty-first century is like shooting a moving target from a shifting platform. So you need to keep yourself updated constantly. The “Knowledge” element can, to some extent influence the ‘Behaviour’ of the trainee. But this connection need not evolve spontaneously. Hence it must be borne in mind that “Attitude” is of prime importance. Hence the formation must be focussed on this area. We suggest that a methodology of 3XL - eXperience, eXpress, eXperiement and Live. In the Input section besides the knowledge content, the experience of the trainer and trainee should be shared and this will lead both to express their beliefs, fears and learning. The REFLECTION section can be challenging. Here the participant is invited to reflect on concrete life situation, one may be asked to think about what one may not be comfortable with.

The SKILLS section will help the trainee to experiment the principles that have been assimilated. It will enable the trainee to make the learning with practical and develop attitudes for life.

The best result is achieved where the participants are given the hand out and they take part in the exercise.

The ideal will be to use the Training Manual in a sequential manner but one can choose the topics guided by his/her training needs.

Let us know if you need further assistance in any area. It will be useful to invite an expert in some particular topics where you feel incompetent. We shall appreciate your suggestions and inputs to improve this manual.

Fr. Sebastian Koladiyil, sdb Director, BEAMS Bosco Eastern Africa Multimedia Services Karen Kenya

As a tribute to all those whose contribution led to the creation and completion of this manual, we would like to acknowledge: • Sheila Kamau - BEAMS • Anthony Mungai - BEAMS • Richard Nderitu - BEAMS • Nancy Ndung’u - BEAMS • Sarah Kihumba - BEAMS • Caroline Muthoni - BEAMS • Timothy Muriithi - BEAMS • Students of Don Bosco College Moshi Batch of 2004-5 • Mr. John Nyambega - CUEA • Dr. Dominic Dipio - Makerere University • Merab Ochieng • Dr. Gilbert Choondal, sdb • Dr. George Plathottam, sdb • Fr. Glenford Lowe, sdb • Fr. Sam Obu, sdb • Lillian W. Ng’ayo • Eddie Kabue • Fr. Sebastian Koladiyil

This manual was the outcome of an adaptation in part of ‘Shepherds for an Information Age’ BOSCOM-INDIA. We thank BOSCOM-INDIA for the permission to do so.

Wherever possible, sources have been acknowledged. We look forward to hearing your views, input and opinions.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Concept FR. KD TOM KUNNEL SDB Editor FR. KD TOM KUNNEL SDB Research SHEILA KAMAU Layout & Design BOSCO EASTERN AFRICA MULTIMEDIA SERVICES (BEAMS) Illustrations ANTHONY MUNGAI RICHARD NDERITU Proofreading BEAMS

The twenty-first century can be identified by many acronyms but one stands out IT which could mean Informational Technology, Instant Technology or International Technology. We are at the dawn of interconnected technology which crosses all continents, boarders, times and languages. No one can stop it. It is a God given gift to be used for good or evil. Pope Pius VI in his epoch exhortation, ‘Evangelii Nuntiandi’ said “The Church would feel guilty before the Lord if she did not utilize these powerful means that human skill is render more perfect daily. It is through them that she proclaims ‘from the housetops’ the message of which she is the depository.” The Salesians, following the charism of their founder, Don Bosco, of training youth worldwide, and promoting and developing the knowledge and art of social communications, have produced a timely communication training manual for forming of the laity, seminarians and religious in formation. It is called ‘CHRISTIAN COMMUNICATOR FOR A CYBER AGE IN AFRICA.” Many parts of the Church have lagged behind in training its disciples in the communication skills of our time. This manual will bridge the communication gap and equip our religious and laity to be in the forefront in all avenues of communicating the ‘Word of God.’ This manual teaches how communication can fit into every aspect of their religious formation from giving retreats, the writing of newsletters, the making of video documentaries and the production of religious radio programmes. It is designed to cover seven years of training with a syllabus that will progressively challenge the intellectual growth and maturity of the trainee. Christ was the great communicator of His time and we must know and use the varied tools of proclaiming the ‘Good News’ in our time. Our prayer is that our institutions will be open to these new mediums of social communications and utilize the solid teachings of “CYBER AGE IN AFRICA’ as a manual par excellence to prepare our people for the true apostolate as fishers of God’s people.

Fr. Richard J. Quinn, M.M.

Ret. Director of Ukweli Video Productions Nairobi, Kenya 2009

About the Editor Fr. KD Tom Kunnel is a Salesian of Don Bosco from the Province of East Africa. He is the Founder/Director of Bosco Eastern Africa Multimedia Services - BEAMS and the Regional Delegate for Social Communications for Africa-Madagascar. Besides Christian Communicator for a Cyber Age in Africa, he has edited The Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Keep Busy and Cheerful and co-edited Critical Media Education in African Context. His field of specialization is Film Production from Hallel International School of Communications, New York.

INTRODUCTION

“As media becomes ever more intertwined with people’s daily lives, it influences how people understand the meaning of life itself. Indeed, the power of media extends to defining not only what people will think but even what they will think about. Reality, for many, is what the media recognizes as real; what media does not acknowledge seems of little importance.” Aetatis Novae,4.

In reflecting upon the means of social communication, we must honestly face the ‘most essential’ question raised by technological progress: whether, as a result of it, the human person ‘is becoming truly better, that is, more responsible, more open to others, especially the most needy and the weakest, and readily gives aids to all.’(Pope John Paul II Redemptor Hominis, 15).

Given the tendency of modern technology to shift the focus from morality to technique, the Church has to make the most effective case possible for the unavoidable priority of moral choice and action in social communications, even in a highly technical world. There has been a lack of proper disposition on the part of professional communicators and the media public to the issue of moral formation. And those who do take note of Church teachings tend to regard the church’s moral pronouncements as an inappropriate restriction on personal liberty or another manifestation of religion’s abiding reactionary impulse to bind artists to conventional ideas of morality. But before the will can culpably abdicate its duty to moral responsibility, certain principles must first be present in the intellect. Hence, the failure of Catholic doctrine on social communications to achieve its intended effect has antecedent intellectual factors—for example, a lack of appreciation for the moral nature of social communications, a disordering of communicative means to proper human ends, or an ignorance of the importance and duty to form one’s conscience that follows from a deficient understanding of freedom.

Hence, embarking on intellectual formation is essential to bringing about a cohesive interaction between technology and freedom. We hope that this manual, Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa, will be a tool in intellectual and moral formation of leaders who will legislate on media policies, of teachers and ministers of the Word and Sacrament who will evangelize through the media and of producers and media professionals who will responsibly create products by using media technologies, that will create a better world. In the words of Ecclesia in Africa, “The modern mass media are not only instruments of communication, but also a world to be evangelized…”EA no. 124. “Every Christian should be concerned that the communication media are a vehicle of evangelization.” EA.no.124.

Fr. KD Tom Kunnel, sdb Founder/First Director, BEAMS Bosco Eastern Africa Multimedia Services Karen, KENYA 2009

1 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa SECTION I CONTENT FOCUS Basics of Communication Understanding Signs and Symbols Communication through Body language SYLLABUS GUIDEPOST Lay - Secondary School – Form 1 and 2 - Introduction to Catechist Training Religious - Postulancy/Prenovitiate Priestly Formation - Minor Seminary Year 12 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa 1.1 Communication and our Human Identity 3 1.2 The Challenge of Communication 7 1.3 Definition, Components and Forms of Communication 12 1.4 Simplified Models of Communication 18 1.5 Noise in Communication 23 1.6 Body Language 27 1.7 Eye Communication 31 1.8 The Language of Signs and Symbols 36 1.9 Etiquette for Better Communication 41 1.10 A Brief History of Communication 49 SECTION I3 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa 1.1 Communication and our Human Identity Procedure • Ask the participants to imagine they are dead. Their closest relatives are assigned the job of writing their obituaries. Here, ask the students to write out their own obituary with the help of the following points: - Name of the deceased (Participant’s name) - Name of the parents and siblings - Date, time and manner of death - State of health - Type of personality - The deceased’s profession - Achievements in life - Some of the deceased’s favourite quotations - What values did the deceased live by? (instances to show this?) • Once the class has been given about 10 minutes to write the obituaries ask them to share their obituaries either in general or in groups.

• Then discuss the following: 1. What did you feel about writing your obituary? 2. What were the easiest parts to write about? 3. What were the most difficult parts to write about? 4. Why do you think some parts were easy and others difficult? 5. What does this exercise tell you about your life? Input • A clear and acceptable identity is important to the development of a positive self concept and a value-led life. A sense of identity is derived from the realisation that a person is a unique, separate, individual human being. A fuller identity, however, evolves from what a person believes and what a person decides to do in life. Identity crises, for example, often arise from decisions concerning career choices, marriage, and involvement in political, social, and religious groups. • According to Uchendu, the search for identity of an African is comprised of four sometimes conflicting alternatives: (1) A search for continental identity in order to create a united Africa, became an instrument for decolonization and a weapon for post-independence international diplomacy. (2) An integrating “black” racial identity, motivated by social pride, which makes it meaningful to speak of three Africans: Arab Africa, Black Africa and white minority Africa. (3) A search for national identity. (4) The demand for ethnic identity within the multi-ethnic state systems.

• Either way, a person must arrive at some acceptable balance between a personal identity (how a person has come to view him or herself) and a social identity (what perceptions tell him or her about what others expect and how they make judgement). • Each of us has come into this world with one precious gift - human life.

• Life is a one and only opportunity. It will not be repeated. • Human life comes to us as a unity of body, mind and spirit, which we call Aim Materials Required [ To make the participants under- stand the value and uniqueness of human communication. [ Pen and Paper.4 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa the Human Person. By having life we are called to develop into full and mature human persons. This means development in all three areas of our life: Body, Mind and Spirit.

• Maturing in Body: This means: * Developing healthy habits (regular physical exercise, sufficient sleep, etc.) * Eating wholesome and nutritious food.

* Promoting bodily hygiene.

* Taking preventive measures to avoid sickness.

* Taking curative measures to restore the body after sickness.

• Maturing in mind: This means: * Developing learning and study habits * Developing good general knowledge * Developing a discerning and alert mind * Developing the power of reasoning * Developing the power of creativity * Developing powers of analyzing and synthesizing * Developing specialized knowledge • Maturing in spirit: This means: * Conscience training to discern right from wrong * Training to know values and live accordingly * Developing the ability to quieten the mind and body * Developing fortitude of spirit so as to withstand pain and disappointment * Developing courage so as to stand up to fear * Developing a spirituality that resists evil in all its forms * Developing one’s relationship with God * Developing a harmonious relationship with the world around * Possessing the gift of wisdom But in what way is human life special? • Humans are defined by their ability to communicate to other human beings. They create wonderful ideas and awful ones. They are some of the most complex creatures on the planet simply because they can express so many different ideas in so many different forms of communication. Many of these forms today are electronic communication technologies. On the other hand, animals communicate by instinct through pre-determined ways. Human beings, instead, communicate both by instinct and by choice and through a creative variety of ways.

• For example, the tenderness that a female monkey shows towards her little ones emerges not from the mind or spirit but from a biological drive that we call instinct. Animals live by instinct and by the urges of their biological nature. Human beings too have instincts and biological urges but because of their mind and spirit they can control their urges and instincts and even transcend them. E.g. in African traditional and modern culture, a man undergoing circumcision was not allowed to express his pain during the initiation process or after. He was expected to be bold and brave. In other words, humans can decide how to give expression to their urges, feelings, thoughts and ideas in a variety of ways.

Creation of Community The Bible, in the story of creation tells us that “God says...” and it happens. God communicates and creation occurs. Communication is a creative act and the Scriptures continue throughout to present a God who invites us to share in this creative act of communication. A person’s communicating ability is a gift from God to be used creatively or for destruction. God invites us to use it for the purpose of creating the kind of world He wants. What kind of world is that? It is a world of communion between God and people, and between people and people. We are created to have fellowship with God and with one another. The aim of all communication under God is to create community. The words communication and community are almost the same and have a common root. However, to have meaningful communion with God and one another, we need to understand the gift of life that God has given us. Let us take a closer look at what life is.

• Life is a gift from God. It is given freely and generously. Living a good life therefore means learning to be a good receiver and a generous giver.

• Life is the first gift from God to each one of us. Our parents nurtured our life but it was God who gave it to us. Therefore every human life is willed by God. We are not here by chance! It follows that every human life is of absolute value. This means that: 1. Human life is holy, sacred and mysterious (not even parents can explain the why and how of human life - other than the physiological explanation).

2. Human life can not be replayed or duplicated - each life is distinct, unique and original. Each human being is endowed with a separate identity.

3. Human life is purposeful - each life is a gift for a purpose. Each person ought to discover what this purpose is and strive to fulfill it.5 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa 4. Human life has great potential - each human being is endowed with gifts ranging from the physiological to the spiritual. The combination of talents in an individual makes the individual truly potent with creativity and power.

For this reason, human life is to be respected and protected in all its variety (of gender, race, class, creed, culture, particular features, idiosyncrasies) and at all stages of its growth (from life in the mother’s womb up to death).

Review 1. Human life is a unity of body, mind and spirit - the Human Person.

2. Human life is special because humans can give expression to what is deepest in them through a variety of expressions. This is the power of communication.

3. Human beings can communicate through instruments that are extensions of their body, mind and spirit.

4. Our identity is changed by today’s communication technology.

5. A person’s communicating ability is a gift from God to be used creatively or for destruction. God’s invitation is to use communication for the purpose of creating the kind of world God wants - a world of communion between God and people and between people and people.

Reflection 1. “Life is God’s gift to us. What we make of it is our gift to God”. Do you agree? How can we make our gift to God better? 2. What does the input and our experience tell us about the manner of human communication? 3. How much of my communication comes from the joy I experience in being alive? 4. Does my communication really help to “be in communion with” the author of Life? Relevant Skills 1. Write your personal mission statement. This consists of a short sentence explaining your aim or objective in the activities you engage in. It also has to be in line with your abilities.

2. Appreciate aspects about yourself- those that you are aware of, and those that are not apparent to you but obvious to others. How can you use your special gift to be of service to the world? Resources BOSCOM-INDIA. ‘SHEPHERDS’ FOR AN INFORMATION AGE. Matunga: Tej Prasarini, 2000.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008. References AMECEA and IMBISA. Basic Human Communication. Nairobi: Paulines Publications Africa, 2000.

Pace R. Wayne, Brent D. Peterson and M. Dallas Burnett. Techniques of Effective Communication. USA: Addison- Wesley Publishing Company Inc., 1979.

Belly Remy. Life, Person and Community in Africa. Nairobi: Paulines Publications Africa, 2001.

McGrath, Michael and Nicole, Gregoire. Africa: Our Way through the Bible. Britain: Redwood Books, 1997.

www.sorat.ukzn.ac.za www.troatie.com6 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Aim • To understand the value and uniqueness of human communication. Procedure • Imagine you are dead. Your closest relatives are assigned the job of writing your obituaries. Write out your own obituary with the help of the following points: - Name of the deceased (Your name) - Name of the parents and siblings - Date, time and manner of death - State of health - Type of personality - The deceased’s profession - Achievements in life - Some of the deceased’s favourite quotations - What values did the deceased live by...instances to show this? • After 10 minutes, share your obituaries either in general or in groups.

• Then discuss the following: 1. What did you feel about writing your obituary? 2. What were the easiest parts to write about? 3. What were the most difficult parts to write about? 4. Why do you think some parts were easy and others difficult? 5. What does this exercise tell you about your life? Review 1. Human life is a unity of body, mind and spirit - the Human Person 2. Human life is special because humans can give expression to what is deepest in them through a variety of expressions. This is the power of communication.

3. Human beings can communicate through instruments that are extensions of their body, mind and spirit.

4. Our identity is changed by today’s communication technology.

5. A person’s communicating ability is a gift from God to be used creatively or for destruction. God’s invitation is to use communication for the purpose of creating the kind of world God wants - a world of communion between God and people and between people and people.

Reflection 1. “Life is God’s gift to us. What we make of it is our gift to God”. Do you agree? How can we make our gift to God better? 2. What does the input and our experience tell us about the manner of human communication? 3. How much of my communication comes from the joy I experience in being alive? 4. Does my communication really help to “be in communion with” the author of Life? Relevant Skills 1. Write your personal mission statement. This consists of a short sentence explaining your aim or objective in the activities you engage in. It also has to be in line with your abilities.

2. Appreciate aspects about yourself- those that you are aware of, and those that are not apparent to you but obvious to others. How can you use your special gift to be of service to the world? Resources BOSCOM-INDIA. ‘SHEPHERDS’ FOR AN INFORMATION AGE. Matunga: Tej Prasarini, 2000.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008. References AMECEA and IMBISA. Basic Human Communication. Nairobi: Paulines Publications Africa, 2000.

Pace R. Wayne, Brent D. Peterson and M. Dallas Burnett. Techniques of Effective Communication. USA: Addison- Wesley Publishing Company Inc., 1979.

Belly Remy. Life, Person and Community in Africa. Nairobi: Paulines Publications Africa, 2001.

McGrath, Michael and Nicole, Gregoire. Africa: Our Way through the Bible. Britain: Redwood Books, 1997.

www.troatie.com www.sorat.ukzn.ac.za/theology/bct/ CHAPTER 1.1 PARTiCiPAnT’S HAnDouT Communication and our Human Identity COMMUNICATOR FOR A CYBER AGE IN AFRICA Bosco Eastern Africa Multimedia Services - BEAMS Publication, Kenya. beams@donbosco.or.ke7 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Procedure Ask the students to think out a special and creative way to introduce themselves at the play of music. This introduction can be silly, comic, serious, tragic or dramatic. The students will do this whilst standing in a circle. After each introduction, the students will repeat what their fellow student has done and said and proceed onwards to introduce themselves in their own unique way. Some Examples: 1. Acting out one’s name or profession 2. Singing out one’s introduction Input 1. There are different ways of communicating as is evident from our session namely: * Music * Drama * Monologue * Symbolic 2. Share in general or in groups what you felt on being told to introduce yourself in your own original style.

3. At the thought of being a better communicator either through professional training or by practicing some recommended methods, most of us are fascinated at the expectation that it will make us popular and even loved. Though true, there is a lot more to communication than gaining popularity. Communication involves risk. The deeper we share about ourselves, about what we think and feel the greater the risk of being misunderstood. What’s more, communication involves telling the truth and people do not always like the truth because it hurts, especially when it comes from an outsider. This is so especially in the context of being objective while writing for the mass media: radio and television amongst others. If you are a journalist, at the end of many days of hard work, you will find out that while some appreciate your articles, others will use them to reject and isolate you. At that moment, you will need courage and perseverance to go on without selling yourself out of power.

Listening Anyone who wishes to be a leader and an effective communicator should develop good communication skills. The best way to communicate is to first listen. Listening is an active process that includes receiving, interpreting, evaluating, and responding to a message. It takes effort and concentration. When we listen actively, we respond better. Effective communication occurs when the message sent by the speaker is the same message decoded by the listener. Here are a few basics about listening (NB. they are not in any specific order): 1. Receiving It involves taking in sense data by using your ears and eyes. Your ears take in the vocal tones and words. As you receive a message, your eyes read the nonverbal signals, such as a frown or annoyed glance. You watch facial expression and gestures, and you listen to the vocal tone to get the message.

2. Positive Reinforcement Sometimes, repeating what has been shared by the speaker in your own words helps him/her to relax in your presence and to feel that he/she is being understood. Even if what is communicated is not personal but mere information, give the impression that you are eager to learn something valuable from the one who is speaking. Clarify what you have not understood.

Aim Materials Required [ To appreciate the different ways of communicating. [ To understand the role of listening in effective communication. [ Tape or CD player and some music.

1.2 The Challenge of Communication8 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa 3. Awareness In listening effectively the listener must keep some important points in mind: a) Be aware of your prejudices: We listen differently to different persons depending upon our rapport with them and how much we esteem them. Prejudice can be a great stumbling block to listening actively. The first thing to do, then, is to be aware of our prejudices and, insofar as is possible, rid ourselves of them. Listening objectively is crucial to effective listening.

b) Be aware of making quick assumptions: We often assume from just opening sentences that “we know what he means.” It is true that verbal communication provides clues to the other person’s intended meanings, but we should not presume to know what is intended.

c) Be aware of body language: Active listening will show itself clearly in one’s body language. Some body-signals of a good listener are: * Leaning forward towards the speaker (if the listener is sitting).

* Facing the speaker squarely.

* Looking at the speaker in the eye.

* Reciprocating appropriate signals of understanding and recognition, such as a smile, a laugh, a nod, etc.

* Extending one’s hands towards the speaker in open gestures instead of folding them before one’s chest.

It is only when the speaker perceives you as a good listener (through your positive body signals) will he/she be motivated to open up to you.

objective Listening • Developing objectivity in listening is not easy. More often than not we listen to what we want to hear. We understand meanings that confirm our own stereotyped opinions and prejudices. • Objectivity means being impartial - an important element in effective (honest) listening.

We can develop objective listening by: a) Minimising the use of emotion-laden words. b) Focusing on what is being said, not who is saying it and how it is being said.

c) Avoid impulsive responses. Quick reactions to what is heard amounts to defensiveness and can cause hostility in the relationship. Allow sufficient time to the speaker to satisfactorily communicate his position or ideas.

• Effective listening is a challenge. It can change the way we communicate! • If we make efforts to listen better, we will be sure that our communication will be more accurate, measured and meaningful.

Overcoming Listening Barriers 1) Concentrate on the speaker’s message - It is your responsibility to stay focused on a speaker’s message. You can refocus your attention by saying something like: “Mind, come back to where your body is.” Then immediately refocus on the listening task.

2) Use filters to manage and control noise - The two basic types of noise are: External and internal noise. External noise includes: Sounds from conversations, radios, televisions, machinery etc. Internal noise can be: pain, fatigue, preoccupation with other thoughts, worry, or a personality conflict with the speaker. Noise is also found in all the elements of communication. Effective listeners must filter out both external and internal unwanted noise. They must be proactive in avoiding the noise they can control and managing the noise that they cannot control. Some ways of doing this include: turning down the volume on a radio, taking a pain reliever, getting enough sleep, etc.

3) Resist talking and instead listen - It is impossible to be a sender and a receiver at the same time. As a listener, you may be tempted to interrupt the speaker in order to make a point or to share information that you feel is important. However, a listener should resist the urge to interrupt. Wait until the speaker has finished making a point, then respond with an appropriate comment.

4) Avoid bias and stereotypes - As a good listener, you do not allow your ideas to interfere with listening to the ideas of another. First of all, although you may be aware that a speaker’s ideas or opinions clash with your own, you cannot know for sure what someone is going to say until you actually hear it. Secondly, you may also know the speaker’s views but not the reasons for those views; passing judgement without hearing the speaker’s arguments would be premature. Thirdly, even if the speaker advocates ideas or supports a course of action that you oppose, you still should listen carefully. By listening you will learn about the opposing view and be able to argue against it more effectively. Listening could change your mind or could re-confirm your own theory. Make sure that you are not against a speaker’s view because you dislike some of the speaker’s personal characteristics, mannerisms, or appearance. Such judgements are superficial and unfair.

5) Listen with a positive attitude - To be an effective listener, you have to keep an open mind and believe that the speaker might have something useful to offer. Good listeners learn to listen even when they don’t want to listen.9 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Listening Problems a) Shift Response This is the tendency of listeners to turn the topics of ordinary conversations to themselves without showing sustained interest in others’ topics. Consequently, they are ineffective listeners. They are perceived by others to be socially unattractive and inept communicators.

b) Competitive interrupting Interrupting can be used to shift attention to oneself and away from the other person talking. Interrupting is the second most frequent indicator of conversational narcissism, behind shift response. Those who interrupt don’t wait their turn. They step into the conversation when so moved.

c) Glazing over This is the third most common behaviour of the conversational narcissist. When glazing over, the listener exhibits no interest in the speaker or what the speaker is saying. Listening is an active process and you have to be committed to listening.

d) Pseudolistening This is pretending to listen by saying “uh-huh” and “really” to indicate listening, when all the time our minds are far away. However, effective listening requires effort. It necessitates focused attention.

e) Ambushing This is listening with a bias. That bias is to attack what the speaker is saying. In essence, we are looking for weaknesses and ignoring strengths. This is focused attention with prejudice. Some of the most obvious examples of ambushing occur in the political arena. Individuals running for political office are coached to ambush their opponents. It’s called “going negative.” f) Content-only Response This response focuses on the content of a message, but it ignores the emotional side of communication. A content- only response comprehends the literal meaning of messages from others but doesn’t recognise the feelings that ride piggyback e.g.

Bettina: I can’t believe we’re so broke.

Jeremy: I’ve been in worse trouble.

Bettina: Look at all the expenses we have to foot.

Jeremy: Actually, we still have a little money from my salary.

Bettina: That’s small comfort. What if we lose our house because we can’t pay the mortgage? Jeremy: We could use the MasterCard to buy food and pay some bills up to the Ksh 10,000 that’s still short of the limit. Then we could use our salary to cover the mortgage next month. • Nowhere does Jeremy, the content-only responder, ever acknowledge Bettina’s fears and concerns (e.g. “I understand your fear. I’m feeling very anxious too about our financial state.”) Every response only increases her fears that they are in debt up to their eyebrows and that they may lose their home. Content-only responding ignores feelings.

Review 1. To communicate means to risk being noticed, misunderstood and ridiculed.

2. There are different types of communication such as music, drama, monologue and dialogue.

3. As a journalist, some people might not appreciate your articles. You will need courage and perseverance to go on without selling yourself out of power.

4. Listening is an active process that includes receiving, interpreting, evaluating, and responding to a message. It takes effort and concentration. When we listen actively, we respond better. 5. Effective listening occurs when the message sent by the speaker is the same message decoded by the listener. 6. Some basic points to remember about listening are: Be aware of prejudices, of making quick assumptions, of body language and try to listen objectively.

7. To overcome listening barriers, concentrate on the speaker’s message, use filters to manage and control noise, resist talking and instead listen with a positive attitude, avoid bias and stereotypes. 8. Common listening problems include: shift response, content-only response, glazing over, pseudo-listening, ambushing and competitive interrupting.

Reflection 1. Do you recall a time in your past whereby you felt discouraged at your inability to state a thought or turn a phrase? After learning that communication involves risk and requires perseverance and courage, would you be willing to persist in communicating despite the shortcomings involved? 2. When listening to your teachers and students, what type of listener are you? How can you overcome some of the problems associated with listening?10 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Relevant Skills 1. Listen to a half hour of news and note down the information you have received.

2. Listen to a conversation in a TV program, preferably a talk show or live debate and note down the listening challenges/ barriers you observe. Suggest ways in which they can be overcome. Participants are to present the results of their listening exercise to the rest of the class who will critique and evaluate each individual’s exercise. If possible, they should also present the recorded conversations they based their listening exercise on to allow the rest of the class to evaluate with them.

Resources BOSCOM-INDIA. ‘SHEPHERDS’ FOR AN INFORMATION AGE. Matunga: Tej Prasarini, 2000.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008. References Ponthieu, Gerald, and Pierre Barrot. The Art of Journalism. Nairobi: Paulines Publications Africa, 2002.

J. Dan Rothwell. In the Company of Others. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000.

Camp C. Sue and Marilyn L. Satterwhite. College Communication. USA: McGraw-Hill, 1998.

Galvin M. Kathleen and Jane Terrell. Communication Works. Illinois: National Textbook Company, 2001.

11 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Aim • To appreciate the different ways of communicating. • To understand the role of listening in effective communication. Procedure Think out a special and creative way to introduce yourself at the play of music. This introduction can be silly, comic, serious, tragic or dramatic. You will do this whilst standing in a circle. After each introduction, you will repeat what your fellow student has done and said and proceed onwards to introduce yourself in your own unique way. Some Examples: 1. Acting out one’s name or profession 2. Singing out one’s introduction Review 1. To communicate means to risk being noticed, misunderstood and ridiculed.

2. There are different types of communication such as music, drama, monologue and dialogue.

3. As a journalist, some people might not appreciate your articles. You will need courage and perseverance to go on without selling yourself out of power.

4. Listening is an active process that includes receiving, interpreting, evaluating, and responding to a message. It takes effort and concentration. When we listen actively, we respond better. 5. Effective listening occurs when the message sent by the speaker is the same message decoded by the listener. 6. Some basic points to remember about listening are: Be aware of prejudices, of making quick assumptions, of body language and try to listen objectively.

7. To overcome listening barriers, concentrate on the speaker’s message, use filters to manage and control noise, resist talking and instead listen with a positive attitude, avoid bias and stereotypes. 8. Common listening problems include: shift response, content-only response, glazing over, pseudo-listening, ambushing and competitive interrupting.

Reflection 1. Do you recall a time in your past whereby you felt discouraged at your inability to state a thought or turn a phrase? After learning that communication involves risk and requires perseverance and courage, would you be willing to persist in communicating despite the shortcomings involved? 2. When listening to your teachers and students, what type of listener are you? How can you overcome some of the problems associated with listening? Relevant Skills 1. Listen to a half hour of news and note down the information you have received.

2. Listen to a conversation in a TV program, preferably a talk show or live debate and note down the listening challenges/ barriers you observe. Suggest ways in which they can be overcome. Resources BOSCOM-INDIA. ‘SHEPHERDS’ FOR AN INFORMATION AGE. Matunga: Tej Prasarini, 2000.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008. References Ponthieu, Gerald, and Pierre Barrot. The Art of Journalism. Nairobi: Paulines Publications Africa, 2002.

J. Dan Rothwell. In the Company of Others. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000.

Camp C. Sue and Marilyn L. Satterwhite. College Communication. USA: McGraw-Hill, 1998.

Galvin M. Kathleen and Jane Terrell. Communication Works. Illinois: National Textbook Company, 2001.

CHAPTER 1.2 PARTiCiPAnT’S HAnDouT The Challenge of Communication COMMUNICATOR FOR A CYBER AGE IN AFRICA Bosco Eastern Africa Multimedia Services - BEAMS Publication, Kenya. beams@donbosco.or.ke12 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Procedure Invite three volunteers to come forward. Lets assume that each volunteer will be named A, B and C. A will be assigned the duty of creating a message, B the responsibility of transferring the message to C and C of receiving and replying to the message from A through B. After this exercise, explain the following: 1. What you have just seen before you is an exchange of information between two business executives via a messenger. However, there are other ways that A can communicate with C. Can you give examples? (Put down the examples on the board.) 2. Challenge the participants to identify the important elements of the communication between A and C.

3. Once the diagram given below is drawn and explained on the board, invite the students to try and define the word communication. Put these attempts on the board and consolidate with the one given below.

4. Ask the students to make a list of the different types of communication. Put their input on the board Input Definitions of Communication There are many definitions of communication. The common thought running through each is the principle of social interaction through messages.

1. “Communication is the art of transmitting information, ideas and attitudes from one person to another.” 2. “Communication literally means to ‘make common’ - that is, to create in the receiver’s mind an idea or image similar to the one in the mind of the sender” 3. “Communication is the process of conducting the attention of another person for the purpose of replicating memories.” 4. “We shall define communication as the act of sharing symbols.” 5. “Communication is man’s most important activity....the one he indulges in most, the one he cannot exist without, the one that ensures his personal and collective progress.” 6. “Communication is sharing meaning.” 7. “Communication involves the conveyance of something to someone else - our ideas, our aims, our wants, our values, our very personalities.” 8. “Human Communication is any form of human interaction” 9. “Communication means getting a message from my mind to yours.” 10. “Communication is an act of co-creation. It is the mating of two or more consciousness, something that never before was and now is, is invented, created and held in common.” 11. “Communication is a process by which senders and receivers of messages interact in given social contexts.” 12. “...the mechanism by which all human relation exists and develops all the symbols of the mind together with the means of conveying them through space and preserving them in time.” 13. Communication is the process by which a message is transmitted from a sender to a receiver through a medium with the intention of getting feedback.

Elements of the process of Communication According to Verderber F. Rudolph, Communication is a dynamic, ongoing Aim Materials Required [ To understand the components of Communication.

[ To make the students aware of the different types and categories of communication both in Africa and the modern world.

[ To learn alternative ways of communicating through low-cost visual media.

[ Three volunteer students [ Pen and Paper 1.3 Definition, Components and Forms of Communication13 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa and transactional process. It is dynamic because it is constantly in motion; it is ongoing because it has no fixed beginning or end; it is transactional because the elements occur simultaneously and the people communicating are interdependent. For purposes of analysis let us freeze this dynamic communication process and isolate the elements that blend together to form the total transactional process.

People The people in a communication transaction play the roles of sender and receiver, sometimes – as in interpersonal communication – simultaneously. As senders we form messages and attempt to communicate them to others through symbols. As receivers we process the messages that are sent to us and react to them both verbally and nonverbally.

Each person is a product of his or her individual experiences, feelings, ideas, moods, sex, occupation, religion among other factors. As a result, the meaning sent and the meaning received may not be exactly the same for the sender or the receiver. Moreover, the people in a communication transaction have some relationship with each other that further affects perceptions of the ideas and feelings communicated. Friends may have much more latitude in how they say something in order to be understood than strangers or enemies. That is why communication in a friend- to-friend relationship differs qualitatively from communication in a public speaker-to-audience relationship. A successful communicator must take advantage of every skill available to present and interpret ideas and feelings as clearly as possible.

Context Context is the physical social setting in which communication takes place. It has several aspects. The first aspect of context is the physical setting in which the communication episode occurs. The components of physical context include location, time, light, temperature, distance between communicators, and any seating arrangements. Each of these affects communication. For instance, a conversation that occurs in the village market is likely to be different from that which takes place in the company board room.

A second aspect of context is historical. Previous communication episodes that have occurred affect meanings currently being shared. For instance, suppose your friend requests to borrow your camera which is at home to use for a birthday picnic party. When you meet the following day on the corridors of your campus, he asks, “Did you bring it?” Someone in the corridors listening to the conversation may not know what he is talking about and may ask, “What?” You may reply to your friend, “Yes, it is in the locker.” The subject was determined in a different context but still affects the nature of this communication event.

A third aspect of context is the psychological set each person brings to an episode. The manner in which people perceive themselves, as well as how they perceive those with whom they communicate at the time of the communication event, will affect the meaning that is shared. For instance, Obi has had a really rough day. The typist he hired to do his term paper couldn’t get it done so now he has to do it himself, in addition to having to study for a test. If his roommate bounds into the room and Obi jokingly suggests that he take a speed-typing course, Randy might lose his normally good sense of humour and explode. Why? Because the feelings of Obi and his roommate have developed a psychological context for their interpersonal interaction.

Messages Communication takes place through the sending and receiving of messages. These messages have at least three elements: the meaning, the symbols used to communicate the meaning, and the form or organization. 14 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Meanings are the ideas and feelings communicated. An example of idea where to have lunch or may be how to study for your next exam. We also have feelings like hunger, anger, and love. These ideas and feelings are expressed through symbols such as sounds and actions representing meaning. Symbols can be communicated with both voice and body.

The process of transforming ideas and feelings into symbols is called encoding; the process of transforming symbols and the accompanying nonverbal cues into ideas and feelings is called decoding.

Channels The channel is both the route traveled by the message and the means of transportation. Words are carried from one person to another by air waves, facial expressions and gestures. Usually the more channels that can be used to carry a message, the more likely the communication will succeed.

noise A person’s ability to interpret, understand, or respond to symbols is often disrupted by noise. Noise is any stimulus that gets in the way of sharing meaning. Much of your success as a communicator depends on how you cope with external, internal, and semantic noises. Noise can either be external such as sights and sounds, internal such as thoughts and feelings or semantic which are alternate meanings aroused by certain symbols that inhibit meaning.

Feedback These are responses of the receiver that enable us to determine whether sharing of meaning really took place. They are mental or physical responses and they tell the sender whether the message was heard, seen, or understood. If verbal and nonverbal cues tell the sender that the message was not received or was received incorrectly, the sender can send the message again, perhaps in a different way, so that the meaning the sender intends to share is the same meaning received by the receiver.

Effects of Mass Media One of the most obvious and indisputable effects of mass communication is that it takes a great deal of our time. School children spend more time watching television in a year than they do studying and over 50% of adults leisure time is spent watching the television.

Another effect of mass communication is maintenance of the status quo rather than radical re-organisation of the way an individual organizes his image of the world.

On the other hand, mass communications may have a great deal to do with how we structure the world over the long term and with how we organize new aspects of the image and form new opinions and beliefs.

Because the media can and does make available large amounts of information about the world which we can never directly experience, mass communications are well suited to affect additions to our image of reality and to strongly influence how we structure parts of the environment about which we have little opportunity to acquire firsthand knowledge.

One of the major consequences of the mass media’s ability to transmit messages quickly across great distances and to supply us with otherwise unobtainable information is that we have come to expect them to maintain a constant surveillance of distant parts of the environment and to provide us with information about the broader world.

The news media have tremendous potential for directing our attention. Viewers believe that whatever the media highlights is important. Audiences therefore scale the news they hear in the media as very important. The media can therefore be manipulated to shift attention from highly sensitive issues to other less sensitive issues in an attempt to shift attention. This technique is usually employed by government officials when trying to hide something.

In addition to this, recognition by the media of some person or group singles them out from the “large, anonymous masses” and bestows prestige and authority upon them.

The extent to which mass communications present a distorted, stereotyped, or biased picture of some part of the environment, and to the extent that a receiver is unable to test the accuracy of that picture against some non-media standard, then the image structured is apt to be distorted, stereotyped, or biased.

Also, the way we organize our image of reality can be as easily distorted because we receive incomplete or no information about parts of the environment. Finally, mass communication’s ability to influence how receivers organize new, previously unstructured aspects of the environment becomes particularly compelling when we consider that a large share of the mass audience, particularly the telelevision audience, is composed of children.15 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Review 1. There are many definitions of communication. The common thought running through each is the principle of social interaction through messages.

2. Elements of the process of communication are: people (sender and receiver), context, messages, channels, noise and feedback.

3. Communication is the process by which a message is transmitted from a sender to a receiver through a medium with the intention of getting feedback.

4. Traditional forms of communication include: theatre, folk musical groups, traditional dance and music, drama, folk music, dramatic performances, mask and puppet performances, tales, proverbs and riddles.

5. Modern forms of communication are categorised on the basis of: the senses used, media employed, number of receivers in the communication process, the content and attitude of the sender, and feedback received.

6. Effects of mass communication are: • takes a great deal of our time • maintains the status quo • It influences how we structure the world over the long term and how we organize new aspects of the image and form new opinions and beliefs.

• It affects additions to our image of reality and strongly influences how we structure parts of the environment about which we have little opportunity to acquire firsthand knowledge about.

• We come to expect the media to maintain a constant surveillance of distant parts of the environment and to provide us with information about the broader world.

• It has potential to direct our attention.

• Recognition by the media of some person or group singles them out from the “large, anonymous masses” and bestows prestige and authority upon them.

• Mass media affects the way we organize our image of reality which can be easily distorted because we receive incomplete or no information about parts of the environment. • Lastly, it influences how receivers organize new, previously unstructured aspects of the environment.

Reflection 1. Think of a situation whereby a message transmitted his home. What aspect of the communication model enabled you to receive the message powerfully? How was it communicated? Was it through your vernacular language, through a story or a song? 2. In what ways can we adjust the components of communication so that messages are received just as they are intended? In what ways can we adapt the Word of God to make it understandable (contextual) to the African both modern and traditional? Relevant Skills 1. Listen to a minimum of 10 TV or radio conversations and identify the goal of communication in each. Notice how the different definitions of communication come into play. nB: vary the type of programs whose conversations you listen to for variety.

2. Study the communication method(s) of: * An insect * A traditional man from your community * A modern-age man 3. What is the difference in communication between the traditional man and the modern man? 4. What are the communication needs of the modern man as compared to the traditional man? Are the basic needs any different? Has the rapid growth of the electronic world affected the communication needs of modern man? How? Resources BOSCOM-INDIA. ‘SHEPHERDS’ FOR AN INFORMATION AGE. Matunga: Tej Prasarini, 2000.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008. Schramm Wilbur and Donald F. Roberts (Ed.). The Process and Effects of Mass Communication. Chicago: University of Illinois Press Chicago, 1974.

References AMECEA and IMBISA. Basic Human Communication. Nairobi: Paulines Publications Africa, 2000.

J. Dan Rothwell. In the Company of Others. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000.

Camp C. Sue and Marilyn L. Satterwhite. College Communication. USA: McGraw-Hill, 1998.

Galvin M. Kathleen and Jane Terrell. Communication Works. Illinois: National Textbook Company, 2001.

Sharma Mohan Vinay. The art of Reading Gestures & Postures Body Language. Delhi: Pustak Mahal, 2002.

Camp, C. Sue, and Marilyn L. Satterwhite. College Communication. Ohio: Glencoe McGraw-Hill, 1998.

Verderber F. Rudolph. Communicate!. California: Wadsworth Publishing Company Inc., 1984.16 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Aim • To understand the components of communication.

• To be aware of the different types and categories of communication both in Africa and the modern world.

• To learn alternative ways of communicating through low-cost visual media.

Procedure Three volunteers come forward. Each volunteer will be named A, B and C. A will be assigned the duty of creating a message, B the responsibility of transferring the message to C and C of receiving and replying to the message from A through B. After this exercise: 1 What you have just seen before you is an exchange of information between two business executives via a messenger. However, there are other ways that A can communicate with C. Can you give examples? Put down the examples on the board.

2 Identify the important elements of the communication between A and C.

3 Define the word communication. 4 Make a list of the different types of communication. Review 1. There many definitions of communication. The common thought running through each is the principle of social interaction through messages.

2. Elements of the process of communication are: people (sender and receiver), context, messages, channels, noise and feedback.

3. Communication is the process by which a message is transmitted from a sender to a receiver through a medium with the intention of getting feedback.

4. Traditional forms of communication include: theatre, folk musical groups, traditional dance and music, drama, folk music, dramatic performances, mask and puppet performances, tales, proverbs and riddles.

5. Modern forms of communication are categorised on the basis of: the senses used, media employed, number of receivers in the communication process, the content and attitude of the sender and feedback received.

6. Effects of mass communication are: • takes a great deal of our time • maintains the status quo • It influences how we structure the world over the long term and how we organize new aspects of the image and form new opinions and beliefs.

• It affects additions to our image of reality and strongly influences how we structure parts of the environment about which we have little opportunity to acquire firsthand knowledge about.

• We come to expect the media to maintain a constant surveillance of distant parts of the environment and to provide us with information about the broader world.

• It has potential to direct our attention.

• Recognition by the media of some person or group singles them out from the “large, anonymous masses” and bestows prestige and authority upon them.

CHAPTER 1.3 PARTiCiPAnT’S HAnDouT Definition, Components and Forms of Communication COMMUNICATOR FOR A CYBER AGE IN AFRICA Bosco Eastern Africa Multimedia Services - BEAMS Publication, Kenya. beams@donbosco.or.ke17 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa • Mass media affects the way we organize our image of reality which can be easily distorted because we receive incomplete or no information about parts of the environment. • Lastly, it influences how receivers organize new, previously unstructured aspects of the environment.

Reflection 1. Think of a situation whereby a message transmitted his home. What aspect of the communication model enabled you to receive the message powerfully? How was it communicated? Was it through your vernacular language, through a story or a song? 2. In what ways can we adjust the components of communication so that messages are received just as they are intended? In what ways can we adapt the Word of God to make it understandable (contextual) to the African both modern and traditional? Relevant Skills 1. Listen to a minimum of 10 TV or radio conversations and identify the goal of communication in each. Notice how the different definitions of communication come into play. nB: vary the type of programs whose conversations you listen to for variety.

2. Study the communication method(s) of: * An insect * A traditional man from your community * A modern-age man 3. What is the difference in communication between the traditional man and the modern man? 4. What are the communication needs of the modern man as compared to the traditional man? Are the basic needs any different? Has the rapid growth of the electronic world affected the communication needs of modern man? Resources BOSCOM-INDIA. ‘SHEPHERDS’ FOR AN INFORMATION AGE. Matunga: Tej Prasarini, 2000.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008. Schramm Wilbur and Donald F. Roberts (Ed.). The Process and Effects of Mass Communication. Chicago: University of Illinois Press Chicago, 1974.

References AMECEA and IMBISA. Basic Human Communication. Nairobi: Paulines Publications Africa, 2000.

J. Dan Rothwell. In the Company of Others. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000.

Camp C. Sue and Marilyn L. Satterwhite. College Communication. USA: McGraw-Hill, 1998.

Galvin M. Kathleen and Jane Terrell. Communication Works. Illinois: National Textbook Company, 2001.

Sharma Mohan Vinay. The art of Reading Gestures & Postures Body Language. Delhi: Pustak Mahal, 2002.

Camp, C. Sue, and Marilyn L. Satterwhite. College Communication. Ohio: Glencoe McGraw-Hill, 1998.

Verderber F. Rudolph. Communicate!. California: Wadsworth Publishing Company Inc., 1984.18 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Procedure 1. Two of the students will play the part of a father and son in a three minute dialogue. The father will be asking the son about his school activities.

2. Three students will engage in a conversation about an accident they have witnessed.

3. Six students will engage in a conversation about a football match they watched over the weekend.

While these discussions are going on, the students listen carefully to the whole process and later try to capture the conversations in graphic form (models) on separate sheets of paper. The students then share the results of their work. They address the questions: ‘Were there any differences in the processes?’ If so, what were the differences and what are the reasons for them? Secondly, did trying to capture the processes in graphic and diagram form help in understanding the process better? Input Communication takes place around three elements. The source, the message and the destination Another element also has to be recognised - the element of encoding and decoding. Encoding is putting the message into a manner that can be understood by the other, and decoding is the act of taking that manner and making meaning of it for yourself. The model then looks like the one below.

Next we have to add the process that is used to send the message e.g. face to face speech, radio, television, acting, music etc.

Aim Materials Required [ To enable the students decide upon a common description of communication.

[ To enable the students visualise the communication process.

[ To examine appropriate communication models for community and be able to conceptualise one’s own communication model.

[ 11 volunteers 1.4 Simplified Models of Communication19 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Finally, another element - the feedback is added and now we have: Community Communication Model The relevant and more appropriate forms of communication in community are interpersonal communication and group communication. The essence of the African way of life is relating, interacting and sharing information and messages. A person’s attitude towards his neighbour is very important and the process of communication is one of ‘contacting’. This is a two-way process of dialogue (verbal and/or non-verbal) whose purpose is to achieve mutual understanding. Thus, the convergence model of communication is the more appropriate one that describes in simplified graphic form the reality of the process of interaction between two or more people within the African context. This model conceptualises human communication as a two-way process of dialogue whose purpose is to reach mutual understanding and agreement between two or more individuals or groups. Mutual understanding becomes the primary function of the process. In contrast to the linear models of communication, the convergence model presents the process of communication as a cyclical process of convergence or divergence. A process in which there is negotiation, of convergence and divergence, through which competing needs are shared, perceived and mutually understood.

Review 1. Communication takes place around three elements. The source, the message and the destination 2. Other elements such as encoding, decoding, medium and feedback are also added to make the communication process more complete.

3. The relevant and more appropriate forms of communication in community are interpersonal communication and group communication. 4. The convergence model conceptualises human communication as a two-way process of dialogue whose purpose is to reach mutual understanding and agreement between two or more individuals or groups. 20 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Reflection Reflect on the way communication takes place in your respective cultural/ethnic group and describe this in a convergence model. Accompany this with a two page essay/paper explaining the model (from cultural context).

Relevant Skills Observe a group of people communicating either on TV, radio or even your institution’s way of communicating to students or staff. Using your own ingenuity draw a model to represent the communication that takes place, putting factors such as noise and feedback into play.

Resources AMECEA and IMBISA. Basic Human Communication. Nairobi: Paulines Publications Africa, 1999.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008. References AMECEA and IMBISA. Communication Culture and Community. Nairobi: Paulines Publications Africa, 1999.21 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Aim • To decide upon a common description of communication • To visualise the communication process • To examine appropriate communication models for community and be able to conceptualise one’s own communication model. Procedure 1. Two of the students will play the part of a father and son in a three minute dialogue. The father will be asking the son about his school activities.

2. Three students will engage in a conversation about an accident they have witnessed.

3. Six students will engage in a conversation about a football match they watched over the weekend.

While these discussions are going on, the rest of the group listen carefully to the whole process and later try to capture the conversations in graphic form (models) on separate sheets of paper. Then share the results of your work. Address the questions: ‘Were there any differences in the processes?’ If so, what were the differences and what are the reasons for them? Secondly, did trying to capture the processes in graphic and diagram form help in understanding the process better? Review 1. Communication takes place around three elements. The source, the message and the destination 2. Other elements such as encoding, decoding, medium and feedback are also added to make the communication process more complete.

3. The relevant and more appropriate forms of communication in community are interpersonal communication and group communication. 4. The convergence model conceptualises human communication as a two-way process of dialogue whose purpose is to reach mutual understanding and agreement between two or more individuals or groups. Reflection Reflect on the way communication takes place in your respective cultural/ethnic group and describe this in a convergence model. Accompany this with a two page essay/paper explaining the model (from cultural context).

Relevant Skills Observe a group of people communicating either on TV, radio or even your institution’s way of communicating to students or staff. Using your own ingenuity draw a model to represent the communication that takes place, putting factors such as noise and feedback into play.

CHAPTER 1.4 PARTiCiPAnT’S HAnDouT Simplified Models of Communication COMMUNICATOR FOR A CYBER AGE IN AFRICA Bosco Eastern Africa Multimedia Services - BEAMS Publication, Kenya. beams@donbosco.or.ke22 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Resources AMECEA and IMBISA. Basic Human Communication. Nairobi: Paulines Publications Africa, 1999.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008. References AMECEA and IMBISA. Communication Culture and Community. Nairobi: Paulines Publications Africa, 1999.23 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Procedure • Draw a line A at one end of the field and another line B at a distance of about 60 ft.

• Divide the participants into groups.

• Ask each group to send you one representative with a paper and pen.

• Make the representatives stand at line B and the groups at line A.

• Give each group leader an envelope containing a message (See examples of messages below) which they will have to communicate to their representative groups with their hands behind their backs.

• Give them the signal to begin communicating.

• The result will be hilarious as each group will scream and shout over and above the others to make themselves heard.

• After about 3 minutes of this attempt allow the group to release their hands and encourage them to communicate in whatever way they can without crossing the line.

• Group members will immediately try various ways to communicate - through signs, actions, role play, some may write out the message on paper arrows, etc...

• This exercise is not competitive. However only the teacher needs know this. The urge to compete will automatically arise. For instance, it will be noticed that not only will the groups try their best to make their messages heard over and above the others; they will scream and shout in order to dissuade others from hearing their own messages. This spirit of unhealthy competition must be taken note of by the teacher.

Some sample messages: - He who forgives ends the quarrel - Greed led the monkey to fall on its back - A child or youth who does not listen to an elder’s advice gets his or her leg broken - The child considers his father’s guest only a slave - Life is the best gift; the rest is extra - When spider webs unite, they can tie up a lion - You can be a star but one day, you will encounter your death - Tasty soup (meal) draws seats (people) to itself.

- After hardship comes relief Finally ask the group the following questions: 1. As senders were you able to get the messages across? Why? 2. As receivers how did you feel as you attempted to pick up the message of your team? 3. What was the one factor that blocked your ability to send or receive the message? 4. What were the various attempts you made to communicate the messages? 5. Did it occur to the groups that messages could be communicated to their representatives if only each group communicated at a time while the others remained silent? How would this be done? Why was this option not chosen? Aim Materials Required [ To understand the ingredients of effective communication and the concept of noise/ distortion.

[ An open playground so that the participants can scream and shout 1.5 Noise in Communication24 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Input In the exercise above we can notice three things: a) There are various ways to communicate through words and actions. This is an excellent example of how in society each one who is communicating is trying to target a particular person/group/audience. Parents want children to obey, teachers want students to listen, friends want to grab the attention of their peers, pop songs aim to be the most popular, advertisements persuade people to buy, etc. All communicators, especially mass communicators, are screaming for attention.

b) The high degree of NOISE blocks the communication process and seriously hinders communication. c) It did not occur to the groups that they could plan their ‘air time’ because they presumed that they were competing with each other for a prize. This was a wrong presumption based on the notion that whenever people are divided into teams or groups they must compete. (This in itself is a fine example of how the bias of our past experiences influence our behaviour). Nowhere was it mentioned that this was to be a competition. None of the leaders thought of interacting with each other to help get their messages across. We fail to see that the best ways to communicate is to communicate in unity, in collaboration and in a disciplined manner - not through groupism, unhealthy competition and noise. This unity also minimizes noise and gives greater response from audiences especially in the mass media.

What is noise? Whatever impedes the message of the sender from being fully understood by the receiver is called noise. Noise interferes with communication and can negatively affect the intended message. External distractions such as loud music, a big-screen TV, or car traffic may interfere with receiving the oral message. Internal distractions such as personal worries, daydreaming, or physical illness may also cause interference. In essence, noise is found in all the elements of communication i.e. the sender, the message, the medium, the receiver and the feedback channel. Effective communicators work hard to reduce noise. Sometimes noise results in lost sales, accidents, or confused messages. It can be of different types: 1. Mechanical or technical noise - caused by the quality of media used. Example: I cannot hear the person at the other end of the mobile telephone because there is no network there or I may not get a good reception of the TV broadcast since my TV aerial needs repair.

2. Physical Noise - Caused by actual disturbances in the environment. Example: The sound of a cricket can be heard at night when everything is silent. Physical distractions are usually easier to prevent in a speaking or listening situation because the surroundings can often be controlled or changed.

3. Psychological Noise - Caused by conditions that affect our thinking and feeling. These are more popularly called biases. Example: In the exercise above all the groups were biased into thinking that they were to outdo each other in sending their messages. This bias has entered as a result of the previous experiences of each participant who is conditioned to think that working in teams automatically means working to compete as for example during tournaments, competitions and games.

4. Emotional Distractions - they can prevent the receiver of the message from concentrating on and giving full attention to the communication. They may include thinking about a personal matter or allowing an emotion such as anger to influence how you interpret a message.

5. Contextual noise - caused by a poor knowledge or interpretation of the context in which a message is communicated. Example: In the African context, spitting beneath one’s clothing is a sign of blessing from our ancestors. In European and American cultures, this may be considered unusual and disgusting.

Review 1. All communicators, especially mass communicators, are screaming for attention.

2. The best way to communicate is to communicate in unity, in collaboration and in a disciplined manner.

3. Noise is whatever impedes the message of the sender from being fully understood by the receiver.

4. Noise is of different types: Mechanical or Technical noise, Physical noise, Psychological noise, Emotional disturbances and Contextual noise.

Reflection Evaluate the kind of competition that goes on between media houses in your country. ‘If you can’t beat them, join them’ is a famous saying. How would it apply in the case of collaboration between communicators? Would this collaboration actually be applicable in Africa’s media today?25 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Relevant Skills Using the information you have acquired, give suggestions to your school or college administration on how they can manage/control all the noise that bombards students, e.g. TV, radio, friends, etc to be able to communicate better with them. Resources BOSCOM-INDIA. ‘SHEPHERDS’ FOR AN INFORMATION AGE. Matunga: Tej Prasarini, 2000.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008. References Camp, C. Sue, and Marilyn L. Satterwhite. College Communication. Ohio: Glencoe McGraw-Hill, 1998.

Terrell Galvin. Communication Works. Illinois: National Textbook Company, 2001.

www.dbafe.org 26 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Aim • To understand the ingredients of effective communication and the concept of noise/distortion Procedure • Draw a line A at one end of the field and another line B at a distance of about 60 ft.

• Participants divide into groups.

• Each group is to present one representative with a paper and pen.

• Representatives stand at line B and the groups at line A.

• Each group leader receives an envelope containing a message which they will have to communicate to their representative groups with their hands behind their backs.

• They are then given a signal to begin communicating.

• After about 3 minutes of this attempt all the groups release their hands and communicate in whatever way they can without crossing the line.

Answer the following questions: 1. As senders were you able to get the messages across? Why? 2. As receivers how did you feel as you attempted to pick up the message of your team? 3. What was the one factor that blocked your ability to send or receive the message? 4. What were the various attempts you made to communicate the messages? 5. Did it occur to the groups that messages could be communicated to their representatives if only each group communicated at a time while the others remained silent? How would this be done? Why was this option not chosen? Review 1. All communicators, especially mass communicators, are screaming for attention.

2. The best way to communicate is to communicate in unity, in collaboration and in a disciplined manner.

3. Noise is whatever impedes the message of the sender from being fully understood by the receiver.

4. Noise is of different types: Mechanical or Technical noise, Physical noise, Psychological noise, Emotional disturbances and Contextual noise.

Reflection Evaluate the kind of competition that goes on between media houses in your country. ‘If you can’t beat them, join them’ is a famous saying. How would it apply in the case of collaboration between communicators? Would this collaboration actually be applicable in Africa’s media today? Relevant Skills Using the information you have acquired, give suggestions to your school or college administration on how they can manage/control all the noise that bombards students, e.g. TV, radio, friends, etc to be able to communicate better with them. Resources BOSCOM-INDIA. ‘SHEPHERDS’ FOR AN INFORMATION AGE. Matunga: Tej Prasarini, 2000.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008. References Camp, C. Sue, and Marilyn L. Satterwhite. College Communication. Ohio: Glencoe McGraw-Hill, 1998.

Terrell Galvin. Communication Works. Illinois: National Textbook Company, 2001.

www.dbafe.org CHAPTER 1.5 PARTiCiPAnT’S HAnDouT Noise in Communication COMMUNICATOR FOR A CYBER AGE IN AFRICA Bosco Eastern Africa Multimedia Services - BEAMS Publication, Kenya. beams@donbosco.or.ke27 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Procedure • Ask for four volunteers from the group and have them seated on the four sides of the teacher’s table. Assign a chairperson, secretary, member and treasurer. • Assume that this is a student committee that represents all the students in the college/pre-novitiate. • Mention a contentious issue that has been going on lately around campus and ask them to discuss it with the aim of coming up with a uniform stand of the direction ahead. E.g. Disappearance of books from the library, first-comers finish up ‘good food’.

• Have the other class members write down the body language they observe from the volunteers as they go along discussing this issue. • Before they come up with a consensus, ask the class members to state which committee member will be satisfied with the final decision and which members won’t, based on their observations.

• Next, ask the class members to state which key signs gave them a clue as to which group member will be satisfied with the final decision and which ones will not.

• Invite the participants to list the most common body language signals they encounter in daily life.

• Invite them to share their lists. Ensure they demonstrate the gestures they have listed.

Input • Whenever we talk to or come across someone, either an acquaintance or an unknown person, we communicate with the person through numerous gestures. • These gestures reflect our mental state of how we are feeling or observing things. If we are not in a good mood or are a little desperate, we become rather irritated and give out defensive gestures. When happy, we feel rather relaxed and active. Our mood predominantly controls most of our body gestures and signals.

• Even the people we meet try to read our gestures. And, what they think of our personality is reflected through their remarks like, “You are looking smart today,” or, “Has anything wrong happened” or “Hey! Whom are you going to kill today?” This particular ability to read others’ gestures is acquired through experience.

• When we call someone perceptive ‘intuitive’, we basically refer to his or her ability to read another person’s gestures. Women are generally more perceptive than men. • The different codes of non-verbal communication may be listed as follows: 1. Bodily contact/Haptics: Touch is an important ingredient in transmitting information, especially in the young when other channels of communication such as speech are undeveloped. In most societies touching begins to diminish as one reaches adulthood. As an adult, touch especially between members of the opposite sex is often seen as a sexual indicator unless applied by validated ‘touchers’ such as doctors, tailors and hair dressers. In moments when words fail us or when words are not necessary such as in illness, stress, grief or great happiness, touching becomes more necessary and acceptable. Touching communicates reassurance, affection, friendship, courage-giving, support, sharing, understanding, invitation, desire, etc...

Aim Materials Required [ To understand the importance of Body Language in communication.

[ To teach good manners and grooming - an essential part of being a good communicator.

[ Copies of the Input.

[ 4 Volunteers.

1.6 Body Language28 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa 2. Proximity/Proximics: Spatial relationships are also an important part of body language. It is the analysis of space as a dimension of nonverbal communication. Within three feet is intimate, up to about eight feet is personal; over this distance is semi-public or social. The proximity between two communicators will differ according to the nature of the message and according to the variety of cultural and class factors. Proximics also extend to the way we allocate space to those extensions of ourselves such as our rooms, houses, towns, cities and the manner in which we occupy these extensions. Thus the way we dress, the way we keep the space we occupy say as much about us than our bodies and the way we behave.

3. Chronemics: The time spent in relating to another is also important to body communication. We usually have plenty of time for those we love but hardly any for those we do not. We have scheduled time and pre- arranged time for business relations.

4. orientation: How we angle ourselves to others can say a lot about our relationship with them.

5. Appearance: Our dress sense may tell people about our lifestyle and status in society, but it also reveals much about the attitudes and values we live by. Not all dress codes are acceptable everywhere. Where emphasis on roles is more important than individuality, uniform dress codes are maintained.

6. Head nods: Each of us has a very unique way we use our head - to indicate ‘yes’ or ‘no’, to emphasis what we are saying, to plead, to draw attention, etc.

7. Facial expressions: They include eye signals and smiling gestures. All in all, facial expressions are too numerous to outline within the space of this manual. Please refer to a book on body language. 8. Gestures/Kinesics: Gestures include smiling gestures, hand-and-arm gestures, overall body gestures and courtship gestures. Read more about gestures from the book: The art of reading gestures and postures by Pustak Mahal.

9. Posture: How one carries oneself communicates much about one’s self-perception and attitude to life. 10. Eye-movement/oculesics: For a very long time, we have been describing eyes in different ways as per their appearance. Some of these descriptions are: ‘She has beautiful eyes’ ‘He has big baby eyes’ and ‘He has evil eyes’. When we describe eyes in this way, we are basically talking about a person’s pupils or gaze behaviour. When a person is excited, his/her pupils dilate to four times the normal size but when one is angry, the pupils contract sharply. An old saying goes ‘Look a person in the eye when you talk to him’. So, when you are negotiating or communicating with others, look into the pupils, as they can tell you about the feeling of the person.

11. Para-linguistic: Vocal, non-verbal utterances also carry meaning. Some examples include: whispering, shouting, sighing, grunting, etc...

12. Para-language: May also be added here, although it is proper to language. It conveys emotions, such as sarcasm, disgust, humour, stress, to name but a few. Differences between Verbal and non-Verbal Communication Verbal and non-verbal communication differ qualitatively in at least three major ways. 1. Whereas verbal communication is discrete, consisting of individually distinct elements, nonverbal communication is continuous. Speech communication begins only when sound comes from the mouth and ends when that sound stops. Nonverbal communication, however, continues for as long as a person is in your presence.

2. Second, whereas verbal communication is single channeled, nonverbal communication is multi-channeled. Verbal symbols – words – come to us one at a time, in sequence; we hear the spoken words, see the printed or written words. Non-verbals however, may be seen, heard, felt, smelled, tasted – and several of these senses may be used simultaneously. For example, when you say the word, “excuse me.” It occurs in a context of non-verbals that include sound of voice, facial expression, hand movement, and potential touch. With our non-verbals we communicate more than most of us realize.

3. Third, whereas verbal communication is almost always under your voluntary control, you may not be aware of, let alone control, your non-verbal communication. You are likely to think about or to plan what you are going to say. In your non-verbal communication you may consciously control some of your “body language” but more often than not you are unaware of all the non-verbal signals you are sending. In the ideal relationship, non-verbal communication supplements verbal communication. The dejected look accompanying the words “I lost” or the smile that goes with the exclamation “Congratulations!” are complementary. Under some circumstances non-verbal communication is sufficient by itself – no verbal communication is needed. When the team comes into the dressing room after a game, the looks, posture and tones of voice tell the story of who won the game – no one needs to ask. When the referee jerks the yellow card, you know that you’ve been warned.

• There are many genetic, learned and cultural signs through which we communicate with others. Some expressions like smiling, crying, shouting and weeping are considered inborn or genetic signals. These are common in all the primates. Likewise, some gestures like crossing our arms on our chest are also genetic signals. Still, much confusion prevails regarding the origin of some basic gestures-whether these are genetic, cultural or learned. For 29 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa instance, most men put the coat first on their right arm, while women put it on their left. Similarly, when a man walks in a crowded corridor and passes by a woman, he usually turns his body towards her, while she turns her body away from him.

• The amount of body communication in different cultures varies considerably in range, emphasis, frequency and meaning. In Western cultures, raising the forehand shows that someone doubts something the communicator has said. In East Africa, it simply means yes. Beating the top of the left fist with the right open hand has an obscene meaning in Germany. In Luganda, it simply means full or filled. Establishing and maintaining eye contact is considered very important in Western speech but the possibility of establishing eye contact depends on the hierarchical position of the person in Africa. If the person is in a low tribal/social position, he/she is not allowed to establish eye contact with somebody who is superior. This feature of social hierarchy is often encountered among children and women. Review 1. Our gestures at any one time reflect our mental state of how we are feeling or observing things. 2. The different codes of non-verbal communication are: * Bodily contact/ Haptics * Proximity/ Proximics * Chronemics * Orientation * Appearance * Head nods * Gestures/ Kinesics * Posture * Eye-movement/ Oculesics * Para-linguistic * Para-language 3. Expressions like smiling, crying, shouting and weeping are considered inborn or genetic signals. These are common in all the primates. Some gestures like crossing our arms on our chest are also genetic signals.

4. Establishing and maintaining eye contact is considered very important in Western speech but the possibility of establishing eye contact in Traditional Africa depends on the hierarchical position of the person.

Reflection Communication is said to be 80% body-language. As a teacher of values, what you say and do will largely be interpreted through your body-language. Therefore, reflect on your inner attitudes about the people you minister to and attempt to align them to what Jesus will have you think about them.

Relevant Skills Observe people talking from a distance e.g. from a field, and try to suggest the relationship between them on the basis of their body language e.g. distance between them, their reactions as they speak etc. Resources BOSCOM-INDIA. ‘SHEPHERDS’ FOR AN INFORMATION AGE. Matunga: Tej Prasarini, 2000.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008. Verderber F. Rudolph. Communicate!. California: Wadsworth Publishing Company Inc., 1984.

Allan and Barbara Pease. The Definitive Book of body language. Manjul Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., 2004.

References http://www.establishyourselfny.com http://www.expertvillage.com http://www.norvax.com30 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Aim • To understand the importance of Body Language in communication.

• To learn good manners and grooming - an essential part of being a good communicator.

Procedure • Four participants from the group please be seated on the four sides of the teacher’s table. Take the roles of chairperson, secretary, member and treasurer. • Assume that this is a student committee that represents all the students in the college. • The participants discuss a contentious issue that has been going on around campus with the aim of coming up with a uniform stand of the direction ahead. E.g. Disappearance of books from library, first-comers finish up ‘good food’.

• Class members write down the body language they observe from the volunteers as they go along discussing this issue. • Before they come up with a consensus, class members state which committee member will be satisfied with the final decision and which members won’t, based on their observations.

• Next, class members state which key signs gave them a clue as to which group member will be satisfied with the final decision and which ones will not.

• Participants then list the most common body language signals they encounter in daily life. They then share their lists. Each demonstrate the gestures they have listed.

Review 1. Our gestures at any one time reflect our mental state of how we are feeling or observing things. 2. The different codes of non-verbal communication are: * Bodily contact/ Haptics * Proximity/ Proximics * Chronemics * Orientation * Appearance * Head nods * Gestures/ Kinesics * Posture * Eye-movement/ Oculesics * Para-linguistic * Para-language 3. Expressions like smiling, crying, shouting and weeping are considered inborn or genetic signals. These are common in all the primates. Some gestures like crossing our arms on our chest are also genetic signals.

4. Establishing and maintaining eye contact is considered very important in Western speech but the possibility of establishing eye contact in Traditional Africa depends on the hierarchical position of the person.

Reflection Communication is said to be 80% body-language. As a teacher of values, what you say and do will largely be interpreted through your body-language. Therefore, reflect on your inner attitudes about the people you minister to and attempt to align them to what Jesus would have you think about them.

Relevant Skills Observe people talking from a distance e.g. from a field, and try to suggest the relationship between them on the basis of their body language e.g. distance between them, their reactions as they speak etc. Resources BOSCOM-INDIA. ‘SHEPHERDS’ FOR AN INFORMATION AGE. Matunga: Tej Prasarini, 2000.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008. Verderber F. Rudolph. Communicate!. California: Wadsworth Publishing Company Inc., 1984.

Allan and Barbara Pease. The Definitive Book of body language. Manjul Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., 2004.

References http://www.establishyourselfny.com http://www.expertvillage.com http://www.norvax.com CHAPTER 1.6 PARTiCiPAnT’S HAnDouT Body Language COMMUNICATOR FOR A CYBER AGE IN AFRICA Bosco Eastern Africa Multimedia Services - BEAMS Publication, Kenya. beams@donbosco.or.ke31 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Procedure Call in a qualified psychologist or NPL(Neuro-Liquistic Programming) expert to give a talk on interpreting eye movements. After the talk, give your input. Remember however, not to repeat what has already been discussed by the guest speaker. You can however emphasise certain important points.

Input • The study of eye movements and position is called oculesics.

• Some ways we make eye contact are: we stare, glower, peep, pierce, glance, watch, gaze and scan; and we do it directly or indirectly, provocatively or furtively, confidently or nervously.

• Emphasize the importance of eye contact for effective communication in all situations of physical proximity. E.g. interpersonal communication such as between a prospective employee and a boss, group communication such as during a class discussion, speech delivery such as during a pitching exercise.

• Allan Pease, the famous writer and scholar, in his book Body Language says that a triangle can be formed on the head by joining the two pupils and the point between the eyebrows. While talking with a person, if you keep your gaze directed at Pease’s triangle, you create a serious atmosphere and the other person senses that you mean business. He has termed this as the ‘Business Gaze’. • When your gaze drops below the other man’s eye level, a social atmosphere is created. When your gaze moves across the two eyes and the chin to other parts of the person’s body - to the chest or breasts to crotch, it is termed as the intimate gaze, basically used to show interest in the other. This gaze is, of course, for courtship when the encounter is between a man and a woman.

• When a person uses the sideways glance, it normally communicates either interest or hostility. When linked with raised eyebrows or a smile, it communicates interest and when combined with turned eyebrows, furrowed brows or the corners of the mouth down-turned, it communicates hostility. • Some persons of the rather irritating type close their eyelids for a second or longer to wipe off the other person from their mind. By doing this, they openly express their disinterest and tell you that they feel bored in your company. When this gesture is combined with the head tilted backwards, the person is trying to make you feel inferior to him.

• Here is some important data: * The act of remembering causes the eyes to move up to the left corner for visual memory and to the right corner for visual construction e.g. imagination. Since all lies are constructions and not what is previously experienced, the eyes go upwards to the right corner.

* If the eye moves to the left side straight then it is an auditory memory e.g. can you remember the 2002 famous song? And to the right side straight for auditory construction e.g. imagine the roar of a tiger just behind you.

* In the case of self-talk when one is in touch with what they feel, the eyes move down left and down right if I am imagining a feeling.

* In the following exercise the eye accessing cues are graphically shown. The facilitator must explain that the picture depicts the eye movement of the other person. To teach the eye movement the participants can be asked to Aim Materials Required [ To stress the importance of the eye in communication. [ Pen and Paper.

1.7 Eye Communication32 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa demonstrate the position of the pupil of the eye by moving their hands when you call out ‘Visual Remembering’ or ‘Vr’, ‘Internal dialogue’ or ‘Aid’ etc. The person must be looking into the eyes of the other when using the examples given on the next page.

Eye Accessing Cues Figure illustrates the ‘eye access cues’. The eye directions appear as when looking at the other person.

Vc- visual Construction/Creation 1. See an elephant with 2 tails 2. See a tree upside down 3. See a pink cow 4. See a man wearing a skirt 5. See your house painted red Ac-Auditory Construction/Creation 1. Hear your name backward 2. Hear how your name sounds in Chinese 3. Hear your name pronounced by a lady without teeth 4. Listen to a child reading for the first time 5. Listen to the bell sounding like cannon fire K-Kinesthetic/Feelings 1. Feel the warmth in your right foot 2. Think lovingly of your best friend 3. Feel sad about the death of a friend 4. Get the feeling of the tips of your fingers 5. Feel the floor with your bare foot Vr-Visual Remembering/Recall 1. Recall the dress you were wearing yesterday 2. See your bedroom at home 3. Recall your first thought this morning 4. See a photo of yourself smiling 5. See your old secondary school Ar-Auditory Remembering/Recall 1. Hear the national anthem 2. Hear your favourite song 3. Recall your mother calling you 4. Hear the voice of a special friend 5. Recall a lecture/voice of your teacher Aid-Auditory Internal Dialogue 1. Tell yourself a joke 2. Talk to yourself telling you love yourself 3. Say how you wish peace for the country 4. Recite the Our Father silently 5. Tell yourself 3 things you like about yourself33 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa • Eyebrow movements communicate emotions: sorrow, joy, surprise, shock, boredom, etc.

• For a more accurate reading, it is important to take note of eye movements as soon as a question is asked rather than assessing where the eye rests.

Review 1. We make eye contact in various ways such as staring, glowering, peeping, piercing, etc.

2. While talking to a person, if you keep your gaze at Pease’s triangle, you create a serious atmosphere.

3. When your gaze drops below the other man’s eye level, a social atmosphere is created.

4. A gaze across the two eyes and the chin to other parts of a person’s body is termed as an intimate gaze.

5. The act of remembering causes the eyes to move up to the left corner for visual memory and to the right corner for visual construction.

6. For auditory memory, the eye moves to the left side and to the right side for auditory construction.

7. When one is in touch with what he/she feels, the eye moves down left and down right if the person is imagining a feeling.

8. Eye brow movements communicate emotions.

Reflection Think about pathological liars you have heard about or seen in movies. How do they manage to lie without being detected? Is it possible to have mastery over our eye communication? Try telling a lie to a partner and while doing this, try as much as you possibly can to control your eye movements. Is it possible to lie without your eyes giving you away? Relevant Skills Observe a friend’s or a teacher’s eye movements as they speak, noting down what they are communicating through their eyes.

Resources BOSCOM-INDIA. ‘SHEPHERDS’ FOR AN INFORMATION AGE. Matunga: Tej Prasarini, 2000.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008. References Sharma, Mohan Vinay. The Art of Reading Gestures and Postures BODY Language. Matunga: Pustak Mahal, 2002.

Sue Knight - NLP at work, London: Nicolas Brealey Publishing,1995.34 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Aim • To stress the importance of the eye in communication.

* You must be looking into the eyes of the other when using the examples given below.

CHAPTER 1.7 PARTiCiPAnT’S HAnDouT Eye Communication COMMUNICATOR FOR A CYBER AGE IN AFRICA Bosco Eastern Africa Multimedia Services - BEAMS Publication, Kenya. beams@donbosco.or.ke Vc- visual Construction/Creation 1. See an elephant with 2 tails 2. See a tree upside down 3. See a pink cow 4. See a man wearing a skirt 5. See your house painted red Ac-Auditory Construction/Creation 1. Hear your name backward 2. Hear how your name sounds in Chinese 3. Hear your name pronounced by a lady without teeth 4. Listen to a child reading for the first time 5. Listen to the bell sounding like cannon fire K-Kinesthetic/Feelings 1. Feel the warmth in your right foot 2. Think lovingly of your best friend 3. Feel sad about the death of a friend 4. Get the feeling of the tips of your fingers 5. Feel the floor with your bare foot Vr-Visual Remembering/Recall 1. Recall the dress you were wearing yesterday 2. See your bedroom at home 3. Recall your first thought this morning 4. See a photo of yourself smiling 5. See your old secondary school Ar-Auditory Remembering/Recall 1. Hear the national anthem 2. Hear your favourite song 3. Recall your mother calling you 4. Hear the voice of a special friend 5. Recall a lecture/voice of your teacher Aid-Auditory Internal Dialogue 1. Tell yourself a joke 2. Talk to yourself telling you love yourself 3. Say how you wish peace for the country 4. Recite the Our Father silently 5. Tell yourself 3 things you like about yourself35 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Review 1. We make eye contact in various ways such as staring, glowering, peeping, piercing, etc.

2. While talking to a person, if you keep your gaze at Pease’s triangle, you create a serious atmosphere.

3. When your gaze drops below the other man’s eye level, a social atmosphere is created.

4. A gaze across the two eyes and the chin to other parts of a person’s body is termed as an intimate gaze.

5. The act of remembering causes the eyes to move up to the left corner for visual memory and to the right corner for visual construction.

6. For auditory memory, the eye moves to the left side and to the right side for auditory construction.

7. When one is in touch with what he/she feels, the eye moves down left and down right if the person is imagining a feeling.

8. Eye brow movements communicate emotions.

Reflection Think about pathological liars you have heard about or seen in movies. How do they manage to lie without being detected? Is it possible to have mastery over our eye communication? Try telling a lie to a partner and while doing this, try as much as you possibly can to control your eye movements. Is it possible to lie without your eyes giving you away? Relevant Skills Observe a friend’s or a teacher’s eye movements as they speak, noting down what they are communicating through their eyes.

Resources BOSCOM-INDIA. ‘SHEPHERDS’ FOR AN INFORMATION AGE. Matunga: Tej Prasarini, 2000.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008. References Sharma, Mohan Vinay. The art of reading Gestures and Postures BODY Language. Matunga: Pustak Mahal, 2002.

Sue Knight - NLP at work, London: Nicolas Brealey Publishing,1995. 36 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Procedure • Display poster No.1. ask participants to write down the meaning of each sign.

• Ask the group these questions: * Why were these signs recognizable? * Who has given them conventional status? * Why are they conventional signs? * Which signs are accepted internationally, nationally, locally? (Answers): 1.No Smoking 2.Taking of Photographs Prohibited 3. Fragile 4.Waste Disposal 5.No Running 6.No Digging 7.Restaurant 8.Hospital 9.Church 10. HIV and AIDS 11.Information 12. Airport 13.Medical Services Input Public signs are conventional symbols to communicate certain messages of public importance. They are conventional because they have been accepted by society over a long period of time. The geographic area covered by their acceptance can vary. Some signs are internationally accepted while others are not e.g. the dove, a sign of peace is accepted internationally while the Kenyan flag is only accepted locally. Some signs have their origin in an event and are better understood in the context of that event, Their use over the years has reinforced their value as powerful tools for communicating. Here is the process through which signs are created and understood: • Signs and symbols originate because of the need to encapsulate a meaning in order to communicate that same meaning. This process of ‘encapsulating’ in a symbol or sign is called encoding the sign.

• But the process of understanding the sign involves a reverse process of relating the sign or symbol back to a real life context - a context within which the sign discloses a particular meaning which is to be understood. This process of understanding the sign is called decoding.

• Consequently, the feedback or reaction of the decoder follows.

• (To explain the process vividly, the teacher could welcome a volunteer/ encoder to communicate a message to another volunteer/decoder across the room using only sign language or drawings on the black board. Once this is Aim Materials Required [ To understand the value of signs and symbols in communication.

[ To understand the process of encoding and decoding.

[ To enlighten on African signs and symbols.

[ Posters displaying the signs given in the procedure.

1.8 The Language of Signs and Symbols37 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa done and the decoder has understood the message, the class could be asked why particular signs were chosen, why some were more understandable than the others etc...) • Signs and symbols have to be very clear such that they allow for only one interpretation. If a sign had many interpretations then the process of decoding would be complex and lack uniformity and consequently varying reactions would emerge.

• Therefore, when encoding public signs the artist or visualiser has to choose the simplest yet apt figure to convey the message. Colours too have to be striking in order to grab attention. Moreover, public signs are beyond language barriers. Hence the figure or symbols chosen must speak to people of all cultures. Traffic signs are a clear example of the process of encoding.

• Notice the process of encoding-decoding as the basic communication process. Corroborate by giving other examples: letter writing, sign-language for the deaf and dumb...

Types of Signs natural Signs - A natural sign is a part of a greater event of a complex condition, and indicates the rest of the situation of which it is a notable feature. A sign then is a symptom of a state of affairs. There are three significant features to be noted in the use of signs in communication: the sign, its object and the subject who relates the sign and the object signified. The sign and its object (for example, smoke and fire) are logically related to form a pair. In any such combination, one of the terms is less important-smoke, in this case-than the other-fire. The less important term, smoke, becomes the sign of the more important one, fire. The less important term is normally more easily available than the other term in the pair. For example, a scar as a sign is more easily available than the accident which is inferred from the presence of the scar. The accident then is the meaning of the scar as a sign. Artificial Signs - Sometimes we produce artificial or arbitrary objects and actions and correlate them with important ones that serve as their meanings. These are called artificial signs. Traffic signs are good examples of artificial signs. For example, red light has been used arbitrarily to mean “stop” or “prohibition.” Colors are also used arbitrarily to mean many different things. Thus in the indigenous Ghanaian culture, brown is used as a color for mourning and so brown clothes are customarily worn to funerals and memorial services. Placing the arm or arms across the middle of the head or clasping both hands at the back of the head is used as a sign of mourning in Ghanaian society. Symbols Symbols are used to communicate complex knowledge, abstract truths and ideas about life and its meaning. A symbol is therefore a vehicle for the conception of an object, enabling us to conceive or form a view of an object; it calls forth mental images. Thus, for example, Nelson Mandela in his relationship to the British might give rise to the thought of a modern Martin Luther who fought against racial segregation. The conception of a symbol therefore consists in what it means, and Nelson Mandela as a symbol may mean the fact of equality and peace. Here are some examples of indigenous African symbols and the conceptions they evoke in the mind: 1. The elephant: symbol of power and kingship 2. The lion: symbol of ferocity, danger and royalty 3. Woman: symbol of peace, productivity, creativity, life and growth 4. Rugged Triangle: symbol of stability and inner repose; true life is secure, stable and lasting or has safe and stable foundations; life that has a solid basis. 5. The ram and its horns: symbol of pacific disposition combined with strength and power.

6. Black colour: It is the official mourning cloth at funerals especially for a person who has died at unripe age.

7. White colour: Symbol of purity and joy. It is worn at funerals especially of an older member.

8. Red colour: It is a spiritual colour and has powerful religious significance. It is the colour of the cloth used to adorn the table in the shrine.

Review 1. Public signs are conventional symbols to communicate certain messages of public importance.

2. Signs are conventional because they have been accepted by society over a long period of time.

3. Some signs have their origin in an event and are better understood in the context of that event.

4. The first step in creating a sign is to encode it into a sign/symbol. The receiver then decodes the sign and then sends back the feedback which is then encoded into a sign/symbol and then decoded and more feedback sent back. The process is continuous. 5. Signs and symbols have to be very clear so as to allow for only one interpretation.

6. There are two types of signs: Natural signs which are a greater event of a complex condition e.g. a scar. Sometimes we produce artificial or arbitrary objects and actions and correlate them with important ones that serv e as their meanings. These are known as artificial signs.38 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa 7. A symbol is a vehicle for the conception of an object, enabling us to conceive or form a view of an object; it calls forth mental images.

Reflection Reflect and comment on the following: ‘A symbol is a vehicle for the conception of an object, enabling us to conceive or form a view of an object; it calls forth mental images.’ Relevant Skills Research on the different type of signs and symbols, and how they evolved and came to be accepted in your community. You may need to talk to resource people such as experts and the older generation.

Resources BOSCOM-INDIA. ‘SHEPHERDS’ FOR AN INFORMATION AGE. Matunga: Tej Prasarini, 2000.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008. 39 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Aim • To understand the value of signs and symbols in communication.

• To understand the process of encoding and decoding • To enlighten on African signs and symbols.

Procedure • Write down the meaning of each sign.

1._______________________, 2. _______________________, 3. _______________________, 4. _______________________, 5. _______________________, 6. _______________________, 7. _______________________, 8. _______________________, 9. _______________________, 10. _______________________, 11. _______________________, 12. _______________________, 13. _______________________, • Answer the following questions: * Why were these signs recognizable? * Who has given them conventional status? * Why are they conventional signs? * Which signs are accepted internationally, nationally, locally? Review 1. Public signs are conventional symbols to communicate certain messages of public importance.

2. Signs are conventional because they have been accepted by society over a long period of time.

3. Some signs have their origin in an event and are better understood in the context of that event.

4. The first step in creating a sign is to encode it into a sign/symbol. The receiver then decodes the sign and then sends back the feedback which is then encoded into a sign/symbol and then decoded and more feedback sent back. The process is continuous. 5. Signs and symbols have to be very clear so as to allow for only one interpretation.

6. There are two types of signs: Natural signs which are a greater event of a complex condition e.g. a scar. Sometimes we produce artificial or arbitrary objects and actions and correlate them with important ones that serve as their Reflection Reflect and comment on the following: ‘A symbol is a vehicle for the conception of an object, enabling us to conceive or form a view of an object; it calls forth mental images.’ CHAPTER 1.8 PARTiCiPAnT’S HAnDouT The Language of Signs and Symbols COMMUNICATOR FOR A CYBER AGE IN AFRICA Bosco Eastern Africa Multimedia Services - BEAMS Publication, Kenya. beams@donbosco.or.ke40 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Relevant Skills Research on the different type of signs and symbols, and how they evolved and came to be accepted in your community. You may need to talk to resource people such as experts and the older generation.

Resources BOSCOM-INDIA. ‘SHEPHERDS’ FOR AN INFORMATION AGE. Matunga. Tej Prasarini, 2000.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008. 41 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Input • When asked “What is the definition of etiquette?” Naomi Polson, who received her etiquette certificate in Washington DC and is the Founding Director of The Etiquette Company, replies, “Etiquette has to do with good manners. It’s not so much our own good manners, but making other people feel comfortable by the way we behave. So it’s more or less thinking of others and how others perceive us, so that everyone knows the rules for doing things and everyone is in a very comfortable position in society.” Indeed, many experts say that etiquette is simply showing respect for others and yourself at the same time. So, even though aspects of good manners do vary from place to place and some rules may be added to keep up with technology or lifestyles, the foundation of etiquette, its meaning, is still the same.

• We all recognise good breeding when we see it - whether in a well-trained pet or a well brought up child. Similarly, social skills or good manners are not inherited; they are learnt even though they may seem too natural to be acquired. • In traditional African society, manners are ingrained into children from early childhood and children grow up practicing these habits which soon become second nature. It’s the same principle that we need to apply in modern society as we bring up our children. Indeed, society today should be sensitised on etiquette or good manners as we’d like to call it. It is sad that in Africa, etiquette is rarely taught in schools. A skill so important for getting along with people in society should be given priority in our schools.

• In some societies, you can literally not operate without etiquette. For example, among the Kikuyu of Kenya, sitting and sharing a drink with the elders is a taboo that could invite rejection from the community if one is an outsider. The credentials engrained in our bodies and our behaviour can positively or adversely affect our social living in new cultures.

Etiquette in Africa • There are several simple rules of etiquette in Africa. One point worth remembering is that public displays of affection, although very common amongst friends of the same sex, are frowned upon between couples, even married ones. • In East Africa, oppugning someone’s ethnic identity through ignorance or deliberate intention can be a grievous breach of etiquette. Africans themselves however may engage in vicious slander along ethnic lines, even between ethnic distinctions which seem trivial to an outsider. • Adoption of a “Western lifestyle” has little to do with a person’s affinity to their ethnic group. A lawyer in a three-piece suit en route to London, able to converse in Afrikaans and English, may also be a native speaker of Zulu and as proud and assured of his specific ethnic identity as the Welshman sitting next to him is of his own. • Conversely, pride in tribal identity means that wearing a traditional dress does not necessarily indicate a lack of education or unfamiliarity with the ways of the world. A man dressed in traditional Maasai attire may have been educated at a university in Canada. • For many Africans, self-identify is in terms of tribal or linguistic identity. Aim Materials Required [ To teach good manners and grooming - an essential part of being a good communicator. [ Pen and Paper.

1.9 Etiquette for Better Communication42 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Black people who visit from other parts of the world expecting to be accepted with a feeling of affinity may be disappointed. Acting on a naïve assumption about such a reception may offend the very people whom one hoped to feel kinship with.

• Can there be one code in our multi-cultural society? Is it true that each culture has its own codes of manners? In the following topic, we shall look at some of the behaviours that are universal in modern societies today.

The Five universal Behaviours 1. Do not spit in public.

2. Keep noise down.

3. Do not urinate in public.

4. Do not throw trash anywhere put it in the designated bins or collection points.

5. Do not cut into a line, wait in line! universal Words of Kindness 1. Please 2. Thank you 3. Excuse me 4. Hello 5. Good bye What we will describe in these sessions, however, are general hints that are linked to the basic “consideration for others” - a human quality that transcends cultural diversity. If we can enter into life with this concern: “my actions must at all times respect the individuality and human dignity of my neighbour,” then we will have understood the real meaning of etiquette. Remember, the heart of all the rules of etiquette is concern for others. The heart of true communication is communicating with the heart. In this session, we have divided the rules of etiquette into 11 areas of consideration. We will start with the body.

A) YouR BoDY • Visual poise is the way we carry ourselves. Proper sitting, standing, walking and pivoting techniques are not just for models, but for everyone who wants to be well poised and graceful.

• Personal cleanliness is a criterion on which people will accept or reject us. Therefore, it is a must that we cultivate good bathing habits. A good bath with soap and water each day will help control body odour. Excessive scents and deodorants are no substitute. The appropriate frequency of bathing depends on the climatic conditions and seasons of the year but of course the golden rule is to take a bath everyday.

• It may seem unnecessary to state that your face is important. You may not be good-looking but you have a duty to look your best. This can be done by brushing your hair and washing your face with soap at regular intervals - don’t forget the places that collect dirt most easily: in and behind the ears, the corner of the eyes, the nostrils, and the corners of the mouth. In the case of men, a daily clean shave or a groomed beard goes a long way in looking decent. In general, never attempt to leave your room before first checking yourself before a mirror.

• The way you carry yourself is as important as being clean. The well groomed person walks and sits erect with shoulders squarely drawn back to enable one to breathe deeply.

• Breathe with your mouth closed. Many a time young men and women keep their mouth open.

B) YouR CLoTHES • There is a difference between being well dressed, just being dressed and being untidy. It is always important to be presentable and not a source of embarrassment to others. • Clothes protect our bodies but they also preserve our dignity and enhance our appearance. They make a statement about who we are and what we stand for because it is ultimately up to each of us, as individuals, to decide what we wish to wear.

• Simplicity, sobriety in colour schemes, good tailoring, should be the dress code of a well-groomed person.

• Another important way to control body odour is to wash the clothes worn close to the body daily - shorts, underwear, socks, vests, bras and stockings.

• Clothes also need to be ironed well so as to make a person look presentable.

C) YouR ConVERSATion • A good conversationalist is polite, attentive, and interested in the other’s conversation.

• Make it a rule, wherever you are, to take an interest in all that passes. Observe the characteristics of the persons you meet and listen to and take part in the subject of their conversations.43 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa • The following are some conversational patterns of behaviour that we need to avoid if we desire to be agreeable and pleasant to people with whom we speak: * Talking loudly * Interrupting * Sneezing and blowing one’s nose abruptly, without an “excuse me” (as if into the other’s face) * Yawning and whispering in company * Staring at people in the eye * Talking without thinking * Speaking without listening * Bragging about oneself and one’s achievements * Sneering or being sarcastic in one’s remarks * Passing snide remarks or sharing a private joke with one’s neighbour while another is speaking.

* Monopolising the conversation. The know-it-all, the show-off, the clown-all who try to grab the attention of their listeners.

* Correcting grammar and pronunciation in public.

* Getting too personal and calling attention to bodily characteristics: beauty, shape, size, defects and disabilities.

* Fault-finding.

* Inquisitiveness. (Questioning moderately is ok as long as they are not personal or prying questions e.g. asking how much one is earning, how much rent they pay etc.) * Criticising people, events and situations.

* Gossiping * Lengthy story telling, jokes...

* Vulgarity in speech - this may attract attention or cause laughter in your listeners but will equally diminish their esteem of you.

* Roving eyes: speaking to a person while roving with your eyes. This prevents eye-contact giving your partner the impression that you are not listening.

* Arguing - instead learn to disagree agreeably. There is no need to venture an opinion unless it is asked.

* Truth enforcing: people who think they alone possess the truth and have a right to express it make poor conversationalists. Some words to help you be polite even if you are sure you are right will help: ‘maybe’, ‘I beg to differ’ etc.

* Exclusivism: While talking in a group, encourage all to participate - make eye contact with all the listeners (sometimes this is difficult as our eyes usually rest on those who make an impression on us or those we are attracted to.) D) AT TABLE: • It is at table, more than anywhere else, that one can tell who is a truly educated person.

• Meals form an important part of our common and social life. It is a time when one can have the best moments of sharing our lives as well as have a good time telling jokes and making fun.

• At the table, a smiling face - but certainly not with food stuffed in the mouth! - is always a good gesture. Closing one’s mouth while eating is an art that must be perfected from one’s early days.

• This will help prevent eating loudly and food falling out of the mouth on to one’s lips and chin. • Licking fingers, digging one’s nose, picking teeth, and clearing one’s throat as well as loud mouthed laughter - can ruin your neighbour’s appetite.

Formal table-manners • Take the seat you are assigned.

• Lift your chair, do not drag it.

• Sit erect, do not slouch.

• Open your napkin and place on your lap.

• Wipe your mouth with the napkin before eating and drinking and from time to time, to avoid food or water messing up your face.

• Begin to serve yourself when the host directs you to or after the chief guest has began.

• Do not eat with elbows on the table.

• Lift only the corner of the glass to your mouth.

• Do not bend over your plate.

• Use the fork, knife and spoon with the help of your wrists not with the whole length of your arms.44 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa • Do not heap food on your plate.

• Lift the fork or spoon to your mouth (do not bend down to the fork and spoon).

• When serving yourself bring the dish next to your plate.

• When you are not using your fork, spoon or knife, place them at the side of your plate with the sullied portion at the edge of your plate.

• Pick the serving spoon, dip it into the dish and bring the contents to your plate without dropping anything onto the table. • You could steady the food from the dish to your plate with your fork, if it is cumbersome.

• Do not drop food out of your plate - even waste material like fish-bones, fruit skin, etc.

• Deposit waste material on the side plate.

• A simple nod of gratitude is enough when you are being served - there’s no need to thank the server every time.

• Do not drink your water at one gulp on your arrival.

• Do not sip from your glass (or cup) with food in the mouth - it will help keep the glass from being stained with food particles.

• Pour contents of beverages into your glass - drinking directly from the bottle is unacceptable.

• Test the heat of beverages with a spoon. If it is too hot, allow it to cool by stirring it (without noise). DO NOT blow into the cup.

• Always use a dry spoon for sugar - excessive stirring is unnecessary.

• Remove the spoon from the cup before drinking.

• Do not drink from the saucer.

• On leaving, place the spoon on the saucer.

• On the completion of a meal, leave your fork and spoon side by side on your plate (or crossed) with the reverse side facing you.

Exceptional circumstances: • Do not hastily spit out hot food, but quench it with a drink of water before you swallow it.

• If you have to remove food once taken into the mouth due to a foreign matter, or if it is spoiled, do so with the help of the fork or spoon and deposit it at the side of your plate. Preferably cover the food with a piece of bread. Do this quietly without attracting much attention.

• If foreign bodies accidentally taken into the mouth have to be removed (like stones, pins, bones), do so with only the thumb and the forefinger and in a way that others won’t see it and be upset. Cover your hand and mouth with the napkin.

• Manage accidents at table tactfully - without exaggeration. If you have caused the accident, apologise. If another has caused it, put the person at ease. Retrieve the fallen food with a spoon and place it in your quarter plate or at the side of your plate. Then take the corner of your napkin, dip it into your water glass, and lightly rub the spot and carry on with your eating • Coughing, sneezing, blowing your nose at table may be done by turning your head to one side and as quietly as possible. If you have an excessive bout of coughing caused due to irritation in the windpipe, leave the table immediately.

• If there is a wash basin situated in the dining hall near the dining table, it is usually meant for washing your hands. Do not use it for your mouth or throat ablution - especially if people are having their meals at the table nearby.

• Reaching out at table may be done only if things are at arms reach. If not, ask your neighbour politely to pass the item to you. Do not rise from your seat.

• Passing the jug, fork, spoon or knife is done with the handle pointing to the person receiving it.

• The volume of conversation at table should always be controlled. Loud guffaws, banging the table in delight, clapping hands, slapping each other on the back are all not acceptable at meal-time.

• No two partners should allow themselves to become engrossed in conversation to the exclusion of others.

• Do not talk business at table - or for that matter enter upon a controversial topic. Meal times are together-times and conversation at table should help build up the togetherness of the group.

• While serving: * Serve from the left of each person, * Start with the guest of honour, or the eldest person, * Serve only beverages from the right.

E) PRiVACY • Good manners require that you give each one enough space and respect their moments of privacy. Minding your own business is an important part of etiquette. “How are you?” may be okay for starters but “Where are you going?” “When will you come back?” “What are you doing?” can be irritating.

• A closed door is an indication that the person on the other side desires privacy. It would therefore be wrong to barge in. If you wish to meet the person, use the door bell or knock gently.

• It is important to respect privacy of time just as we respect privacy of space. There are certain times people do not wish to be seen and knowing this is important.45 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa • Never stop to listen to a conversation which was not intended for you to participate in. When someone is on the phone in the same room as you are it is better to wait outside the room.

• If you are in another person’s room, do not let your eyes wander around, worse still, do not pick up or handle any articles without due permission.

• On entering the office of your superior, you find that he/she is busy, then wait outside. Do not enter and start leafing through the calendar or touching the magazines or other books and articles on the table.

• Never read a letter belonging to someone else.

• Do not peer into what someone else is reading - unless you first excuse yourself and obtain permission.

F) inTRoDuCTionS • When introducing people, remember this: * Always present the younger person to the older person.

* Always present the man/boy to the woman/girl first.

* Always present the person of lower rank to the superior.

• When introducing a newcomer at a party, introduce the newcomer to the group of friends first and then each one individually to the newcomer with, perhaps, some added information about each one.

• If mentioning the names of a group of people that includes yourself, mention your name last. “Kamau, Obi, Rebecca, Omondi and I will be travelling to Delhi.” • Use the full name on formal occasions only.

• If you are not known and would like to join a group, say: “Hello, I’m Mwendwa, may I join you?” • Introduce yourself to older persons - save them the embarrassment of trying to remember your name.

• Never ask a person to guess your name. Remember, you too can forget! Say it out straightaway: “Hello, I am Rehema.” • Usually when men are introduced to men, they shake hands. However, a man does not shake hands with the lady unless the lady makes the first move.

• Handshakes should not be limp, flabby or bone-crashing. Do it with grace and do not prolong it.

• On parting, shake hands again and say: “Glad to have met you.” The receiver says “Thank you” or “Me too.” • A woman remains seated (if already seated) when being introduced. However, she rises when being introduced to another woman or a distinguished person. A man always rises on being introduced to a woman.

• Do not go out of your way to introduce people when it is only a brief encounter and they are not likely to care about knowing each other, or when the place or time is not suitable.

G) TELEPHonE ETiQuETTE • Always be courteous on the phone - use the polite phrases “please”, “May I”, “Thank you”, “Sorry” etc.

• If the environment is quiet, speak on the telephone in a voice that is pleasant and soft. If you need to raise your volume, do it to be heard by the person you are speaking to on the phone, not by everyone else in the room. • Introduce yourself if the voice is not familiar to the receiver. If you are making a business call, do not presume that your receiver will recognise you or ask him/her to guess. It can be very irritating.

• After giving your name, graciously ask, “May I speak to Mr. Apollo?” • Always be brief.

• If your purpose is purely of a social nature, then ask “Have you time for a chat?” before you launch out into an extended conversation.

• It is usually up to the person who makes the call to terminate the conversation.

• Do not forget to thank the caller at the end of a call.

H) MAnAGinG WASTE • Never throw waste on the floor - it does not matter where you are. Use the bin.

• If you happen to see waste (especially dry waste) on the floor, pick it up.

• Make it a habit to separate dry garbage from wet garbage.

• With regard to dry waste, use a dust bin or a wastepaper basket.

• Never throw waste material like paper, tickets, chocolate wrappers, etc. on the floor. Look for a bin or a wastepaper basket.

• If you cannot find one, and the garbage is small, put it into your pocket to be disposed off when you find a bin.

• Dry waste may be recycled. If collected over a period of time it can be sold.

• With regard to wet garbage, use a bin with a lid. This will help keep flies away as well as control the odour from spreading.

• Wet waste may be recycled by letting it rot in a compost pit dug up in one’s garden. If worms are applied to this, the collected waste will turn into a rich fertilizer.

• In a school environment, it is easier to manage waste disposal. We must first ensure that there are enough bins for people to use. Without such provisions, it is foolish to insist on cleanliness. Once the bins are installed, insistence 46 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa on cleanliness with timely reminders will help. Punitive action may also be taken. For this, vigilant groups or guards would have to volunteer or be employed for the purpose. However, it is important to insist to the students that cleanliness is not a favour one is doing to the school but a duty one owes the school for using the space provided.

i) BoDY WASTES • In general, we may say that all body wastes must be properly controlled and not allowed to pollute the environment.

• Do not spit except into your handkerchief or into a wash basin.

• On sensing a sneeze, reach out quickly for your handkerchief and sneeze into it. Otherwise, cover your mouth.

• Cover your mouth when you yawn or cough.

• Always use the toilet for your needs.

• English toilets have a seat which must be kept clean.

• When leaving the toilet, care must be taken to keep it spotlessly clean.

J) CoMMon PRoPERTY • Here are some damages that our lack of concern have caused: stinking lavatories, dirtied walls, badly littered streets, torn seats, overflowing waste bins, etc.

• We fail to realise that common property is our very own property and that the money that goes into repairing the damage (if it is repaired at all) is spent from our own pockets, through taxes and increased fares.

• We must therefore resolve: * To use common property well.

* To kindly remind people who forget by politely drawing their attention to the concern.

* To repair whatever damage - like a neighbourhood clean-up drive, or picking up the papers ourselves and teaching our children to do so.

K) LETTER WRiTinG • A gracious person knows when, why and how to write a thank you note as well as how to reply to an invitation.

• A letter is nothing else than a conversation. It has however, one important difference: That which is spoken may not be remembered. But that which is written remains. Hence it is good to be brief, prompt, prudent and responsible - besides being presentable and polite.

Review 1. Etiquette has to do with good manners; with making other people feel comfortable by the way we behave. It’s thinking of others and how they perceive us. Society should be sensitised on etiquette.

2. Schools should prioritise the teaching of social etiquette because this is what determines success of relationships in society be it business or personal relationships.

3. In Africa, foreigners should keep note of the following: * Displays of affection, although very common amongst friends of the same sex, are frowned upon between couples, even married ones. * In East Africa, oppugning someone’s ethnic identity through ignorance or deliberate intention can be a grievous breach of etiquette.

* Adoption of a “Western lifestyle” has little to do with a person’s affinity with their ethnic group. Africans generally remain true to their culture despite their level of education and/or Western influence. In the converse, pride in tribal identity means that wearing traditional dress does not necessarily indicate a lack of education or unfamiliarity with the ways of the world.

* Black people who visit from other parts of the world expecting to be accepted with a feeling of affinity may be disappointed. Acting on a naïve assumption about such a reception may offend the very people whom one hopes to feel kinship with.

4. The five universal behaviours that are generally accepted in most modern societies include: i. Not spitting in public.

ii. Keeping noise down.

iii. Not urinating in public.

iv. No throwing trash.

v. Do not cut into a line, wait in line! 5. The five universal words of kindness include: i. Please ii. Thank you47 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa iii. Excuse me iv. Hello v. Good bye Reflection 1. Africans, just like Americans and other societies in the world have their ‘good behaviour’ rooted in their unique cultural etiquette. Spend some time researching through books and interviewing key people such as parents and grandparents about your culture’s unique cultural etiquette. After this, trace the roots of your current etiquette to either your tribe of origin or the culture in which you grew up.

Resources BOSCOM-INDIA. ‘SHEPHERDS’ FOR AN INFORMATION AGE. Matunga: Tej Prasarini, 2000.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008. References http://www.establishyourselfny.com http://www.expertvillage.com http://www.norvax.com48 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Aim • To learn good manners and grooming - an essential part of being a good communicator.

Review 1. Etiquette has to do with good manners; with making other people feel comfortable by the way we behave. It’s thinking of others and how they perceive us. Society should be sensitised on etiquette.

2. Schools should also prioritise the teaching of social etiquette because this is what determines success of relationships in society be it business or personal relationships.

3. In Africa, foreigners should keep note of the following: * Displays of affection, although very common amongst friends of the same sex, are frowned upon between couples, even married ones. * In East Africa, oppugning someone’s ethnic identity through ignorance or deliberate intention can be a grievous breach of etiquette.

* Adoption of a “Western lifestyle” has little to do with a person’s affinity with their ethnic group. Africans generally remain true to their culture despite their level of education and/or Western influence. In the converse, pride in tribal identity means that wearing traditional dress does not necessarily indicate a lack of education or unfamiliarity with the ways of the world.

* Black people who visit from other parts of the world expecting to be accepted with a feeling of affinity may be disappointed. Acting on a naïve assumption about such a reception may offend the very people whom one hopes to feel kinship with.

4. The five universal behaviours that are generally accepted in most modern societies include: i. Not spitting in public.

ii. Keeping noise down.

iii. Not urinating in public.

iv. No throwing trash.

v. Do not cut into a line, wait in line! 5. The five universal words of kindness include: i. Please ii. Thank you iii. Excuse me iv. Hello v. Good bye Reflection 1. Africans, just like Americans and other societies in the world have their ‘good behaviour’ rooted in their unique cultural etiquette. Spend some time researching through books and interviewing key people such as parents and grandparents about your culture’s unique cultural etiquette. After this, trace the roots of your current etiquette to either your tribe of origin or the culture in which you grew up.

Resources BOSCOM-INDIA. ‘SHEPHERDS’ FOR AN INFORMATION AGE. Matunga. Tej Prasarini, 2000.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008. References http://www.establishyourselfny.com http://www.expertvillage.com http://www.norvax.com CHAPTER 1.9 PARTiCiPAnT’S HAnDouT Etiquette for Better Communication COMMUNICATOR FOR A CYBER AGE IN AFRICA Bosco Eastern Africa Multimedia Services - BEAMS Publication, Kenya. beams@donbosco.or.ke49 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Input A Brief History of Communication Since the dawn of time the attempt to communicate has been a human endeavour. The historians divide the story of communication into four periods of time namely the oral, writing, printing and electronic eras.

A oral: The first means of sending messages was through rough noises and body language. Oral communication was accompanied by symbols and signs. A kick, a hit of the hand, a stroke, a grunt, a yell, a scream, would all be used to let others know your feelings, needs, and wishes. As this era progressed, the use of an oral language developed. Different groups created their own languages with particular sounds to describe specific objects or activities. This development was an intellectual advancement that sets human beings apart from animals. Of all living creatures, people alone have the ability to speak to one another in a developed language of words. They used language, art, drama, presentation, speaking and communication amongst others. The question therefore is: Were these any different from television, or any other modern means of communication in purpose? B. Writing: Writing is the first “technical” creation in human communications. Hieroglyphics was the first pictorial style form of writing. It was developed in Egypt more than 3000 years Before Christ. It consisted of simple drawings of familiar sights/shapes following each other. A thousand years later, a different pictorial form of writing was developed in China. Hieroglyphics went through great changes over many years until it became an alphabet form of writing as we have today. The basic value of this alphabet was to help in the process of learning and passing on useful information.

C. Printing: Printing is the ability to take the written word and reproduce it over and over again. In Germany in 1450, a goldsmith Johannes Gutenberg created the first printing press in Europe but he was not actually the first to create a printing press as it had existed in sorts before the time of Jesus. This type of printing needed a carved wooden plate. Later on in Europe (mid 15th Century), the creation of a movable type printing press became a historic event, because of the possibility of printing onto paper. Paper was made first in China. Through the capture of Chinese people, the skills of paper making came to Spain and later on into all of Europe. Communication moved a leap forward with the invention of printing in Europe. Printed books increased in numbers as the years went by. They provided the most important means of learning and of entertainment. Printing remains an important means of communication. Recent advances in technical means of printing have increased the number of volumes published.

D. Electronic Audio-Visual Culture: Nearly 400 years after Gutenberg ushered in the era of the print medium, Samuel Morse transmitted the first message over telegraph from Washington to Baltimore. This was the next great revolution in the history of communications. As technology matured, it took the form of electronic information networks. Television is considered to be the dominant medium in this culture as it seems to undermine the power Aim Materials Required [ To study briefly the history of communication, and the various cultural revolutions that have taken place.

[ Copies of the Input .

1.10 A Brief History of Communication50 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa of logos, the slow development of rational understanding and analysis in favour of rapid and fragmented bits of information. Instead of abstract conceptual language, it provides vivid, particularised images and instead of intellectuals, it creates celebrities. Today, they set the social, cultural and political agendas of modern society. The crucial factors in changing culture and human behaviour are not just ideas, philosophies, and religions, but more fundamentally the technological innovations of the era, especially when they touch on communication (McLuhan). In the words of Pierre Babin, it is not the audiovisual media in themselves, but a radical change in the culture of young people which challenges us today. The introduction of electronic media has changed the meaning of all of our cultural institutions and every aspect of our structures of thought, including changes to both religious institutions and theological concepts. According to him in the electronic culture, the message is not in words but in the effect produced by the whole complex known as the medium. These media are not just technologies transporting content, but they form a world, an enveloping environment.

The age of information is not a matter of creating individual pieces of information or communicating information, in the sense of transmitting from sender to receiver. It is a matter of giving the existing information new form: that is, putting this information into a new framework, which both re-organises the internal relations of data and transforms their external display. Hence it is an era when putting on a show carries more weight than do values and underlying realities. Both the affective and the imaginative, strongly stimulated by audiovisual images are becoming a part of human and religious functioning. The shift is from the message to the medium; from meaning to the effect; from linear, logical, doctrinal to the audiovisual (emotional, imaginative); from words to modulations; from matter to form; from the figure to the ground; from pure information to entertainment. Babin speaks not just the presence of audiovisuals but of a new culture and a new way of living (Babin).

E. Age of information Technology: The first large-scale electronic computer, the grandparent of today’s handheld machines, was the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) contained approximately 18,000 light- bulb-size electronic vacuum tubes that controlled the flow of electric current. It weighed 30 tons and occupied about a1800 square feet of floor space - a huge machine by today’s standard. It was able to multiply four numbers in the then remarkable time of 9 milliseconds. From that start, computers have developed through four so-called generations or stages each one characterised by smaller size, more power, and less expense than its predecessor.

First Generation (1944-1958) In the earliest general-purpose computers, most input and output media were punched cards and magnetic tape. Main memory was almost exclusively made up of hundreds of vacuum tubes - although one computer used a magnetic drum for main memory. These computers were somewhat unreliable because the vacuum tubes failed frequently. They were also slower than any microcomputer used today, produced a tremendous amount of heat, and were very large. They could run only one program at a time. ENIAC and UNIVAC I - the UNIVersal Automatic Computer, which was used by the U.S. Bureau of the Census from 1951 to 1963 - are examples of the first-generation computers. The UNIVAC was priced at $500,000 in 1950; today, you can purchase microcomputer chips with the same processing power for less than $100.

Second Generation (1959-1963) By early 1960s transistors and solid-state devices, much smaller than vacuum tubes were being used for computer circuitry. (A transistor is an electronic switch that alternately allows or does not allow electronic signals to pass). Magnetic cores became the most widely used type of main memory. Removable magnetic disk packs were introduced as storage devices. Second-generation machines tended to be smaller, more reliable, and significantly faster than first- generation computers.

Third Generation (1964-1970) The Integrated Circuit (IC) - a complete electronic circuit that packages transistors (signal bridges) and other electronic components on a small silicon chip - replaced traditional transistorised circuitry. The use of magnetic disks for secondary data storage became widespread, and computers began to support such capabilities as multiprogramming (processing several programs simultaneously). Minicomputers at the time were being used by the early 1970s and were taking some of the business away from the mainframe market. Processing that formerly required the processing power of a mainframe could now be done on a minicomputer.

Fourth Generation (1971-now) Large-Scale Integrated (LSI) and Very-Large-Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits were developed. They contained hundreds to millions of transistors on a tiny chip. In 1971 Ted Hoff of Intel developed the microprocessor, which 51 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa packaged an entire CPU, complete with memory, logic and control circuits, on a single chip. The microprocessor and VLSI circuit technology caused radical changes in computers - in their size, appearance, cost, availability and capability - and they started the process of miniaturisation: the development of smaller and smaller computers.

During this time, computers’ main memory capacity increased and its cost decreased which directly affected the types and usefulness of software that could be used. Software applications became commercially available, giving more people reasons to use a computer. 1. From oral Culture to Literate Culture Undatable starting points: From nonverbal communication (gestures) to speech - One of the earliest evidences of our ancestors communicative facility is found in cave paintings and carved objects (roughly 35,000 B.C) - in caves of Southern France, inner Sahara and Australia.

There are a number of theories on the origin of speech (but no direct evidences or theories are available). Hunting by night, living in dark caves, the primitive human beings must have discovered that voice signals, instead of being incidental to his main activities, could take over many of the functions of visual signals and gestures; they began to associate certain sounds with certain experiences or behaviours.

The development from sign writing to sound writing (based on alphabets). The hieroglyphs of Egypt and Crete were mostly pictures, although each one stood for a word-sound. The early writings were sign based and pictorial in style. To write a sentence in pictorial form required an artist and a great deal of time. Gradually, therefore, the pictorial signs must have come to stand for sounds rather than a scene or event. Slowly the process of abstraction began and we had sound based alphabets (Greek alphabets). It is generally believed that writing began around 5500 years ago in Sumeria... the Sumerians used pictographs and then we have the famous Egyptian Hieroglyphs. Then we have the invention of the alphabet.

2. The Mechanisation of Writing - Birth of Mass Media By 1403, the Koreans make cast metal type (already by 1040 the clay type was invented in China) 1450 - Johann Gutenberg perfects the movable metal type to create the first effective printing techniques in Europe, to usher in the era of print media (with the Gutenberg Bible and other documents). He created a viable way of making multiple copies of written texts at relatively low cost.

1605 - 10 - The first regular newspapers appear in Europe.

1690 - Benjamin Harris prints the first newspaper in America “Public Occurrences”.

1848 - Six New York newspapers join forces to form the Associated Press in an attempt to cut telegraph costs.

3. The Audio-Visual Revolution This period is very unwieldy... a continuous string of discoveries... it is also difficult to date inventions... new ideas build on old ideas. Invention encourages invention and technology builds on technology.

- 1822 - First photograph by Nicephore Niepce.

- 1824 - The principle of motion pictures is discovered...

- 1839 - Talbot produces a photographic negative, Daguerre and Niepce perfect photograph; photographs appear in journals.

- 1844 - Samuel Morse transmits first message over telegraph.

- 1876 - Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone.

- 1878 - Thomas Alva Edison develops the first phonograph.

- 1894 - Thomas Edison’s Kinetoscope.

- 1895 - Guglielmo Marconi invents the wireless telegraphy.

- 1895 - Auguste and Loius Lumiere project the motion picture.

- 1904 - Flemming develops glass-bulb detector of radio waves.

- 1906 - Vaccum tube is perfected by Lee Deforest, for radio.

- 1915 - First long film “The Birth of the Nation” by D.W. Griffith.

- 1920 - Zworykin resumes television experiment.

- 1927 - First talking picture (The Jazz Singer).

- 1928 - Zworykin patented the first TV system.

- 1938 - Television sets go on sale to public at $600 each (half the price of a new car).

- 1939 - TV broadcast demonstration at New York.

- 1941 - First colour TV image.

- 1942 - Magnetic tape is invented.

- 1943 - Frank Sinatra becomes first pop idol of teenagers.

- 1944 - Program sponsors experiment with TV commercials.52 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa - 1946 - ENIAC, the prototype of modern electronic computers.

- 1947 - Dennis Gabor invents the hologram. - 1948 - Bell Telephone Company invents transistor.

- 1958 - Gordon Gould invents the laser.

- 1962 - Telestar satellite makes live international broadcasting feasible.

- 1975 - Sony introduces home video recording system and VHS follows two years later.

Around 1970 ARPA net (Advanced Research Project Agency) set up the first parts of what would become the internet. Later ARPAnet extended to non-military uses.

4. History of Print Media 3rd BC Clay Tablets - Babylonia 2500 BC Papyrus Scrolls - Egyptians 104 AD Paper - Chinese 200AD Books - Vellum Codex Replace Scrolls 6th Century AD Block Printing Book Printing in China - Chinese 1450 Printing - Movable Type - Gutenburg 1461 Book Illustration - Woodcut - Pfister Engraving 1889 Haltone - Herald 1562 First Monthly Newspaper in Italy 1594 First Magazine in Germany 1663 Magazines (Professional - Theological) - Grist 1814 Web Fed Rotary Presses (Steam Power) 1842 The Illustrated London News (16 Pages of Letterpress/32 Woodcuts) 1880’s Linotype - Keyboard Typesetting Machines 1936 Life Magazine Founded (Photo Journalism) 1970’s Phototypesetting 1979 US Postal Service Experiments with Electronic Mail 1980 Home Computer Available for Less than $500 1980’s Computer - Desk Top Publishing Systems Review 1. Since the dawn of time the attempt to communicate has been a human endeavour. 2. The story of communication is divided into four periods of time i.e. oral, writing, printing and electronic eras.

Reflection Group the students into groups of 6 students and have them research on the steps that communication development in their ethnic community went through to the present day e.g. from cave drawings to drum beating to community radio.

Relevant Skills Identify how the mass media have affected people’s socio-culture over the years. Compare this with former days when these forms of communication were not present.

Resources BOSCOM-INDIA. ‘SHEPHERDS’ FOR AN INFORMATION AGE. Matunga: Tej Prasarini, 2000.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008. References AMECEA and IMBISA. Basic Human Communication. Nairobi: Paulines Publications Africa, 2000.

Hutchinson E. Sarah and Stacey C. Sawyer. Computers, Communications & Information. USA: Irwin McGraw-Hill, 2000.

Haynie W. J. and Richard E. Peterson. The Technology of Communication. USA: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, 1998.53 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Aim To study briefly the history of communication, and the various cultural revolutions that have taken place.

Review 1. Since the dawn of time the attempt to communicate has been a human endeavour. 2. The story of communication is divided into four periods of time i.e. oral, writing, printing and electronic eras.

The Mechanisation of Writing - Birth of Mass Media By 1403, the Koreans make cast metal type (already by 1040 the clay type was invented in China) 1450 - Johann Gutenberg perfects the movable metal type to create the first effective printing techniques in Europe, to usher in the era of print media (with the Gutenberg Bible and other documents). He created a viable way of making multiple copies of written texts at relatively low cost.

1605 - 10 - The first regular newspapers appear in Europe.

1690 - Benjamin Harris prints the first newspaper in America “Public Occurrences”.

1848 - Six New York newspapers join forces to form the Associated Press in an attempt to cut telegraph costs.

The Audio-Visual Revolution This period is very unwieldy... a continuous string of discoveries... it is also difficult to date inventions... new ideas build on old ideas. Invention encourages invention and technology builds on technology.

- 1822 - First photograph by Nicephore Niepce.

- 1824 - The principle of motion pictures is discovered...

- 1839 - Talbot produces a photographic negative, Daguerre and Niepce perfect photograph; photographs appear in journals.

- 1844 - Samuel Morse transmits first message over telegraph.

- 1876 - Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone.

- 1878 - Thomas Alva Edison develops the first phonograph.

- 1894 - Thomas Edison’s Kinetoscope.

- 1895 - Guglielmo Marconi invents the wireless telegraphy.

- 1895 - Auguste and Loius Lumiere project the motion picture.

- 1904 - Flemming develops glass-bulb detector of radio waves.

- 1906 - Vaccum tube is perfected by Lee Deforest, for radio.

- 1915 - First long film “The Birth of the Nation” by D.W. Griffith.

- 1920 - Zworykin resumes television experiment.

- 1927 - First talking picture (The Jazz Singer).

- 1928 - Zworykin patented the first TV system.

- 1938 - Television sets go on sale to public at $600 each (half the price of a new car).

- 1939 - TV broadcast demonstration at New York.

- 1941 - First colour TV image.

- 1942 - Magnetic tape is invented.

- 1943 - Frank Sinatra becomes first pop idol of teenagers.

- 1944 - Program sponsors experiment with TV commercials.

- 1946 - ENIAC, the prototype of modern electronic computers.

- 1947 - Dennis Gabor invents the hologram. - 1948 - Bell Telephone Company invents transistor.

- 1958 - Gordon Gould invents the laser.

- 1962 - Telestar satellite makes live international broadcasting feasible.

- 1975 - Sony introduces home video recording system and VHS follows two years later.

Around 1970 ARPA net (Advanced Research Project Agency) set up the first parts of what would become the internet. Later ARPAnet extended to non-military uses.

CHAPTER 1.10 PARTiCiPAnT’S HAnDouT A Brief History of Communication COMMUNICATOR FOR A CYBER AGE IN AFRICA Bosco Eastern Africa Multimedia Services - BEAMS Publication, Kenya. beams@donbosco.or.ke54 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa History of Print Media 3rd BC Clay Tablets - Babylonia 2500 BC Papyrus Scrolls - Egyptians 104 AD Paper - Chinese 200AD Books - Vellum Codex Replace Scrolls 6th Century AD Block Printing (Book Printing in China) 1450 Printing - Movable Type - Gutenburg 1461 Book Illustration - Woodcut - Pfister Engraving 1889 Haltone - Herald 1562 First Monthly Newspaper in Italy 1594 First Magazine in Germany 1663 Magazines (Professional - Theological) - Grist 1814 Web Fed Rotary Presses (Steam Power) 1842 The Illustrated London News (16 Pages of Letterpress/32 Woodcuts) 1880’s Linotype - Keyboard Typesetting Machines 1936 Life Magazine Founded (Photo Journalism) 1970’s Phototypesetting 1979 US Postal Service Experiments with Electronic Mail 1980 Home Computer Available for Less than $500 1980’s Computer - Desk Top Publishing Systems Reflection Participants group themselves in groups of 6 students and research on the steps that communication development in their ethnic community went through to the present day e.g. from cave drawings to drum beating to community radio.

Relevant Skills Identify how the mass media have affected people’s socio-culture over the years. Compare this with former days when these forms of communication were not present.

Resources BOSCOM-INDIA. ‘SHEPHERDS’ FOR AN INFORMATION AGE. Matunga: Tej Prasarini, 2000.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008. References AMECEA and IMBISA. Basic Human Communication. Nairobi: Paulines Publications Africa, 2000.

Hutchinson E. Sarah and Stacey C. Sawyer. Computers, Communications & Information. USA: Irwin McGraw-Hill, 2000.

Haynie W. J. and Richard E. Peterson. The Technology of Communication. USA: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, 1998.55