Council Resources

COMMUNICATOR for a CYBER AGE in Africa. Bosco Eastern Africa Multimedia Services Kenya Session 2

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COMMUNICATOR for a CYBER AGE in Africa.

Edited by Fr. K D Tom Kunnel sdb Bosco Eastern Africa Multimedia Services (B.E.A.M.S) Salesians of Don Bosco Karen, 00502 Kenya

COMMUNICATOR FOR A CYBER-AGE IN AFRICA TABLE OF CONTENTS

Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa SECTION II CONTENT FOCUS Advanced Models of Communication Biblical Basis for Communication Communication in Liturgy SYLLABUS GUIDEPOST Lay - Secondary School– Form 3 and 4 - Introduction to Catechist Training Religious - Novitiate Priestly Formation - Minor Seminary Year 256 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa 2.1 Intra-Personal Communication 57 2.2 Communication and Self Management 65 2.3 Advanced Models of Communication 72 2.4 Visual Media 77 2.5 Characteristics of an Audio-Visual Culture 87 2.6 A Biblical Framework for Human Communication 92 2.7 Significance of Words According to Scripture 96 2.8 Guidelines for Liturgical Music 100 2.9 Drama in the Liturgy 107 2.10 Dance in the Liturgy 113 SECTION II57 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Procedure Ask each participant to get ready for a short “intra-personal discourse.” (If the group does not seem prepared to share their answers, do not insist on a sharing.) Honesty to self is important.

1. I am……..

2. People call me………………….

3. I prefer the name………….

4. I am.................. years of age 5. I like my self because: 6. I dislike my self because: 7. Read the list below. Mark a tick (α) alongside the details you are happy about and an (X) against the details you wish were different.

I am glad I have - my father - my mother - my brothers - my sisters - my family status - my home - my friends - my neighbourhood - my language - my culture - my religious faith - my family life style - my education 8. I have the following talents… 9. This is my hope and aspiration for the future: I wish to be… Input • As we went through this self-discovery checklist we noticed that there are things we are given as a part of our life, which we cannot change. E.g. our parents, our body, our culture, etc.

• However, there are other areas that we can develop and transform: e.g. our talents, our skills, our capacity to learn more or think more clearly, our ideals and future plans, etc.

• We must strive to develop wherever and whenever an opportunity comes. Alertness to the many opportunities is therefore very important and calls for plenty of risk-taking.

• On the other hand, what should we do with the “givens” in our life? There are plenty of things, areas, situations that we cannot change however hard we try. • In our growth to appreciate and love one another we must first start by appreciating ourselves. This may seem selfish but it could not be truer.

• Love of others begins with love of self. “Love your neighbour as yourself.” (Luke 10:27.) The more we love and appreciate ourselves the better we will love others. The less we love and appreciate ourselves the less we will love others It follows that if we love and appreciate ourselves, and if we love and appreciate others, the better and healthier will our communication with others be.

Aim Materials Required [ To enable the participants to know and appreciate themselves.

[ To enable them realise the importance of self-esteem and love of self that facilitates healthy intra-personal communication.

[ To encourage intra-personal communication. • Provide each participant with the checklist in the procedure.

2.1 Intra - Personal Communication58 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Self-Concept If you have a membership card, for example the admittance to an athletic club and you are also chosen as a member of the track team, you have evidence of your identity as an athlete. You may begin to believe that you have athletic prowess; that belief then becomes an aspect of your self-concept. All of the beliefs and feelings you have about what you can do constitute your self-concept. Certificates help reinforce self-concepts. For example, if you have a newspaper clipping posted on the wall of your bedroom announcing that you are ‘Athlete of the Week’, and you also have a certificate that says you won first place in the region track event, you have documentary support for your belief and feeling about being an athlete. Self-concepts develop from at least two general sources of information: 1. Our own perception of ourselves, and 2. The reactions of others to us (often called the “looking-glass” self.) We get information from what we actually do, from how we feel about what we do, from how we think, we look doing things and from how we think we sound, look, etc. This suggests that you can change your self-concept by doing something new today. A new and different behaviour or experience, of course will provide a positive dimension to your self-concept only if the feelings and perceptions resulting from the experience are positive. That is, if you feel good about what you did and how you looked and sounded, you will derive a boost to your self-concept. On the other hand, the more negative our self- image, the more negative is our self talk and the more negative will our intra-personal communication be.

Parents and Educators have great responsibility of inculcating in their children a positive self-image because their negative remarks can adversely affect intra-personal communication. A retreat (a time of silence where one can get in touch with oneself and one’s God) is an excellent way of developing intra-personal communication.

The Private versus the Public Self Another important communication variable is the relationship between the public self and the private self. This distinction is well illustrated by the Johari Window designed by Joseph Luft and Harrington Ingham. According to psychologists Joseph (Joe) Luft and Harry Ingham, our self is like a window with four sections. Each section stands for a dimension of ourselves as below: Johari Window 1 open (Arena) That which i know And others know 2 Blind That which i don’t know But others know 3 Hidden (Façade) That which i know But others don’t know 4 Dark That which i don’t know And others don’t know If we want to be happy, which section of the window do you think has to be broadened? It is the Open (Arena), of course, because this area makes you free and relaxed in the presence of others, and even with yourself.

The following example will show you how the Johari window applies to a particular communication situation.

Timo and Tony share their reflections after their three months community experience. Timo tells Tony that he had a good time (open) but does not tell him that he has doubts whether to continue in religious life (hidden). Tony senses that Timo is uneasy about his recent experiences although he claims that he is fine (blind). Timo wants to go for a month long retreat. He tells Tony that he wants to think things over (the end decision is the unknown.)59 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Open (Arena) Feedback The ‘Open arena’ can be extended in the following ways: i. By working on the blind area through: a. Skillfully engaging those around me to share their perceptions of me.

b. Behaving in ways that would prompt feedback from others.

ii. By reducing the hidden area through: a. Self-disclosure: volunteering information about myself.

b. Behaving in a manner that encourages others to ask for information about me.

iii. Monitoring our reactions to new experiences e.g. through journalizing, will enable us reduce the ‘unknown’. iv. In fact once the twin processes of feedback and exposure are set in motion this third process will occur naturally, since feedback and exposure builds self acceptance.

v. In this journey, it is important to journey with some mature person or a mentor. This person can give you mature feedback.

I am an Iceberg Exposure Behaviour Feelings Thoughts Beliefs Worldview/Paradigm Trigger60 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa The self is like an iceberg. Only one seventh of an iceberg is actually seen on top of the water. The other six parts are within the water. Similarly, what we see in a person is basically their behaviour. But hidden below this visible behaviour are a whole lot of elements (at least five aspects) that influence the behaviour. Let us understand these elements at a deeper level.

Worldview or Paradigm It is made up of a set of beliefs, that you have accepted as true on the basis of your past experience, reflection and knowledge. It is on the basis of this worldview or paradigm that you interpret all that goes on around you. It is on this basis that you fit in every new experience. E.g. “Others have a big say in my happiness. “ Beliefs Belief is a unit of paradigm that I accept without giving reason to it every time. I know it is just true. E.g. I can be happy only when everyone around likes me.

Trigger When an event occurs, it can act as a trigger to give rise to thoughts, feelings and behaviour on the basis of our beliefs and paradigm. E.g. my roommate spoke harshly to me.

Thought Thoughts are particular stimuli that are happening in our mind, as rational realities. We basically think in terms of pictures in the mind or through self talk. Often we are not really aware of our thoughts. They automatically flow from our beliefs reacting to a particular situation. E.g. my roommate does not like me. Why does he/she not like me? Maybe he/she is judging me because of what I said yesterday. Maybe my enemy has reported something… Feelings Influenced by our thoughts, feelings denote an emotional state. E.g. I feel angry towards my roommate.

Behaviour Influenced by our thoughts and feelings, behaviour is the way we respond to the external world – people and things. E.g. I cannot sleep tonight. Next morning, I shout back at my roommate.

If we understand that our external behaviour is influenced by our paradigms, beliefs, thoughts and beliefs, then how can I handle myself? 1. I need to constantly review my paradigms and beliefs. If I am constantly unhappy, if I am not effective in my daily life, in the way I deal with myself, in the way I deal with people and the world around me, I am probably living with too many anomalies (contradicting paradigms) in myself. This calls for a review. 2. I need to take control of my thoughts. Not allowing myself to become a slave of the triggers (events that happen around me.) I need to constantly monitor my self-talk. I need to monitor the pictures that are running in my head. If I have positive self-talk, my feelings and behaviours can also be positive. You can say, for example, that in the next 24 hours I will constantly monitor my thoughts and see if I can encourage positive self talk.

3. To bring about change in your mind, and subsequently in your behaviour, you can begin with your body because the mind and body work in unity. For example, on a day that you don’t feel very fresh, you will tend to sit in very relaxed and inattentive manner. This may cause a feeling of depression. To regulate this, try washing your face with cold water and then sitting straight. Your mind will wake up.

4. Journal writing and sharing with a soul friend about the aspects of your paradigms and beliefs can help a great deal in understanding yourself and moving towards growth.

In conclusion, intra-personal communication is important because it helps us become aware of our worth and dignity in order to be able to discover the same in others. Our self-communication, though private, is the basis for a healthy communication with the world around us.

Where are your Roots? Rooted in Layer 1: For some people the root could be at the level of “Where Am I?” They may draw their self-identity from their family background or their ethnicity, etc. In such a situation, when their ethnicity is threatened they feel that their self is threatened. A plant rooted in the outer layer dries very fast.

Rooted in Layer 2: For others, their root may be in their talents and skills, in their qualities and characters – in the layer of “How Am I?” Though this layer is deeper than the level of Where Am I, it is not deep enough. Hence, inability to use their talents or the limitations of their personalities may sometimes paralyse these individuals.61 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Rooted in Layer 3: A healthy base for the self is a deep appreciation of the mystery and the uniqueness of the self. This level asks, “Who am I?” It is an awareness that, after all, I am more than all the paraphernalia (decorations) that I put around my self. I am distinct from the roles I play. When the plant of my self-image is rooted in this deeper layer, I am at peace with myself all the time. It not only becomes easy to accept other people’s reaction towards me, but I also keep growing towards becoming my best self. The creation story in the book of Genesis tells us that we are all created in the image of God. It is in this third layer that we are in the image of God (Imago Dei). The implication of this is that when we become more and more aware of this inner self, we become more and more aware of who God is. Secondly, basing our self-worth at this deeper layer gives us a strong self-esteem that flows from the fact that God is unchangeable. This rooted-ness leads us to a deeper appreciation of other people too. We appreciate that they too are created in the image of God.

Self Esteem in Africa International literature consistently links violence to low self-esteem and “fragile self-concepts”. This study is especially true in South Africa where violence is rampant. Although at one stage analysts believed that aggression may be linked to high self-esteem, this has since been refuted by research which finds that aggression is associated with a type of insecure and easily threatened inflated self-image which is underpinned by anxiety about one’s worth or status. In effect, it is a sign of a disguised low self-esteem. Any disagreement or criticism, or even a perceived lack of consideration, may be experienced as undermining and threatening to one’s self-image, thus provoking aggression. Low self-esteem on its own then is not a predictor of violence. But the roots of violence are often found in mental- emotional states which serve as a psychological defense or compensation for low self-esteem. Perhaps the most important of these for understanding why people react very aggressively to minor insults (whether real or perceived), is a state of mind, dominated by low self-esteem, which is associated with an inflated idea of one’s own worth or status. Review 1. Intra-personal communication is a process in which messages are sent and received within an individual.

2. In life, there are things that we are given by God that we cannot change and things which we can do something about like our skills and talents. These we must strive to develop with the opportunities that come our way.

3. To appreciate and love another, we must first appreciate and love ourselves.

4. Once we love and appreciate ourselves and others, our inter-personal communication becomes healthy.

5. When a healthy person engages in self-talk, they boost their self-confidence and in turn improve their inter- personal relationships.

6. Parents and educators have a big responsibility to develop healthy intra-personal relationships so as to develop in their children a healthy self-concept.

7. Our self is like a window with four sections. Each section stands for a dimension of ourselves - the open, blind, hidden and dark sections.

8. To be happy, we need to broaden the open section of ourselves.

9. The ‘Open arena’ can be extended by: working on the blind area, reducing the hidden area and monitoring our reactions to new experiences.

10. The self is like an iceberg. Only one seventh of it is seen on top of the water. Similarly, what we see in a person is their behaviour but hidden below this visible behaviour are other elements that influence the behaviour. They include: behaviour itself, feelings, thoughts, beliefs and worldview also known as paradigm.

11. Aggression is often associated with a type of insecure and easily threatened inflated self-image which is underpinned by anxiety about one’s worth or status which results in a disguised low self-esteem. Reflection Here is an exercise: Imagine you were John. Below we explain John’s self-image. Can you provide the self-talk that must be going on in John’s mind with regard to: • His self-image? • His inter-personal communication? John is a college student in a top-rate college. He joined the campus after completing his high school studies. However, he is not comfortable with himself. He notices that he is not as talented as the other boys in the campus and constantly puts himself down on his abilities although others think that he is equally talented. 62 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Although several of his friends and family have complemented him for his designs, he is not convinced that they are good enough to enter the competition let alone win it. However, due to pressure from his friends, he plucks up courage and decides to give the competition a try. His self-talk however does not change and he constantly doubts himself. The outcome could be: 1. Positive: His designs win the competition.

2. Negative: He fails to secure a place among the winners.

How would John interpret to himself the two responses? HinT: At the second response, his belief that he is not as talented as the other boys may be reinforced and he may blame himself for ever wanting to give the competition a shot. (Can you guess the self-talk?) At the first response, he will be delighted. The self talk would probably be like this: The judges were kind enough to select my design as the best. They probably don’t have much experience and their judgement is therefore not competent or, the chief judge is a good friend of my father’s, he was probably doing me a favour by selecting me as the winner. The question we need to ask John is this: How long will your lack of self-esteem continue to dominate your negative and self-depreciating intra-personal relationship which is giving rise to an unhealthy self-concept? And if you decide to pursue design as a career, won’t your unhealthy self-concept keep you from believing in your ability and doing your best? Relevant Skills a) Repeat the self knowledge exercise after the procedure individually and as honestly as possible. Resolve to think positively about yourself and to build your self-esteem.

b) Repeat to yourself many times a day, “I am loveable and capable and God made me so.” Resources BOSCOM-INDIA. ‘SHEPHERDS’ FOR AN INFORMATION AGE. Matunga: Tej Prasarini, 2000.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008. Reference Barker L. Larry. Communication. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1978.

Pace R. Wayn, Brent D Peterson and Burnett M. Dallas. Techniques for Effective Communication. Philippines: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1979.63 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Aim • To know and appreciate oneself.

• To encourage healthy intra-personal communication.

• To realise the importance of self-esteem and love of self that facilitates healthy intra-personal communication.

Procedure Get ready for a short “intra-personal discourse” Honesty to self is important.

1. I am……..

2. People call me………………….

3. I prefer the name………….

4. I am........................years of age 5. I like my self because: 6. I dislike my self because: 7. Read the list below. Mark a tick (α) alongside the details you are happy about and an (X) against the details you wish were different.

I am glad I have - my father - my mother - my brothers - my sisters - my family status - my home - my friends - my neighbourhood - my language - my culture - my religious faith - my family life style - my education 8. I have the following talents… 9. This is my hope and aspiration for the future: I wish to be… Review 1. Intra-personal communication is the process in which messages are sent and received within an individual.

2. In life, there are things that we are given by God that we cannot change and things which we can do something about like our skills and talents. These we must strive to develop with the opportunities that come our way, while accepting what we cannot change.

3. To appreciate and love another, we must first appreciate and love ourselves.

4. Once we love and appreciate ourselves and others, our inter-personal communication becomes healthy.

5. When a healthy person engages in self-talk, they boost their self-confidence and in turn improve their inter- personal relationships.

6. Parents and educators have a big responsibility to develop healthy intra-personal relationships so as to develop in their young ones a healthy self-concept.

7. Our self is like a window with four sections. Each section stands for a dimension of ourselves – the open, blind, hidden and dark sections.

8. To be happy, we need to broaden the open section of ourselves.

9. The ‘Open arena’ can be extended by: working on the blind area, reducing the hidden area and monitoring our reactions to new experiences.

10. The self is like an iceberg. Only one seventh of it is seen on top of the water. Similarly, what we see in a person is their behaviour but hidden below this visible behaviour are other elements that influence the behaviour. They include: Behaviour itself, feelings, thoughts, beliefs and worldview also known as paradigm.

11. Aggression is often associated with a type of insecure and easily threatened inflated self-image which is underpinned by anxiety about one’s worth or status which results in a disguised low self-esteem. CHAPTER 2.1 PARTiCiPAnT’S HAnDouT Intra - Personal Communication COMMUNICATOR FOR A CYBER AGE IN AFRICA Bosco Eastern Africa Multimedia Services - BEAMS Publication, Kenya. beams@donbosco.or.ke64 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Reflection Here is an exercise: Imagine you are John. Below we explain John’s self-image. Can you provide the self-talk that must be going on in John’s mind with regard to: • His self-image? • His inter-personal communication? John is a college student in a top-rate college. He joined the campus after completing his high school studies. However, he is not comfortable with himself. He notices that he is not as talented as the other boys in the campus and constantly puts himself down on his abilities although others think that he is equally talented. Although several of his friends and family have complemented him for his designs, he is not convinced that they are good enough to enter the competition let alone win it. However, due to pressure from his friends, he plucks up courage and decides to give the competition a try. His self-talk however does not change and he constantly doubts himself. The outcome could be: 1. Positive: His designs win the competition.

2. Negative: He fails to secure a place among the winners.

How would John interpret to himself the two responses? Relevant Skills a) Repeat the self knowledge exercise after the procedure individually and as honestly as possible. Resolve to think positively about yourself and to build your self-esteem.

b) Repeat to yourself many times a day, “I am loveable and capable and God made me so.” Resources BOSCOM-INDIA. ‘SHEPHERDS’ FOR AN INFORMATION AGE. Matunga: Tej Prasarini, 2000.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008. Reference Barker L. Larry. Communication. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1978.

Pace R. Wayn, Brent D Peterson and Burnett M. Dallas. Techniques for Effective Communication. Philippines: Addison- Wesley Publishing Company, 1979.65 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Procedure • Ask the participants to complete this picture • Now let them share their picture. Make no comments.

• Many will draw trees, roads, houses in the distance, people passing by. The essential things that need to be included are: a driver and the reins leading to the horse. This, however should not be told to the participants • Ask them to put away their drawings while they listen to you.

Input • African scholars regard African concepts of the individual and self to be almost totally dependent on and subordinate to social entities and cultural processes. Kenyan theology professor John S. Mbiti, for example, believes that the individual has little latitude for self determination outside the context of the traditional African family and community. He writes: “Whatever happens to the individual happens to the whole group, and whatever happens to the whole group happens to the individual. The individual can only say: ‘I am, because we are; and since we are, therefore I am. ‘’This is a cardinal point in the understanding of the African view of man” (1969:109) • Developing positive self-images and self-discipline is a prerequisite for the effective education of African children. However, the following factors have had a negative influence on their development: (1) chronic unemployment and underemployment; (2) the changing concept of childhood; (3) elitism; (4) low expectations; and (5) lack of commitment to educating all children; • The following institutions should strive to emphasize African images that are instrumental in developing self-esteem in African children: (1) the home; (2) the peer group; (3) media; (4) the school; and (5) the church.

• If knowing and accepting our identity (who we are and what our purpose is in life) is important, all the more important is the knowledge of how we ought to discipline and manage ourselves. This self-management is a way of allowing our self-talk to link up with decision making and action.

• Simply knowing our identity and accepting it does not automatically mean that we will follow and live by the principles we know to be true. Simply ‘self-talking’ may never lead us to getting ourselves to decide on what is Aim Materials Required [ To emphasise self-management (self discipline) as an important form of intra-personal communication. [ An outline drawing of a horse pulling a cart without a driver.

2.2 Communication and Self-Management66 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa to be done. We instead have to discipline our wills daily to live by our principles and our values. Mechanical instruments for example are designed for a particular purpose and automatically serve that purpose till their guarantee is over. • Because we have the capacity of human freedom, we have a choice to make the right moves or to make the wrong choices in life. Our wrong choices could be disastrous since they could go counter to our very purpose in life. They could be harmful to the fulfilling of our tasks and duties as human beings. We therefore need to develop healthy intra-personal communication questions that affect self-discipline, or better, self-management. We need to trim, shape, plan and make sacrifices for our choices so that we do not waste our energies in pursuing the wrong things. Here are some intra-personal communication questions that affect self-management: 1. What is my Aim in Life? Having known who we are – our past (history, culture, heritage…) our present (gifts, talents…) we need to know where we are headed. If life is a gift given freely to us, it is our responsibility to use it well. We need to chalk out our aim. • The question we must ask is “Who do I want to be?” which is not the same as saying “What do I want to do?” This is a question about character formation. It is fundamental to life. It is the primary question on which all other choices rest – even the answer to the second question.

• “What do I want to do?” This is a question about qualifications, careers, choice of profession, etc.

2. What Assets do i Have to Reach my Goal? • I can answer this question only after I have asked the questions below: 3. Who do i Want to Be? - What Assets do i Have to be the Person i Want to be? • Here one will require looking at the personality development training one has already received through upbringing, education, training etc. What are the situations one has gone through that have helped to shape one’s character? Sometimes past mistakes can be reflected upon in such a way that they become stepping stones to a better life. With hindsight, these too may be seen as assets.

4. What do i Want to do? What Assets do i Have to Reach There? • Here one would have to check out one’s capabilities and talents. What does one like doing best, how well does one do it? How many people have shaped and encouraged one’s capabilities in the direction of one’s goal? It is important to note that choosing what one wishes to do in life comes after considerable experience and exposure to many choices. For example, it would be unwise to decide while one is in the 5 th standard, what one wishes to do in life and pursue only that line of action. As one grows out of school more choices and avenues open up and the focus on what one wishes to do must take into consideration these experiences in order to arrive at a mature decision.

The importance of Self-Discipline: • If one wishes to fulfill one’s aim in life, if one wants to arrive at the target one has set for one’s self, the path is self-discipline. The blinkers on a horse and the reins held by the driver are a wonderful example to illustrate our point.

• The blinkers are checks to enable the horse see only the road ahead and not be distracted or frightened by the goings-on around. The reins direct the horse towards its particular destination.

• In our life too, we need blinkers and reins. When we were young others put them on for us and others held the reins for us. These are our parents, guardians and our educators. They decide for us, to enable us take the right step, to make the right move, to follow the road that leads to our destination. Obviously, this is a task of great responsibility.

• But as we grow older – as we enter into adolescence they leave us more and more to ourselves. We do not want them to “interfere” as we need to learn how to manage our “horse-carriage”, our life, by ourselves. However, our decisions still affect them and the larger community and the responsibility to make wise decisions is left in our hands. We never really do away with them.

• Only the foolish, the unwise rush in to remove the “blinkers” and throw away the “reins”. They are the ones who do not bother about self-discipline. They are the ones who want to “have fun” while there is time. But they are also the ones who make a mess of their lives – lost in the myriad of distractions on the many wrong roads they have taken.

Manage Your Stress As we pursue our life goals, we will come across moments when we will experience stress from our workload, internal problems, our environments, roadblocks along the way etc. To continue on our journey, we will have to learn how to manage the stress effectively and to protect ourselves from the consequences of unmanaged stress.67 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa To protect ourselves from the risks of being unable to manage stress, we can practice stress management skills. Stress management skills are techniques that can be used to cope with the harmful effects produced by stress. There are two types of stress management skills. The first type of skills focus on doing something about the cause of our stress while the second type focus on keeping our bodies healthy and relieving anxiety.

Physical Care: Eating a Healthy Diet Eating a well-balanced diet is always wise, but it is especially important when you are stressed. During the alarm stage of stress, adrenaline is secreted into the bloodstream. When adrenaline is secreted, your body uses vitamins B and C. It is very important that you obtain sources of these vitamins. Vitamin B is found in foods such as whole grain cereals, rice, legumes, and breads. Vitamin C is found in foods such as oranges, grapefruit, tomatoes, limes, lemons, and broccoli. Reduce Caffeine Caffeine is a stimulant drug that increases the rate of bodily activities. Caffeine is found in coffee, tea, cola beverages, and chocolate. Because bodily activities are already increased during the stress response, it is helpful to avoid caffeine when you are stressed. Getting Enough Rest and Sleep Without rest and sleep you will find it difficult to reduce your stress levels. You may feel irritable, exhausted, and anxious. When you are resting, your blood pressure lowers and heart rate slows. Your muscles relax, and your body has a chance to rest. After getting enough sleep, you feel invigorated and ready to face the day’s challenges. Many people need to have at least nine hours of sleep each night to function at their best.

Participating in Physical Activities Physical activities such as running, walking, swimming, rollerblading, and playing basketball can help reduce stress. Vigorous physical activity relieves tension by providing a physical outlet for the energy that builds up with stress.

When you are physically fit, you recover from the effects of stress more quickly. You are less likely to develop diseases because of stress. Improved physical fitness levels have been linked to a decrease in the severity of the stress response, a shorter recovery time from stress, and improved resistance to disease. Effective Life Skills: Using a Time Management Plan Have a list of things you are expected to do in a week. Then translate them into a daily action plan. If you think they are too many to be done within a given time, reduce them by making alternatives, seeking help, and explaining to those you had promised.

Using Decision-Making Skills Avoid procrastination. Use proactive decision making skills – foresee a situation and solve it before it becomes an issue.

Having Close Friend(s) Having close friends helps one cope with stress. When you are with close friends, you can share your feelings and experiences without being judged. Your close friends will listen and offer suggestions on ways to handle the situations that are causing stress. They may share similar experiences. Often, just having close friends listen can make you feel better and reduce stress.

Talking with Parents and Other Adults you trust. You can express thoughts, feelings, and concerns with parents and other caring and trustworthy adults. They listen and are supportive. They can help you develop useful ways to solve the problem that is causing stress. Helping Others There are many ways that you can help others. You might tutor a younger student, volunteer at a nursing home, or help an elderly person in your neighbourhood. When you are stressed, helping others gives you a different outlook. You feel useful because you are able to help. This results in a feeling that has been called a “helper’s high.” Helping people less fortunate than yourself can make stressful situations seem less important. 68 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Change Your Outlook Reframing is changing your outlook in order to see a situation in a more positive way. Changing your outlook helps to turn life’s obstacles into challenges. For example, your family may move into a new school district. Instead of being stressed because you have left your friends, you feel challenged and look forward to making new friends. Keeping a Sense of Humour A good laugh is a positive way to manage stress. Heart rate, blood pressure rate, and muscular tension drop below normal levels after a hearty laugh. As a result you feel more relaxed. The greatest benefit of humour is its ability to alter your outlook.

Soup for the Soul Since human beings are physical, emotional, psychological and spiritual beings, try the following solutions to have that “good feeling”: a) Write a Journal Writing about your stress is a healthy way to express your feelings and may help you work through your stress. Try to find a quiet place where you can write your journal. The easiest way to start a journal is simply to write about issues that concern you today. Writing a journal has been shown to elevate the number of Helper-T cells in the body. You may want to share what you have written with someone you trust. b) Meditation or Using Breathing Techniques Spend some time every day to quieten yourself. When you feel stressed, your body begins the stress response. Your body gets ready for an emergency. It can be helpful to reverse this response and calm yourself. You can breathe in deeply and breathe out for some minutes every day. You may combine this with repeating a verse from the Bible.

c) Make Use of the Sacrament of Reconciliation The Sacrament of Reconciliation is a powerful means of unburdening yourself, especially to avoid stress caused by guilt. As a sacrament, it mediates grace, but it is also comparable to a psychological tool of counseling. d) Have a Spiritual Director Together with the sacrament of reconciliation, spiritual direction is another way of dealing with stress, and proceeding on with your growth process. In spiritual direction you share things that affect your daily life – your relationship with yourself, others and with God. You are not obliged to share matters of conscience, as you do in confession. Review 1. The individual has little latitude for self determination outside the context of the traditional African family and community.

2. Developing positive self-images and self-discipline is a prerequisite for the effective education of African children. 3. Factors that have had a negative influence on the development of African children: (1) chronic unemployment and under-employment; (2) the changing concept of childhood; (3) elitism; (4) low expectations; and (5) lack of commitment to educating all children.

4. Self-management is a way of allowing our self-talk to link up with decision making and action.

5. Effective life-skills such as use of a time management plan, using responsible decision making skills, talking with parents and other trusted adults, helping others etc. help one to manage stress and live a more balanced life.

Reflection Do you know of someone whose decisions have caused his family a lot of pain? E.g. through irresponsible drinking, drunk driving, theft? The fact is that whether or not we take a hold of our reins, our decisions still affect our community. Reflect on ways we can strengthen our self-discipline to be able to make more responsible decisions about our lives.

Relevant Skills a) Reflect on who you would want to become. Set goals and state how you will pursue them.

b) Reflect on past experiences, both good and bad. How have they shaped your character?69 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Resources BOSCOM-INDIA. ‘SHEPHERDS’ FOR AN INFORMATION AGE. Matunga: Tej Prasarini, 2000.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008. References www.africa.ufl.edu www.webporta.com70 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Aim • To emphasise self-management (self discipline) as an important form of intra-personal communication.

Procedure • Participants please complete this picture Soup for the Soul Since human beings are physical, emotional, psychological and spiritual beings, try the following solutions to have that “good feeling”: a) Write in a Journal Writing about your stress is a healthy way to express your feelings and may help you work through your stress. Try to find a quiet place where you can write in your journal. The easiest way to start a journal is simply to write about issues that concern you today. Writing a journal has been shown to elevate the number of Helper-T cells in the body. You may want to share what you have written with someone you trust. b) Meditation or Just Using Breathing Techniques Spend some time every day to quieten yourself. When you feel stressed, your body begins the stress response. Your body gets ready for an emergency. It can be helpful to reverse this response and calm yourself. You can breathe in deeply and breathe out for some minutes every day. You may combine this with repeating a verse from the Bible.

c) Make Use of the Sacrament of Reconciliation The Sacrament of Reconciliation is a powerful means of unburdening yourself, especially to avoid stress caused by guilt. As a sacrament, it mediates grace, but it is also comparable to a psychological tool of counseling. d) Have a Spiritual Director Together with the sacrament of reconciliation, spiritual direction is another way of dealing with stress, and proceeding on with your growth process. In spiritual direction you share things that affect your daily life – your relationship with yourself, others and with God. You are not obliged to share matters of conscience, as you do in confession. Review 1. The individual has little latitude for self determination outside the context of the traditional African family and community.

2. Developing positive self-images and self-discipline is a prerequisite for the effective education of African children. 3. Factors that have had a negative influence on the development of African children: (1) chronic unemployment and under-employment; (2) the changing concept of childhood; (3) elitism; (4) low expectations; and (5) lack of commitment to educating all children.

CHAPTER 2.2 PARTiCiPAnT’S HAnDouT Communication and Self-Management COMMUNICATOR FOR A CYBER AGE IN AFRICA Bosco Eastern Africa Multimedia Services - BEAMS Publication, Kenya. beams@donbosco.or.ke71 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa 4. Self-management is a way of allowing our self-talk to link up with decision making and action.

5. Effective life-skills such as use of a time management plan, using responsible decision making skills, talking with parents and other trusted adults, helping others etc. help one to manage stress and live a more balanced life.

Reflection Do you know of someone whose decisions have caused his family a lot of pain? E.g. through irresponsible drinking, drunk driving, theft? The fact is that whether or not we take a hold of our reins, our decisions still affect our community. Reflect on ways we can strengthen our self-discipline to be able to make more responsible decisions about our lives.

Relevant Skills a) Reflect on who you would want to become. Set goals and do your best to pursue them.

b) Reflect on past experiences, both good and bad. How have they shaped your character? Resources BOSCOM-INDIA. ‘SHEPHERDS’ FOR AN INFORMATION AGE. Matunga: Tej Prasarini, 2000.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008. References www.africa.ufl.edu www.webporta.com72 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Input Whether we realise it or not, we are using models every time we try to systematically think about, visualise or discuss any structure or process be it past, present or future. The effectiveness of such activity will depend in large measure on how well our model fits the thing we are supposedly modelling. In this chapter, the structures and processes we are interested in modelling have to do with how humans communicate, especially with the mass media. This can be the way one individual deals with reality within his own mind, how a newspaper, television network, advertising agency or information office is structured and functions, how information flows in a society, or how innovations are adopted or rejected in a social system.

A model may be defined as “a theoretical and simplified representation of the real world.” Or a structure of symbols and operating rules which are supposed to match a set of relevant points in an existing structure or process. In this session, we shall take up only some very basic examples. (Severin and Tankard, 1979) a) Lasswell’s model was the first. It allows for many general applications in mass communication. He implies that more than one channel can carry a message. The “who” raises the question of the control of the messages as for example the gate-keeper. The “says what” is the subject of content analysis e.g. the studies of the portrayal of minorities in the media. Communication channels are studies in media analysis. “To who” deals with the receiver and audience analysis. “With what effect” is the result of the audience receiving the message. Lasswel’s model has been criticised because it seems to imply the presence of a communicator and a purposive message. It has also been termed as oversimplified, but, as with any good model, it focused attention on important aspects of communication. (Severin and Tankard, 1979) Aim Materials Required [ To study the development of communication through a selection of models created by communication scientists . [ Present the models given in the input and comment on each with the help of the input provided.

2.3 Advanced Models of Communication73 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa b) Braddock: Extends the Lasswell Formula to emphasise other complex features of the communication process, viz. the circumstance, purpose and feedback.

c) Shannon and Weaver: In this model the information source produces a message to be communicated out of a set of possible messages. The message may consist of spoken or written words, or music, pictures, etc. The transmitter converts the message to a signal suitable for the channel to be used. The channel is the medium which transmits the signal from transmitter to receiver. In conversation the information source is the brain, the transmitter is the voice mechanism producing the signal (spoken words) transmitted through the air (the channel). The receiver performs the inverse operation of the transmitter by reconstructing the message from the signal. The destination is the person or thing for whom the message is intended. Other major contributions of Shannon and Weaver are the concepts of a message composed of entropy and redundancy and the necessary balance between them for efficient communication while offsetting noise in a channel. The more noise in a channel, the greater the need for redundancy, which reduces the relative entropy of the message. For example, the wireless telegrapher transmitting in a noisy channel repeats key portions of the message to ensure reception. By using redundancy to overcome the noise in the channel, the amount of information which can be transmitted in a given time is reduced (Severin and Tankard, 1979).

d) Schramm’s mass communication model: shows the production and distribution of messages to a mass audience. The audience receives the message, having interpreted and decoded it, within its social groups which in turn encode, interpret and decode the message received. The feedback received by the sender is inferred or indirectly obtained through news sources.74 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa e) John and Matilda Riley: pose a model in which the process of communication is an integral part of the social system. Both the Communicator and the recipient are affected by the three social orders, namely: the primary group(s) of which they are members, the larger social structure (the immediate community-social cultural, industrial) to which they belong and the overall social system. All these are in dynamic interaction, with messages flowing multi-directionally. Thus the C and R are neither passive nor isolated but are related and their messages are patterned in terms of these relationships.

f) Maletzke’s model: of the mass communication process is extremely useful because of its comprehensiveness and the complex interaction of the factors at play. The self-image of the communicator corresponds with that of the receiver. Both act upon and are influenced by the Message which is itself constrained by the dictates of the Medium chosen. To add to the complexity, the message is influenced by the communicator’s image of the receiver’s image of the communicator. Maletzke’s is a model suggesting that in the communication process, many shoulders are being looked over. The more the shoulders, the more compromises, the more adjustments.

Thus not only is the communicator taking into due regard the medium and the nature of the audience, and perceiving these things through the filter of self-image and personality structure, he or she is also keenly responsive to other factors - the communication team, with its own special set of values and professional practices. Beyond the team, there is the organisation which in turn has to look over its shoulder towards government or the general public.

Just as the communicator is a member of a team within an organisational environment, so the receiver is part of a larger context of reception. He or she is subject to influences other than the media message. Those influences may start in the living room of a family home, and the influencers might be the viewer’s or reader’s family, but there are contextual influences beyond that - in the pub, at work, in the community. The complexity suggests an almost limitless interaction of variables which indicates the enormous difficulty faced by research into mass media and its effects.75 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Review 1. Lasswell’s model implies that more than one channel can carry a message. It has been criticised because it seems to imply the presence of a communicator and a purposive message. It has also been termed as oversimplified.

2. Braddock extends Lasswell’s Formula to emphasise other complex features of the mass communication process. 3. Shannon and Weaver introduce the concept of a message composed of entropy and redundancy and the necessary balance between them for efficient communication while offsetting noise in the channel.

4. Wilber Schramm deals with communication as an interaction between two parties. There is also feedback and the continuous ‘loop’ of shared information.

5. Schramm’s mass communication model depicts how messages are sent and received from a mass audience.

6. John and Riley present a communication model in which the process of communication is an integral part of the social system. Both the communicator and the recipient are affected by the three social orders: the primary group, the larger social group and the overall social system.

7. Maletzke’s model is quite resourceful because of its comprehensiveness and the complexity of factors at play. Reflection The overall social system affects decisions made at the primary group level (Family level). In terms of your life vocation, how are your decisions affected by the overall social system? Relevant Skills Observe the traditional setting of an elderly grandmother telling folk-tales to her grandchildren. Construct a representative model of communication based on this. In what ways is it similar to the models you have already studied? In what ways is it different? Resources BOSCOM-INDIA. ‘SHEPHERDS’ FOR AN INFORMATION AGE. Matunga: Tej Prasarini, 2000.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008. References Severine J. Werner and James W. Tankard Jr. Communication Theories. Toronto: Copp Clark Ltd., 1992.76 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Aim • To study the development of communication through a selection of models created by communication scientists Review 1. Lasswell’s model implies that more than one channel can carry a message. It has been criticised because it seems to imply the presence of a communicator and a purposive message. It has also been termed as oversimplified.

2. Braddock extends Lasswell’s Formula to emphasise other complex features of the mass communication process. 3. Shannon and Weaver introduce the concept of a message composed of entropy and redundancy and the necessary balance between them for efficient communication while offsetting noise in the channel.

4. Wilber Schramm deals with communication as an interaction between two parties. There is also feedback and the continuous ‘loop’ of shared information.

5. Schramm’s mass communication model depicts how messages are sent and received from a mass audience.

6. John and Riley present a communication model in which the process of communication is an integral part of the social system. Both the communicator and the recipient are affected by the three social orders: the primary group, the larger social group and the overall social system.

7. Maletzke’s model is quite resourceful because of its comprehensiveness and the complexity of factors at play. Reflection The overall social system affects decisions made at the primary group level (Family level). In terms of your life vocation, how are your decisions affected by the overall social system? Relevant Skills Observe the traditional setting of an elderly grandmother telling folk-tales to her grandchildren. Construct a representative model of communication based on this. In what ways is it similar to the models you have already studied? In what ways is it different? Resources BOSCOM-INDIA. ‘SHEPHERDS’ FOR AN INFORMATION AGE. Matunga: Tej Prasarini, 2000.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008. References Severine J. Werner and James W. Tankard Jr. Communication Theories. Toronto: Copp Clark Ltd., 1992.

CHAPTER 2.3 PARTiCiPAnT’S HAnDouT Advanced Models of Communication COMMUNICATOR FOR A CYBER AGE IN AFRICA Bosco Eastern Africa Multimedia Services - BEAMS Publication, Kenya. beams@donbosco.or.ke77 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Input introduction Visual communication is the conveyance of ideas and information in forms that can be read or looked upon. Primarily associated with two dimensional images, it includes art, signs, photography, typography, drawing, graphic design, illustration, colour and electronic resources. The National Education Association of the US has pointed out that western civilisation has become more dependent than ever on visual culture, visual artifacts and visual communication as a mode of discourse and a means of developing social and cultural identity. And Africa is not left far behind in this respect. This can be seen in the content of magazines and books as well as documentaries. What’s more intriguing is that there is evidence to suggest that people not only communicate visually now more than ever, they also communicate better when they communicate visually. This is an important revelation to those who create presentations for work or education.

Psychologist Jerome Bruner of New York University described studies that show that people only remember 10% of what they hear and 20% of what they read, but about 70% of what they see and do.

In this chapter, we shall look at the forms of visual media as well as a history of our African visual media and alternative media.

Alternative Media Alternative media are also called group media as distinguished from mass media. These forms of media are easy to use, cheap and pertain to local issues. They are alternative forms of exercising change and social transformation in society and operate at the grass-root levels. In this sense they are democratic and liberating - as opposed to mass media that are centrally controlled and that communicate the message that the sender considers important. In this chapter, we will explore traditional African art and the various forms of alternative media. The choice of media selected and the duration of the period will be left to the discretion of the educator. History of African Art African art constitutes one of the most diverse legacies on world over. Though many casual observers tend to generalize “traditional” African art, the continent is full of peoples, societies, and civilizations, each with a unique visual special culture. The definition also includes the art of the African Diasporas, such as the art of African Americans. Despite this diversity, there are some unifying artistic themes when considering the totality of the visual culture from the continent of Africa. These are: * Emphasis on the human figure: The human figure is the primary subject matter for most African art. In historical periods involving trade between Africa and Europe, the introduction of the human body into existing European pottery and other art forms can reliably be taken as evidence of contact with African cultures. For example in the fifteenth century Portugal traded with the Sapi culture near the Ivory Coast in West Africa, who created elaborate ivory salt Aim Materials Required [ To learn alternative ways of communicating through low-cost visual media.

[ To help participants learn the basic techniques of visualisation in order to give their communication greater impact.

[ Paper and Pen.

[ A number of examples to exhibit and explain the points stated in the input.

2.4 Visual Media78 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa cellars that were hybrids of African and European designs, most notably in the addition of the human figure (the human figure typically did not appear in Portuguese salt cellars). * Visual abstraction: African artworks tend to favor visual abstraction over naturalistic representation. This is because many African artworks, regardless of medium, tend to represent objects or ideas rather than depict them. Art in modern day Nigeria usually thought of as naturalistic representations of rulers, has actually been smoothed and simplified in an effort to abstract and generalize stylistic norms. Ancient Egyptian art, also usually thought of as naturalistically depictive, makes use of highly abstracted and regimented visual meaning, especially in painting, as well as the use of different colors to represent the qualities and characteristics of an individual being depicted. * Emphasis on sculpture: African artists tend to favor three-dimensional artworks over two-dimensional works. Even many African paintings or cloth works were meant to be experienced three-dimensionally. House paintings are often seen as a continuous design wrapped around a house, forcing the viewer to walk around the work to experience it fully; while decorated cloths are worn as decorative or ceremonial garments, transforming the wearer into a living sculpture. * Emphasis on performance art: An extension of the utilitarianism and three-dimensionality of traditional African art is the fact that much of it is crafted for use in performance contexts, rather than in static ones. For example, masks and costumes very often are used in communal, ceremonial contexts, where they are “danced.” Most societies in Africa have names for their masks, but this single name incorporates not only the sculpture, but also the meanings of the mask, the dance associated with it, and the spirits that reside within. In African thought, the three cannot be differentiated.

ELEMEnTS oF ViSuALiSATion There are three key elements in any visualisation: Design, Visual Tools and Lettering.

A) DESiGn: Four principles constitute design aesthetics.

1. Simplicity: The fewer elements into which a given space is divided, the more pleasing it is to the eye. Only key details should be mentioned. That which is important must be outlined with a heavy line - other details can be added in thinner lines. However, note that too many lines could confuse your audience.

2. unity: The design must not be scattered but must show coherence. Devices like arrows, overlapping, etc. can help.

3. Emphasis: Though a theme may be developed in the same space, the basic message must attract attention and interest. Through the use of size, relationships, perspective and such visual tools as colour, space, etc., emphasis can be given to the most important elements.

4. Balance: Your board may be arranged symmetrically (formally) or asymmetrically (informally). The first suggests neatness, order and is static. The second is attractive and dynamic. Lettering arranged symmetrically conveys solemnity while the latter conveys energy and movement.

The Eight Principles of organisation 1. Harmony: This is pulling together of opposing forces by giving them all some common element(s) such as colour, texture, value, and others. The repetition or continued introduction of the same device or element reconciles that opposition.

2. Variety: While an artist might bring a work together with harmony, it is with variety that he or she achieves individuality and interest. Interest in this instant refers to the ability to arouse curiosity and to hold a viewer’s attention. If an artist achieves complete equality of visual forces, the work usually will be balanced, but it may also be static, lifeless, and unemotional. Visual boredom is an indication of an overly harmonious composition. By adding variation to the visual forces, the artist introduces essential ingredients such as diversion or change for enduring attention.

3. Balance: Most art works are viewed in a vertical orientation. In terms of top, sides, and bottom. Gravity then affects the visual components. For example, a ball placed high in the pictorial field produces a sense of tension between the ball and the baseline of the picture plane. There is the expectation that gravity will cause the ball to drop, and when it does not fall, the tension is created. What we know of the weight of actual objects influences how we judge balance on a picture surface. If we were to replace the objects with non-objective entities, their psychological weight would be created by their shape, value, and/or colour and our view of their balance again would change. Whether objective or non-objective components are used, the potential creation of psychological weight/balance and its compositional adjustment are endless. 4. Proportion: Proportion deals with the ratio of individual parts to one another. In works of art, the relationships of parts are difficult to compare with any accuracy because proportion often becomes a matter of personal 79 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa judgement. Proportional parts are considered in relation to the whole and, when related, the parts create harmony and balance.

5. Dominance: Any work of art that strives for interest must exhibit differences that emphasise the degrees of importance of its various parts. These differences result from medium and compositional considerations. If we substitute the word contrast for difference, we can see that the following, among others, can be used to achieve dominance: i) Isolation or separation of one part from others. ii) Placement - “centre stage” is most often used, but another position can be dominant depending on the surroundings iii) Direction - a movement that contrasts with others draws attention iv) Scale - larger sizes normally dominate v) Character - a significant difference in general appearance is striking. Contrasts in colour, value, and texture also help to produce this attraction.

6. Movement: In looking at an art/visual work, audiences are being “taken on a tour”. The artist makes the eye travel comfortably and informatively by providing roadways and rest stops. The roadways leading to the rest stops have certain speed limits established by the artist, and the rest of the stops are of a predetermined duration. The lines, shapes (generally lengthy ones) and shape contours are generally pointed at each other in the same general direction. They may be touching but normally they are interrupted by gaps over which the eyes skip as they move about. Sometimes “leaps” are necessary, requiring strong directional thrusts and/or potent attractions. 7. The optical units that direct us contain vital visual information. In a work such as the Mona Lisa, the figure is such a dominant unit that little eye movement is required (although there is secondary material of considerable interest). In other works, there may be several units of great interest that are widely separated, and it thus becomes critical that the observer’s vision be directed to them. There is usually some hierarchy in these units, some calling for more attention than others.

8. Economy: Very often, as a work develops, the artist will find that the solutions to various visual problems result in unnecessary complexity. The problem is frequently characterised by the broad and simple aspects of the work deteriorating into fragmentation. The artist can sometimes restore order by returning to significant essentials, eliminating elaborate details, and relating the particulars to the whole. This is a sacrifice not easily made or accepted because, in looking for solutions, interesting discoveries may have been made. But, interesting or not, these effects must often be surrendered for greater legibility and a more direct expression. Economy has no rules but rather must be an outgrowth of the artist’s instincts. If something works with respect to the whole, it is kept. If disruptive, it may be reworked or rejected.

B) ViSuAL TooLS: There are five visual tools: 1. Lines: These have a power and meaning of their own. Not all create the same psychological effect in the viewer’s mind.

The Physical Characteristics of Line i) Measure: This refers to the length and width of a line. An infinite number of combinations of long and short, thick and thin lines can, according to their use, divide, balance, or unbalance a pictorial area.

ii) Type: Taking into consideration the characteristic of type as well as measure, we find that long or short, thick or thin lines can be straight, angular, or curved. The straight line, in its continuity, ultimately becomes repetitious and, depending on its length, either rigid or brittle. The curved line may form an arc, reverse its curve to become wavy, or continue turning within itself to produce a spiral. Alterations of movement become visually entertaining and physically stimulating if they are rhythmical. A curved line is inherently graceful and, to a degree, unstable. The abrupt changes of direction in an angular line create excitement and/or confusion. Our eyes frequently have difficulty adapting to an angular line’s unexpected deviations of direction. Hence, the angular line is full of challenging interest.

iii) Location: The control exercised over the measure, type, or direction of a line can be enhanced or diminished by its specific location. According to its placement, a line can serve to unify or divide, balance or unbalance a pictorial area. A diagonal line might be soaring or plunging, depending upon its high or low position relative to the frame. The various attributes of line can act in concert toward one goal or can serve separate roles of expression and design.

iv) Character: This term is largely related to the medium with which the line is created. Different media can be used in the same work to create greater interest. Monotony could result from the consistent use of lines of 80 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa the same character unless the unity so gained is balanced by the variation of other physical properties. Varied instruments, such as the brush, burin, stick, and fingers, have distinctive characteristics that can be exploited by the artist.

2. Shape: This can create interest and express the theme more coherently.

3. Space: This must be used carefully because too little space creates a crowded feeling while too much space makes the subject look scattered.

4. Texture: This is a visual element that replaces the sense of touch and can be used in the same way as colour. Shinning surfaces, rough surfaces, flannel paper, all create a certain effect in the mind of the viewer. 5. Colour: This is a very important visual tool. Here are a few rules to consider when using colour in your visuals: • The background must be subdued.

• Details and especially main topics must be bright and attractive.

• Details that are not very important must neither be too bright as to be confused with the main theme nor too dull as to be lost in the background.

• Too many colours can cause a mental strain.

• Colour must be harmonised: different tints of the same colour. E.g. various shades of blue.

• Harmony of colours which are neighbours on the colour chart is called analogous harmony e.g. blue, violet, and red.

• When colour contrasts at its maximum, this harmony is called complementary harmony. E.g. colours opposite on the colour chart.

• Colours create psychological effects. Cool colours such as blue, green, violet, give an effect of distance. Warm colours such as red, orange and yellow invite the viewer. The following are some stereotyped psychological meanings attached to prominent colours: * Red - danger, heat, love, energy * Blue - coldness, boredom, sadness * Purple - royalty, sorrow * Green - freshness, jealousy * Yellow - life, light, flashy * White - purity, integrity, chill, lack of ideas * Black - darkness, evil, sin, creative potency * Grey - boredom, loss, deadness C) LETTERinG: • Lettering may be formal or informal.

• It is better to arrange formal lettering in a formal way keeping in mind the rules of balance and space.

• Mechanical spacing produces an uneven effect. It destroys unity and legibility.

• It is necessary to space the letters by the eye. This is ‘optical spacing’.

• Informal lettering can be stylish or expressive.

• Expressive letters can give your work a dramatic effect. Informal lettering must be arranged in the style unique to the lettering.

Types of Visuals: Finally, here is a list and classification of various types of visual communication: i. Visuals without words: photographs, drawings and paintings, picture posters, picture-collages, chalk drawings, murals (without words), and mime.

ii. Visuals with words: advertisements, captioned posters, theme charts, diagrams, word-collages, banners, murals (with words) and comics.

iii. Visuals using projectors: overhead projector, slide projector, video projectors.

iv. Visuals using electronics and computers: video players/recorders, television monitors, Microsoft power-point presentations, computer graphics, computer animation.

v. Visuals with sound: dramatics, dance, TV productions, music and song videos, film.

One of the best ways to develop visual skills is to look at visual art manuals that contain many innovative presentation of professional artists.

ViSuAL MEDiA EXAMPLES Material Collection Making audio-visuals often requires basic material such as: 81 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa • Pencils, pens, a ruler, an eraser • Paper, glue, scissors, brushes and paints, ink • Pins sticking-tape, paper clips, stapler and staples • Coloured paper, cardboard, tinsel, decorative papers...

• Pictures: keep a watch for good pictures. File them in folders or boxes according to various topics.

Pictures and Photos: • There are essentially two types of pictures: those that require text for their explanation and those that speak by the power of their visual images.

• When selecting pictures for pastoral purposes we may have need of both types in different situations. For notice boards that are wordy and require pictures to break the monotony of text, the first of the two types comes handy • The second type of pictures/photos are those that say a lot even without a single word. Such pictures make very powerful messages for notice boards. No words are required - or if they have to be used, it is best to keep them to their minimum.

• Such pictures can also be used in group sharing and reflection. Sometimes they can tell us about the values we live or do not live by. They can also supply the inspiration for prayer.

• To find such pictures is not easy. We require to train our eyes to look for them.

• In using pictures or in producing them, it is essential to keep in mind the audience and the situation for which the photo is made. It is helpful to concentrate on one theme and to isolate one key-word or key-image and make it the centre.

Exercise: Design a notice board on the theme: “The best things in life are free” Or “A picture is worth a thousand words.” Posters • Like photographs, posters are of two types: those that are colourful and require many pictures, and those that are based on text.

• Imagination and aesthetics are important requirements in designing a poster. This means attentiveness to colour and shape; a sense of balance as well as off-balance; a clear idea of what has to be communicated; the aptitude to put text and pictures together in a perfect composition.

• For the purpose of creating a poster, one needs to have lots of magazines, newspapers, big and small.

• Choose a background colour pinned on to the notice board of soft board or plywood and cloth (on which elements can be fixed and dismantled again) scissors, glue and string.

• Different colours express different meanings. • Shapes can be determined by the material you have, the size of a sheet of paper, but you can also express something by giving it a precise form: a circle, square, horizontal or vertical oblong.

• It is very important to use the symbols used by the people. This also includes colour and shapes.

• Keep the poster simple and the message clear.

Exercise: Create a poster on the theme (PEACE, UNITY, LIFE IS PRECIOUS) Collages • Collages are an excellent visual tool for group work. A collage is a composition of pictures, words, or objects, which have been collected according to a given theme. The process of selection and arrangement is already a reflective one and continues through presentation and group discussion. It can be undertaken by the group as a whole in exploring a theme, or by an individual presenting a theme.

• While doing a picture/photo collage, the group members are asked to cut (or tear) from the newspapers or magazines provided any pictures and texts which “speak” to them of the given theme. The group then selects and arranges the material whereby the most striking picture is to be the centre around which the rest is arranged. Then everything is fixed to the background sheet.

• In a word collage a similar process is followed except that instead of pictures, we use words and write them on slips of paper, large enough to be legible from far. The arrangement of paper slips can be circular with the keyword in the centre, or words can be grouped according to similarity.

• Object collage is a way of deepening in people an awareness of the symbolic in ordinary things of life, and helping them discover how everything around us is charged with meaning. Ask the group to wander about in the open and bring back objects which speak to them on a given theme: Life, Danger, Suffering, etc. The object can be placed on the ground or pinned to a soft board. It helps if the theme appears written on the collage to focus attention when people say why they have chosen an object and what it reminds them of. 82 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Collage Composition • Composition, layout, format, should be agreed upon by everybody. If a group is large, it is advisable to divide people into smaller groups and have each group present its collage to the large group.

• The way the pictures, photos, words or objects are arranged is also important. There are feelings ascribed to lines and shapes. Avoid gluing picture elements together in just any odd way, to fill the space available. Composing words and pictures within such a framework can be challenging.

Exercises: Get the group to make collages on the following themes: • Beauty of Creation (Photo collage) • HIV and AIDS Awareness (Word collage) • Conserve Nature (Object collage) Banners • Banners have the advantages of long life. They can be used vertically or horizontally. Some large pieces of cotton or silk cloth provide the backdrop for new designs. Text may be painted directly on the cloth, while a collage work can be stuck or sewn onto the cloth.

• Banners are useful for liturgical purposes and for providing visual reflections. The group preparing the liturgies can thus share their reflection visually, and help the congregation to enter into a particular theme. The theme can also be built up over several Sundays, as for example during Lent and Advent. Display the banner in a prominent place in church and replace it or remove it punctually.

Exercise: Create a banner on the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit or the Beatitudes.

Murals • Murals are very much like collages. Instead of sheets of paper, it is the wall space which provides the framework for a composition. In a mural, a theme can be worked out in more detail, with pictures and texts, and then be arranged and stuck on to the wall. It is important that all the elements are linked up to each other and the eye can follow a certain order. Pieces of coloured paper, possibly one colour for all the “linking elements” can give direction. Limit words to telegram style and give key phrases some bold lettering.

• Since painting a whole wall can be expensive and the local authority may not trust the capacity of the artists, the mural can be done on cloth which is fixed onto a wooden framework.

• Often, murals are designed as backdrops for performances. In this case, it is important that the colours and symbols chosen do not distract the audience from watching what is performed on stage. (Psychadelic lighting on the backdrop for example, is out of place.) A backdrop must be attractive, but must also retain its ‘background’ identity and not become the focus of attention.

Exercise: Get students to do a stage backdrop for the feast day variety entertainment programme. E.g. Community Day, Feast of Don Bosco.

Review 1. Visual communication is the conveyance of ideas and information in forms that can be read or looked at.

2. Recent research supports the idea that visual communication can be more powerful than verbal communication.

3. Studies show that people only remember 10% of what they hear, 20% of what they read but about 70% of what they see and do.

4. Training materials indicate that the retention of information three days after a meeting is six times greater when information is presented by visual and oral means than when information is presented by the spoken word alone. The same material also cites studies by educational researchers suggesting that 83% of human learning occurs visually.

5. Alternative media are also called group media as distinguished from mass media. These forms of media are easy to use, cheap and pertain to local issues. 6. Though many casual observers tend to generalize “traditional” African art, the continent is full of peoples, societies, and civilizations, each with a unique visual special culture.

7. The unifying artistic themes of African art are: emphasis on the human figure, visual abstraction and emphasis on sculpture.83 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa 8. There are essentially two types of pictures: those that require text for their explanation and those that speak by the power of their visual images. When selecting pictures for pastoral purposes, we may need both types in different situations. The second type of pictures/photos are those that say a lot even without a single word. Such pictures make very powerful messages for notice boards.

9. Like photographs, posters are of two types: those that are colourful and require many pictures and those that are based on text.

10. A collage is a composition of pictures, words, or objects, which have been collected according to a given theme. The process of selection and arrangement is a reflective one and continues through presentation and group discussion.

11. Banners are useful for liturgical purposes and for providing visual reflections.

12. In a mural, a theme can be worked out in more detail, with pictures and texts, and then be arranged and stuck on to the wall. It is important that all the elements are linked up to each other and the eye can follow a certain order.

13. There are three key elements in any visualisation: Design, Visual Tools and Lettering.

14. The seven principles of organisation are: harmony, variety, balance, proportion, dominance, movement and economy.

15. Visual tools include: lines, shape, space, texture and colour.

16. It is better to arrange formal lettering in a formal way keeping in mind the rules of balance and space.

17. There are several types of visuals: visuals with words, visuals without words, visuals using projectors, visuals using electronics and computers and visuals with sound.

18. One of the best ways to develop visual skills is to look at visual art manuals with innovative presentations of professional artists.

Reflection 1. We have seen that African art tends to be representative, rather than depictive. What kinds of art in modern day are similar? Categorise the types of arts into either depictive or representative. What role did visual media in African Traditional Society have in the remembrance and retention of certain myths and practices? 2. Interview several artists and find out how they combine the key elements of visualisation as well as the seven principles of organisation in their work. Note with interest how different artists express themselves and how they incorporate these principles in their work.

Relevant Skills 1. Pick a saying of your choice and present it in a number of ways; through a drawing, posters, photos or a collage. Notice how the message will be translated via the various forms of visual media.

2. The lecturer can present a number of magazines, newspapers, photographs, collages, murals, bill board pictures and other forms of visual media. Ask the class to critique them based on the seven principles of organisation.

Resources BOSCOM-INDIA. ‘SHEPHERDS’ FOR AN INFORMATION AGE. Matunga: Tej Prasarini, 2000.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008. References Sharma Mohan Vinay. The art of reading Gestures & Postures Body Language. Delhi: Pustak Mahal,2002 Camp, C. Sue, and Marilyn L. Satterwhite. College Communication. Ohio: Glencoe McGraw-Hill, 1998.

Ocvirk G. Otto, Robert Stinson, Philip R. Wigg, Robert O. Bone and David L. Cayton. Art Fundamentals. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002.

www.hp.com.

www.slideshare.net 84 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Aim • To learn alternative ways of communicating through low-cost visual media. • To learn the basic techniques of visualisation in order to give your communication greater impact.

ViSuAL MEDiA EXAMPLES Material Collection Making audio-visuals often requires basic material such as: • Pencils, pens, a ruler, an eraser • Paper, glue, scissors, brushes and paints, ink • Pins sticking-tape, paper clips, stapler and staples • Coloured paper, cardboard, tinsel, decorative papers...

• Pictures: keep a watch for good pictures. File them in folders or boxes according to various topics.

Pictures and Photos: • There are essentially two types of pictures: those that require text for their explanation and those that speak by the power of their visual images.

• When selecting pictures for pastoral purposes we may have need of both types in different situations. For notice boards that are wordy and require pictures to break the monotony of text, the first of the two types comes handy • The second type of pictures/photos are those that say a lot even without a single word. Such pictures make very powerful messages for notice boards. No words are required - or if they have to be used, it is best to keep them to their minimum.

• Such pictures can also be used in group sharing and reflection. Sometimes they can tell us about the values we live or do not live by. They can also supply the inspiration for prayer.

• To find such pictures is not easy. We require to train our eyes to look for them.

• In using pictures or in producing them, it is essential to keep in mind the audience and the situation for which the photo is made. It is helpful to concentrate on one theme and to isolate one key-word or key-image and make it the centre.

Exercise: Design a notice board on the theme: “The best things in life are free” Or “A picture is worth a thousand words.” Posters • Like photographs, posters are of two types: those that are colourful and require many pictures, and those that are based on text.

• Imagination and aesthetics are important requirements in designing a poster. Spelled out in detail this means attentiveness to colour and shape; a sense of balance as well as off-balance; a clear idea of what has to be communicated; the aptitude to put text and pictures together in a perfect composition.

• For the purpose of creating a poster, one needs to have lots of magazines, newspapers, big and small.

• Choose a background colour pinned on to the notice board of soft board or plywood and cloth (on which elements can be fixed and dismantled again) scissors, glue and string.

• Different colours express different meanings. • Shapes can be determined by the material you have, the size of a sheet of paper, but you can also express something by giving it a precise form: a circle, square, horizontal or vertical oblong.

• It is very important to use the symbols used by the people. This also includes colour and shapes.

• Keep the poster simple and the message clear.

Exercise: Create a poster on the theme (PEACE, UNITY, LIFE IS PRECIOUS) Collages • Collages are an excellent visual tool for group work. A collage is a composition of pictures, words, or objects, which have been collected according to a given theme. The process of selection and arrangement is already a reflective one and continues through presentation and group discussion. It can be undertaken by the group as a whole in exploring a theme, or by an individual presenting a theme.

• While doing a picture/photo collage, the group members are asked to cut (or tear) from the newspapers or magazines provided any pictures and texts which “speak” to them of the given theme. The group then selects and arranges CHAPTER 2.4 PARTiCiPAnT’S HAnDouT Visual Media COMMUNICATOR FOR A CYBER AGE IN AFRICA Bosco Eastern Africa Multimedia Services - BEAMS Publication, Kenya. beams@donbosco.or.ke85 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa the material whereby the most striking picture is to be the centre around which the rest is arranged. Then everything is fixed to the background sheet.

• In a word collage a similar process is followed except that instead of pictures, we use words and write them on slips of paper, large enough to be legible from far. The arrangement of paper slips can be circular with the keyword in the centre, or words can be grouped according to similarity.

• Object collage is a way of deepening in people an awareness of the symbolic in ordinary things of life, and helping them discover how everything around us is charged with meaning. Ask the group to wander about in the open and bring back objects which speak to them on a given theme: Life, Danger, Suffering, etc. The object can be placed on the ground or pinned to a soft board. It helps if the theme appears written on the collage to focus attention when people say why they have chosen an object and what it reminds them of. Collage Composition • Composition, layout, format, should be agreed upon by everybody. If a group is large, it is advisable to divide people into smaller groups and have each group present its collage to the large group.

• The way the pictures, photos, words or objects are arranged is also important. There are feelings ascribed to lines and shapes. Avoid gluing picture elements together in just any odd way, to fill the space available. Composing words and pictures within such a framework can be challenging.

Exercises: Get the group to make collages on the following themes: • Beauty of Creation (Photo collage) • HIV/AIDS Awareness (Word collage) • Conserve Nature (Object collage) Banners • Banners have the advantages of long life. They can be used vertically or horizontally. Some large pieces of cotton or silk cloth provide the backdrop for new designs. Test may be painted directly on the cloth, while a collage work can be stuck or sewn onto the cloth.

• Banners are useful for liturgical purposes and for providing visual reflections. The group preparing the liturgies can thus share their reflection visually, and help the congregation to enter into a particular theme. The theme can also be built up over several Sundays, as for example during Lent and Advent. Display the banner in a prominent place in church and replace it or remove it punctually.

Exercise: Create a banner on the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit or the Beatitudes.

Murals • Murals are very much like collages. Instead of sheets of paper, it is the wall space which provides the framework for a composition. In a mural a theme can be worked out in more detail, with pictures and texts, and then be arranged and stuck on to the wall. It is important that all the elements are linked up to each other and the eye can follow a certain order. Pieces of coloured paper, possibly one colour for all the “linking elements” can give direction. Limit words to telegrams style and give key phrases some bold lettering.

• Since painting a whole wall can be expensive and the local authority may not be inclined to trust the capacity of the artists, the mural can be done on cloth fixed onto a wooden framework.

• Often, murals are designed as backdrops for performances. In this case, it is important that the colours and symbols chosen do not distract the audience from watching what is performed on stage. (Psychedelic lighting on the backdrop for example, is out of place.) A backdrop must be attractive, but must also retain its ‘background’ identity and not become the focus of attention.

Exercise: Make a stage backdrop for the feast day variety entertainment programme. E.g. Community Day, Feast of Don Bosco.

Review 1. Visual communication is the conveyance of ideas and information in forms that can be read or looked upon.

2. Recent research supports the idea that visual communication can be more powerful than verbal communication.

3. Studies show that people only remember 10% of what they hear, 20% of what they read but about 80% of what they see and do.

4. Training materials indicate that the retention of information three days after a meeting is six times greater when 86 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa information is presented by visual and oral means than when information is presented by the spoken word alone. The same material also cites studies by educational researchers suggesting that 83% of human learning occurs visually.

5. Alternative media are also called group media as distinguished from mass media. These forms of media are easy to use, cheap and pertain to local issues. 6. Though many casual observers tend to generalize “traditional” African art, the continent is full of peoples, societies, and civilizations, each with a unique visual special culture.

7. The unifying artistic themes of African art are: emphasis on the human figure, visual abstraction and emphasis on sculpture.

8. There are essentially two types of pictures: those that require text for their explanation and those that speak by the power of their visual images. When selecting pictures for pastoral purposes, we may need both types in different situations. The second type of pictures/photos are those that say a lot even without a single word. Such pictures make very powerful messages for notice boards.

9. Like photographs, posters are of two types: those that are colourful and require many pictures and those that are based on text.

10. A collage is a composition of pictures, words, or objects, which have been collected according to a given theme. The process of selection and arrangement is a reflective one and continues through presentation and group discussion.

11. Banners are useful for liturgical purposes and for providing visual reflections.

12. In a mural, a theme can be worked out in more detail, with pictures and texts, and then be arranged and stuck on to the wall. It is important that all the elements are linked up to each other and the eye can follow a certain order.

13. There are three key elements in any visualisation: Design, Visual Tools and Lettering.

14. The seven principles of organisation are: harmony, variety, balance, proportion, dominance, movement and economy.

15. Visual tools include: lines, shape, space, texture and colour.

16. It is better to arrange formal lettering in a formal way keeping in mind the rules of balance and space.

17. There are several types of visuals: visuals with words, visuals without words, visuals using projectors, visuals using electronics and computers and visuals with sound.

18. One of the best ways to develop visual skills is to look at visual art manuals with innovative presentations of professional artists.

Reflection 1. We have seen that African art tends to be representative, rather than depictive. What kinds of art in modern day are similar? Categorise the types of arts into either depictive or representative. What role did visual media in African Traditional Society have in the remembrance and retention of certain myths and practices? 2. Interview several artists and find out how they combine the key elements of visualisation as well as the seven principles of organisation in their work. Note with interest how different artists express themselves and how they incorporate these principles in their work.

Relevant Skills 1. Pick a saying of your choice and present it in a number of ways; through a drawing, posters, photos or a collage. Notice how the message will be translated via the various forms of visual media.

2. From a number of magazines, newspapers, photographs, collages, murals, bill board pictures and other forms of visual media presented, make a critism based on the seven principles of organisation.

Resources BOSCOM-INDIA. ‘SHEPHERDS’ FOR AN INFORMATION AGE. Matunga: Tej Prasarini, 2000.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008. References Sharma Mohan Vinay. The art of reading Gestures & Postures Body Language. Delhi: Pustak Mahal, 2002.

Camp, C. Sue, and Marilyn L. Satterwhite. College Communication. Ohio: Glencoe McGraw-Hill, 1998. Ocvirk G. Otto, Robert Stinson, Philip R. Wigg, Robert O. Bone and David L. Cayton. Art Fundamentals. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002.

www.hp.com.

www.slideshare.net87 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Procedure 1. MIME • Make four groups. Each group is given a paper on which some instructions and anecdote is written. They have to read the instruction carefully and present the information to others in the way suggested in the instruction. The others try to guess what information the acting group is trying to give. Give ten minutes to discuss and five minutes slot for each group for presentation.

• note: The instructor has to make sure that the groups follow the instructions carefully.

Group no. 1 instruction: You are a group of primitive cave people. You communicate through sounds and actions. Communicate the following message to the other groups using actions and incomprehensible primitive sounds only. The effectiveness of your communication will be seen if the others guess what your message is.

Message: We, the Zulu people, normally engage in medium scale farming. We get our everyday meals from our gardens. We also keep livestock for sale and for our own consumption.

Group no. 2 instruction: You are a group of highly evolved cave people. You can write using only symbols, not alphabets of any language. You have to communicate the following message to the other groups using written symbols only. The effectiveness of your communication will be seen if the others guess your message.

Message: We, cave people, went for hunting yesterday. We saw three lions. One of them attacked us. All of us surrounded it. Soon its body was covered with twenty spears.

Group no. 3 instruction: You are a group of people living in the 15th Century. You can write English. Communicate to the other groups what you see in the picture given to you by writing not more than 5 English words on the board. Just like the other groups, the effectiveness of your communication will be seen if the others guess what is in the photo.

*Give any photo/picture or postcard to the group.

Group no. 4 instruction: You are a group of people living in the 21 st century. You have the possibility of using sound, action, written words, TV, radio and computers amongst others to present your message. You have to communicate the following maxim to the other groups without stating it explicitly anywhere in your presentation. You can use any imaginative modern means of electronic communication. Effectivity of your communication will be seen if the others guess the maxim.

Aim Materials Required [ To grasp the characteristics of the contemporary culture of communication. [ Instruction sheets for miming, chalk, blackboard, picture postcard, and worksheet.

2.5 Characteristics of an Audio-Visual Culture88 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Message: We, the Maasai people engage in livestock rearing as our source of livelihood. We are also very traditional and most of us wear our traditional regalia. Our greatest enemies are cattle rustlers from across the Kenyan border.

2. DiSCuSSion AnD GEnERAL SHARinG After the presentations let the groups fill the following worksheet: i. What medium of communication did the groups use to present their message? 1st Group: 2nd Group: 3rd Group: 4th Group: ii. ‘What you see now was not present just a few years ago’ is a fact. What are the changes that have taken place in your lifetime in the following aspects: • Satellite invasion • Social Development • Governments • Fashion • Newspapers • Educational Courses • Magazines • Technology • Advertising • Others...

Input • Social interaction and relations are no longer dependent on simultaneous spatial co-presence. Instantaneous communication through a variety of media fosters intense relations between ‘absent others’. As this happens, our experience of time and space become ‘instantiated’. We experience distant events unfolding instantaneously on a screen in our homes. This speeding up, or increasing intensity of time-space compression has profound effects on social, economic and cultural processes. We have become used to a constantly accelerating pace of change and yet the dynamics of globalization are dialectical and unevenly experienced across time and space.

• It took humanity more than 2 million years to invent wheels but only 5000 years more to drive those wheels with the steam engine. The first computers filled entire rooms, and it took 35 years to make the machines fit on the desk but the leap from desktop to laptop took less than a decade. Change is coming so fast that some of the most important technologies of the 21st century may now be just a sketch on a drawing board or glimmer in the mind of a genius.

• Technology does not change alone. It has profound effects on cultural practices. The Audiovisual Age (AV): • Technology or more specifically, the audiovisual medium of communication is the key to interpreting our contemporary culture. Some of the characteristics of audiovisual age are as follows: 1. It is an age in which it is not the explicit messages or the rationalistic arguments that are important in communication but the background. It is not the person in the photo that will make it impressive but the quality of the paper on which it is printed, the layout of the article it and the publishers who publish it which will empower your message or make you stand out.

2. It is an age in which the electronic media does not dictate its values/world-view on you. It merely shapes the environment around you to which you eventually conform - because as the systems law says: If you do not allow yourself to become part of the system, you are thrown to the margins of today’s life.

• Today, a child first interacts with persons - parents, siblings, and classmates. Second, the child interacts with the environment - cradle, house, nature. Third, the child interacts with stories told to him/her, pictures shown on TV, advertisements, phones and computers.

• These mediated experiences influence the child’s developing sense of personal identity by directly influencing it and indirectly influencing the people with whom it interacts. The mediated culture becomes the individual’s psychic and social context from birth to death.

3. It is an age of information: an age in which giving existing information a “new form” is more important than creating individual pieces of information or disseminating information from one to another.

• The computer is an excellent example of a new society with a central preoccupation for giving existing information a new form. More importantly, it instantaneously presents data in ways that make it easily used, harmoniously arranged and pleasing to look at. In the process, we gain a deep sense of harmony and efficiency.

4. The compression of time and space through advances in transportation and communication.

5. The remaking of social communities provoked by human migrations and technological interfaces, and the diversification and intensification of experience stimulated by media and the symbolic forms they circulate.

6. The diversification and intensification of experience stimulated by media and the symbolic forms they circulate.89 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa 7. Communications multi-tasking has become a natural state of affairs for many people in the world’s middle class. The ability to simultaneously manage multiple technologies, multiple mediated torrents of information and emotion, and the local jumble of unmediated persons and things makes up the overall complex of communication skills that life today requires. Developing such skills is not only a matter of acquiring new communication tools and literacies. It requires cultivating a mentality and lifestyle that can accommodate the incessant, multi-tributary flows.

Conclusion: In such a society - where background strengthens explicit message and where affectivity is more sought after than effectivity, the Salesian Charism needs to be incarnated. Formerly, when one spoke of being incarnated, one referred to a culture. Today, the AV culture of communication cannot be ignored because it is shaping a new type of person and creating a world where national boundaries are disappearing. “Our Charism must therefore remain open and adaptable to the signs of the times and to cultural values”. Results of the Development of Communication Technology 1. Miniaturisation of media gadgets.

2. The computer revolution has had a decisive impact on media gadgets, e.g. desktop publishing, community radio, equipment, portable VCR’s, etc.

3. This development has made communication technology more accessible. The situation in Africa seems to show that we are now in a position to take full advantage of the situation.

4. The result of development in communication technology is a transformation of the media scene. Over a decade ago, people started talking of what they call the ‘electronic newspaper’ and even predicted the disappearance of the newspaper as we know it. Information became more abundant and more specialised and it was packaged in a variety of ways. Specialised information such as commodity prices, market reports, currency rates, news agency copies, sport results, etc. could be obtained from the television screens operated by various cable services.

5. Since the mid 60’s, the growth of planetary satellite communication has been spectacular and has become an integral part of many circuits, carrying all types of information related to news agencies, radio, and television, navigation, meteorology, mining, aviation, entertainment, etc.

Review 1. The most credible acceleration of all is the pace of technological change.

2. Technology does not change alone. Inevitably, culture changes with it.

3. The audiovisual medium of communication is one of the key elements to interpreting our contemporary culture.

Reflection In your world, how do you rate a superstar? Is it by the magazines in which he/she is featured or the TV programmes they talk in? From now on, withhold your judgement about a celebrity until you have enough information to help you rate them as superstar or not.

Relevant Skills 1. Identify how the internet impacts the present culture and especially the youth.

2. Do a survey on how mass communication (books, TV, radio, internet etc) has affected your culture.

Resources BOSCOM-INDIA. ‘SHEPHERDS’ FOR AN INFORMATION AGE. Matunga: Tej Prasarini, 2000.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008. References AMECEA and IMBISA. Communication in the Church and in Society. Nairobi: Paulines Publications Africa, 2000.

www.amazon.co.uk/Media90 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Aim • To grasp the characteristics of the contemporary culture of communication.

Procedure 1. MIME (Act without use of spoken words) • Participants make four groups. Each group is given a paper on which some instructions and anecdote is written. You have to read the instruction carefully and present the information to others in the way suggested in the instruction. The others try to guess what information the acting group is trying to pass. You have ten minutes to discuss and each group has five minutes for presentation.

Group no. 1 instruction: You are a group of primitive cave people. You communicate through sounds and actions. Communicate the following message to the other groups using actions and incomprehensible primitive sounds only. The effectiveness of your communication will be seen if the others guess what your message is.

Message: We, the Zulu people, normally engage in medium scale farming. We get our everyday meals from our gardens. We also keep livestock for sale and for our own consumption Group no. 2 instruction: You are a group of highly evolved cave people. You can write using only symbols, not alphabets of any language. You have to communicate the following message to the other groups using written symbols only. The effectiveness of your communication will be seen if the others guess your message.

Message: We, cave people, went for hunting yesterday. We saw three lions. One of them attacked us. All of us surrounded it. Soon its body was covered with twenty spears.

Group no. 3 instruction: You are a group of people living in the 15th Century. You can write English. Communicate to the other groups what you see in the picture given to you by writing not more than 5 English words on the board. Just like the other groups, the effectiveness of your communication will be seen if the others guess what is in the photo.

Group no. 4 instruction: You are a group of people living in the 21 st century. You have the possibility of using sound, action, written words, TV, radio and computers amongst others to present your message. You have to communicate the following maxim to the other groups without stating it explicitly anywhere in your presentation. You can use any imaginative modern means of electronic communication. Effectivity of your communication will be seen if the others guess the maxim.

Message: We, the Maasai people engage in livestock rearing as our source of livelihood. We are also very traditional and most of us wear our traditional regalia. Our greatest enemies are cattle rustlers from across the Kenyan border.

2. DiSCuSSion AnD GEnERAL SHARinG After the presentations, groups fill in the following worksheet: i. What medium of communication did the groups use to present their message? 1st Group: 2nd Group: 3rd Group: 4th Group: CHAPTER 2.5 PARTiCiPAnT’S HAnDouT Characteristics of an Audio-Visual Culture COMMUNICATOR FOR A CYBER AGE IN AFRICA Bosco Eastern Africa Multimedia Services - BEAMS Publication, Kenya. beams@donbosco.or.ke91 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa ii. ‘What you see now was not present just a few years ago’ is a fact. What are the changes that have taken place in your lifetime in the following aspects: Satellite invasion Social Development Governments Fashion Newspapers Educational Courses Magazines Technology Advertising Others...

Review 1. The most credible acceleration of all is the pace of technological change.

2. Technology does not change alone. Inevitably, culture also changes with it.

3. The audio-visual medium of communication is the key to interpreting our contemporary culture.

Reflection In your world, how do you rate a superstar? Is it by the magazines in which he/she is featured or the TV programmes they talk in? From now on, withhold your judgement about a celebrity until you have enough information to help you rate them as superstar or not.

Relevant Skills 1. Identify how the internet impacts the present culture and especially the youth.

2. Do a survey on how mass communication (books, TV, radio, internet etc) has affected your culture.

Resources BOSCOM-INDIA. ‘SHEPHERDS’ FOR AN INFORMATION AGE. Matunga: Tej Prasarini, 2000.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008. References AMECEA and IMBISA. Communication in the Church and in Society. Nairobi: Paulines Publications Africa, 2000.

www.amazon.co.uk92 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Procedure • Divide the participants into medium sized groups depending on their number • Ask them to make a news report of the creation story as found Genesis chapter 1 or 2, the focus point being God as a communicator.

• Let each group send one representative to read out their news report.

Input • Before, the world was a frightening one, without human love (Gen.1:2). This world held potential. When God came in, He brought light and every creation became centred in God who can be referred to as the breath sharer who was very close to creation. • The Hebrew word for ‘breath’ is ruah which means ‘wind’ or ‘spirit’ which has power, causes life and sustains it.

• Our relationship should be that which is energizing and life giving from the example of God who seeks to relate, to be close and to share life.

• We can participate in the ongoing process of creation and enhance our transpersonal communication by: * Breathing into one’s lung in case of an accident, * Giving a word of encouragement, * Giving our time to others (attending to others), * Expressing our love, * Seeking to relate, * Enabling others to attain their potential.

• Yahweh is described as a protective mother, hovering as the eagle does to her young ones (Dt. 32:11, Ex. 19: 4). The word hover refers to the characteristic flight pattern of an eagle extant in the biblical world. The eagle hangs in the air over its young in a fashion perceived as protective especially when the eaglets are learning to fly. Yahweh hovers over the dark and confused world, watching, noticing, ready to reach out with a saving action to his children. • Genesis pictures a God who is a breath-sharer, an energizer. He attends to his people, enables them and seeks a close relationship with them. For us to be able to do this to others, psychological health is a factor. These are the characteristics of a healthy relationship. People who are psychologically healthy enable others to grow or fly alone. They become wind beneath their wings.

1. Creation as God’s Spoken Word • “God said let there be light” (Gn. 1:3). This shows that God is a communicator for the reason that he spoke a word which by itself is a medium of spoken communication. • The word took away the darkness, named the sky, gathered great bodies of water, encouraged birds to fly, put life into seeds and flavoured the fruits, called and made man and woman in images of his divine nature.

• The poetic images of Genesis give us a framework for reflection on human communication in a biblical sense: In the beginning God’s spirit hovered over the water. In the beginning, God reached out with a breath of encouragement to all that is helpless and bleak. In the beginning, God became intimate with his creation. In the beginning, God formed humanity in his own image. In the beginning, God communicated.

2. The Call to Human Communication • We sometimes seem empty, unsure, without a clear vision or a strong purpose; we stumble against the darkness of broken promises and forgotten dreams. Aim Materials Required [ To understand how God is a communicator.

[ To be acquainted with how the biblical framework for communication can be applied in life.

[ Paper and Pen.

[ A Spacious Room.

[ A Bible.

2.6 A Biblical Framework for Human Communication93 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa We ache for closeness and fear it at the same time. We yearn for a friend who will stay with us, who will know us and find us beautiful. What God did for creatures, creatures must do for each other. They have to be co-creators and breathe-sharers (man and woman).

• Man and woman are invited into a stance of attentiveness to all creation. To let their spirits hover the earth and over one another’s lives. They are invited to speak words that take away darkness. Therefore, they are invited to take part in breathing, hovering and speaking.

• Genesis acknowledges that creating is an act of passing on creative power. Empowerment is expressed by reproduc- tion, growth and governance (Gn. 1:11-29). What God did for creatures, creatures must do for each other.

3. God’s Faithfulness in Communication • Israelites, in the Hebrew Scriptures, are engaged in mutual communication with God, stories of their ongoing struggle to be attentive, to energize one another and to speak words true to their hearts. They tell the story of God’s faithful communication and of women of biblical times.

• The communication never stopped. Yahweh communicated with the people and revealed more of the divine to them. Sometimes the message was angry, other times it was tender. There was pain, triumph, correction and encouragement. He always assured them of his continuous presence. He was not a love - you - then - leave - you God. Through Ruth God spoke a word of faithfulness, through Esther he gave a message of courage and through Judith an expression of inner strength. Job brought a new understanding of trails and suffering. Jeremiah reminded the people that they needed to be moulded like clay. Hosea showed God’s undying love in spite of people’s unfaithfulness. Isaiah gave them a sense of hope for the future. There were healing words, grieving words and even challenging words. A word to console, a word to forgive, in short, there was always a word.

4. Another Beginning and a new Word • The evangelist John saw Jesus as the ultimate communication of God. The notion of divine communication through Jesus was so real to John that he identified him simply as the ‘word’, the utterance of God (Jn 1:1, 9, 14).

• Through Jesus God met many people: sinners, the sick...the list is endless. • Through the same Jesus, God listened, talked, felt, confronted, cared, touched, self-disclosed and became in- volved in all of the expressions of personal communication that are associated with intimacy.

• “Love one another as I have loved you” (Jn 15:12) continue the communication process; grow close to one another as I have grown close to you.

• Like the word that breathed life and became flesh, Christians are called to breathe life into chaos and to speak a word of life to those seeking meaning.

5. The Application of the Biblical Vision of Life How does the biblical vision of communication relate to life? Effective communication is a style of talking and behaving that sustains relationships over time. Some of the characteristics of this relationship include the ability to: • Recognize and express feelings, • Reflect accurately on one’s behaviour, • Listen and be attentive, • Care genuinely for others, • Self-disclose appropriately, • Be at home with one self, • Verbalize thoughts and feelings clearly, • Manage conflict effectively.

Effective communication is focused on relationships that move towards friendship and intimacy. Review 1. When God came in he brought light and every creation became centred in God who can be referred to as the breathe sharer.

2. To breathe into another with our own breath is symbolic of sharing our life, of becoming involved in a relationship that is at once energizing and life giving.

3. Yahweh hovers over the dark and confused world, watching, noticing, ready to reach out with a saving action to his children.

4. We can participate in the ongoing process of creation and enhance our transpersonal communication by: a. Breathing into one’s lung in case of an accident b. Giving a word of encouragement c. Giving an hour of time (attending to others) d. An expression of love e. Seeking to relate f. enabling 5. Israelites, in the Hebrew Scriptures, are engaged in mutual communication with God. 6. Through Jesus God met many people; sinners, the sick...the list is endless. 94 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa 7. Through the same Jesus, God listened, talked, felt, confronted, cared, touched, self-disclosed and became involved in all of the expressions of personal communication that are associated with intimacy.

8. Effective communication is a style of talking and behaving that sustains relationships over time.

9. To love each other is a way to continue the communication process, to grow close to each other.

Reflection Just as the dark and empty world was pulled toward the light by an attentive, speaking God, so too, the daughters and sons of God move toward each other and into the light with attentive gestures and caring words. They promote or hinder one another’s growth along the way by the manner in which they interact.

Relevant Skills • Make a list of 10 persons with whom you have to interact on a daily basis. Evaluate your relationship with these persons around you in the biblical perspective of communication.

• Briefly state the message that God communicates in the following books of the Bible: Job, Esther, Ruth, Jonah, Hosea and Jeremiah.

Resources www.christianitytoday.com References Raymond Brown, Joseph Fitzmeyer and Roland Murphy, editors. The Jerome Biblical Commentary Englewood Cliffs. NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1968 Ferder, Fran. Word Made Flesh: Scripture, Psychology and Human Communication. Notre Dame: Ave Maria Press, 1986.95 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Aim • To understand how God is a communicator • To be acquainted with how the biblical framework for communication can be applied in life.

Procedure • Participants please form groups of eight.

• Make a news report of the creation story as found Genesis chapter 1 or 2, the focus point being God as a communicator.

• Let each group send one representative to read out their news report.

Review 1. When God came in he brought light and every creation became centred in God who can be referred to as the breathe sharer.

2. To breathe into another with our own breath is symbolic of sharing our life, of becoming involved in a relationship that is at once energizing and life giving.

3. Yahweh hovers over the dark and confused world, watching, noticing, ready to reach out with a saving action to his children.

4. We can participate in the ongoing process of creation and enhance our transpersonal communication by: a. Breathing into one’s lung in case of an accident b. Giving a word of encouragement c. Giving an hour of time (attending to others) d. An expression of love e. Seeking to relate f. enabling 5. Israelites, in the Hebrew Scriptures, are engaged in mutual communication with God. 6. Through Jesus God met many people; sinners, the sick...the list is endless. 7. Through the same Jesus, God listened, talked, felt, confronted, cared, touched, self-disclosed and became involved in all of the expressions of personal communication that are associated with intimacy.

8. Effective communication is a style of talking and behaving that sustains relationships over time.

9. To love each other is a way to continue the communication process, to grow close to each other.

Reflection Just as the dark and empty world was pulled toward the light by an attentive, speaking God, so too, the daughters and sons of God move toward each other and into the light with attentive gestures and caring words. They promote or hinder one another’s growth along the way by the manner in which they interact.

Relevant Skills • Make a list of 10 persons with whom you have to interact on a daily basis. Evaluate your relationship with these persons around you in the biblical perspective of communication.

• Briefly state the message that God communicates in the following books of the Bible: Job, Esther, Ruth, Jonah, Hosea and Jeremiah.

Resources www.christianitytoday.com References Raymond Brown, Joseph Fitzmeyer and Roland Murphy. The Jerome Biblical Commentary Englewood Cliffs. NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1968.

Ferder, Fran. Word Made Flesh: Scripture, Psychology and Human Communication. Notre Dame: Ave Maria Press, 1986.

CHAPTER 2.6 PARTiCiPAnT’S HAnDouT A Biblical Framework for Human Communication COMMUNICATOR FOR A CYBER AGE IN AFRICA Bosco Eastern Africa Multimedia Services - BEAMS Publication, Kenya. beams@donbosco.or.ke96 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Procedure • Let the participants describe the context in which the ‘Word of God’ came to three prophets of the Old Testament (e.g. Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Amos) • Lead the participants to identify in the Gospel of John the statements Jesus made about himself (“I am” statements).

Input • Through out the Hebrew and Christian scripture, the word of God has awesome power. This is seen through the prophets, Israelites and even in creation itself.

• The word of God becomes flesh and enters into intimate communion with men and women. • Communication in general is multi-faceted. It has to do with words, symbols, expressions and gestures.

• We need words. We are a people fashioned and fed by the words of a nourishing God. We are born out of covenants and promises that have been expressed in words and spoken with courage for thousands of years.

• The word provides a vital link between inner experience and outward clarification of that experience.

• A closer look at the meaning of the Word in biblical times can add depth to our exploration of human communication.

• The word, ‘dabar’ meant that the spoken word revealed the speaker.

• Human closeness and its expression depends on words and how they are used.

• Our words do not come back. Isaac could not undo the blessings he had showered upon Jacob through words. This shows that words have long-term consequences.

• Prophets testify to the effectiveness of the Word spoken by God. (Is 55:10-11, Jer 1:12) 1. God’s Word Proclaimed by the Prophets • The word of God came to Jeremiah with power that he could not restrain it (Jer. 20: 8 - 9). No one who experiences God’s word is left unaffected. Ezekiel ate the scroll which was as sweet as honey (Ez.3:2-3).

• According to Biblical mentality, words enter a person-they get inside. They are alive with powerful energy that enables something of the speaker to penetrate, to enter into another’s core.

• It is in the shared word that the speaker and the one spoken to make contact. It is there that they meet each other and their destinies become intertwined, and they are one.

2. urgency of Word • Power of the words urged wisdom writers to comment repeatedly on the way words are employed in human interaction. Words have power, influence and exert urgency (Ps 39:1-3).

• Words can soothe more than oil (Ps. 55:21) and can be as fierce as fire in one’s mouth (Jer. 5: 14). They can be appropriate and “aptly spoken” (Prv 25: 11) or out of place and rambling, a “flood of words” (Prv 10: 15). Words can deceive and be “snares” (Prv 12: 6) and words can be “truthful” (Eccl 12:10). They wound (Prv 18: 8) and they heal (Ps. 107:20).

Aim Materials Required [ To understand significant words in the Bible. [ To get to know Jesus as Word made Flesh. [ To get to know the Word as Good News. [ Pen and Paper.

[ A Bible.

2.7 Significance of Words According to Scripture97 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa • It was a common belief in biblical times that those of wicked hearts could only utter words of wickedness, while those of integrity brought forth words of goodness.

• Hearts give shape to words and their quality depends on the character of the speaker.

3. Jesus the Word Made Flesh • In Christian scriptures, ‘Word’ is most often used with reference to the Gospel or to the Word of God.

• The continuation of prophets’ words found home in the person of Jesus. The word of God is alive with personality and power (1Thess. 1:5).

• In John the word is the person of Jesus. • The incarnate word is more than a message but a person to know, a person of flesh.

• This word-person, Jesus, lived in a world of words. He knew the words of prophets before him, the law and traditions and taught using powerful words.

• Jesus left nothing in writing and his words were recorded 20 or more years after his death.

4. Following the Words • Where does all this leave us with regard to better understanding of human communication? A communication that is at once psychologically healthy and compatible with Christian discipleship? • We are called to follow Jesus of Nazareth, to model our lives after his. Part of living is talking.

• Following does not mean imitating or copying. Neither does it mean duplicating someone else’s personality. • Biblical following means walking alongside Jesus of Nazareth, in context of his own time in history, and being profoundly influenced by him – all the while retaining our own identity and personality. He instilled in his hearers, a zeal for God and his kingdom, dignity as children of God.

• To communicate as Jesus communicated means staying near enough to his words to be influenced by them, yet far enough to have perspective on how they can speak to our times.

5. The Words of Jesus as Memory (i) Kingdom Sayings: Through these he called attention not to himself but to the kingdom of God. “...the kingdom of God is close at hand” (Mk. 1:15). There are over one hundred kingdom sayings on the lips of Jesus in the Gospels.

(ii) Proverbial Sayings: These presuppose that the speaker has looked and made observations and wishes to correct them. Jesus was observant. He walked and listened. After a keen observation, he commented that “a prophet is only despised in his country, among his relations and in his own house.” (Mk 6:4) (iii) The Prayer taught by Jesus (Lk. 11:2 – 4) His words at prayer are as faithful to his vision as are his words to the crowds. He sees a situation in which the values of the kingdom will be held central, where all people will have bread, where reconciliation will be foundational to relationships. With the crowds, Jesus is sincere and real.

(iv) The Parables It is a message in a story. This was a common method used in teaching especially by the Jewish rabbis. Jesus used parables in talking about the kingdom to make it more familiar. Parables called the attention of the people. In the parable of the Good Samaritan, Jesus is combining “Good” and the “Samaritan”. By this parable he is asking his hearers to imagine the unimaginable, that the Samaritans could be good.

6. The Vision Dimension of Words His words are clusters around one central theme: • A kingdom characterized by inclusive love.

• Equality in people.

• Our choice of words must be faithful to the discipleship of equals which Jesus proclaimed.

• Our language should recognise all people.

• Jesus attracted both friends and enemies (Lk. 4:22).

• Using words of inclusive love evokes strong responses in people.98 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Review 1. Through out the Hebrew and Christian scripture, the word of God had awesome power. This is seen through Prophets, Israelites and even in creation itself.

2. We need words. We are a people fashioned and fed by the words of a nourishing God. We are born out of covenants and promises that have been expressed in words and spoken with courage for thousands of years.

3. Human closeness and its expression depends on words and how they are used.

4. Our words do not come back. 5. According to Biblical mentality, words enter a person – they get inside. There they are alive with powerful energy that enable something of the speaker to penetrate, to enter another’s core.

6. It was a common belief in biblical times that those of wicked hearts could only utter words of wickedness, while those of integrity brought forth words of goodness.

7. The power of words urged wisdom writers to comment repeatedly on the way words are employed in human interaction.

8. The continuation of prophets’ words found home in the person of Jesus. The Word of God is alive with personality and power (1Thess. 1:5).

9. In John the word is the person of Jesus. The word is no longer a message to deliver but a person to know, a person like us, a person of flesh.

10. To communicate as Jesus communicated means staying near enough to his words to be influenced by them, yet far enough to have perspective on how they can speak to our times.

11. His words are clusters around one central theme: A kingdom characterized by inclusive love.

Reflection Like the Word we follow, our word must become flesh, must be inviting, inclusive and loving, expressing the glory that is ours as the people of God, full of grace and truth.

Relevant Skills List 10 character traits of Jesus as found in the Gospels. Rate yourself for each of these character traits on a scale of 1 to 10.

Resources www.crosswalkmail.com References John L. McKenzie, Dictionary of the Bible. NY: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1965.

Ferder, Fran. Word Made Flesh: Scripture, Psychology and Human Communication. Notre Dame: Ave Maria Press, 1986.99 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Aim • To understand significant words in the Bible • To get to know Jesus as Word made Flesh • To get to know the Word as Good News Procedure • Please describe the context in which the ‘Word of God’ came to three prophets of the Old Testament (e.g. Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Amos) • Identify in the Gospel of John the statements Jesus made about himself (“I am” statements).

Review 1. Through out the Hebrew and Christian scripture, the word of God had awesome power. This is seen through Prophets, Israelites and even in creation itself.

2. We need words. We are a people fashioned and fed by the words of a nourishing God. We are born out of covenants and promises that have been expressed in words and spoken with courage for thousands of years.

3. Human closeness and its expression depends on words and how they are used.

4. Our words do not come back. 5. According to Biblical mentality, words enter a person – they get inside. There they are alive with powerful energy that enable something of the speaker to penetrate, to enter another’s core.

6. It was a common belief in biblical times that those of wicked hearts could only utter words of wickedness, while those of integrity brought forth words of goodness.

7. The power of words urged wisdom writers to comment repeatedly on the way words are employed in human interaction.

8. The continuation of the prophets’ words found home in the person of Jesus. The Word of God is alive with personality and power (1Thess. 1:5).

9. In John the word is the person of Jesus. The word is no longer a message to deliver but a person to know, a person like us, a person of flesh.

10. To communicate as Jesus communicated means staying near enough to his words to be influenced by them, yet far enough to have perspective on how they can speak to our times.

11. His words are clusters around one central theme: A kingdom characterized by inclusive love.

Reflection Like the Word we follow, our word must become flesh, must be inviting, inclusive and loving, expressing the glory that is ours as the people of God, full of grace and truth.

Relevant Skills List 10 character traits of Jesus as found in the Gospels. Rate yourself for each of these character traits on a scale of 1 to 10.

Resources www.crosswalkmail.com References John L. McKenzie, Dictionary of the Bible. NY: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1965.

Ferder, Fran. Word Made Flesh: Scripture, Psychology and Human Communication. Notre Dame: Ave Maria Press, 1986.

CHAPTER 2.7 PARTiCiPAnT’S HAnDouT Significance of Words According to Scripture COMMUNICATOR FOR A CYBER AGE IN AFRICA Bosco Eastern Africa Multimedia Services - BEAMS Publication, Kenya. beams@donbosco.or.ke100 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Input Ever since the Second Vatican Council promulgated its momentous document, Sacrosanctum Concilium, in December 1963, there have been plenty of changes taking place in the liturgy. Many of them have been very laudable. However, side by side with these, there have been some excesses which are regrettable. Now that the Church has sufficiently recovered her stability after the post-conciliar trauma, the time has come for the faithful in every sector to do a bit of soul- searching to see if all the adaptations that they have wrought are in keeping with the directives of the Church. In drawing up this document, we have been guided by the directives of the Church and some basic exigencies which all liturgical music must necessarily fulfill. These exigencies are presented here below: 1. Liturgical music must always elicit the fullest possible participation of all the faithful.

2. Liturgical music must be conducive to prayer. It must inspire a feeling of awe, reverence and worship.

3. Liturgical music must reflect the mind of the universal Church, while at the same time adjusting itself to local tastes.

We shoulder the grave responsibility of instilling in our youth a proper “musical sense” that will enable them to “feel at home” even in a wider circle of worshippers. The main and all-important criterion, therefore, is appropriateness.

There are numerous types of hymns. Some of them are only vaguely religious, and cannot, strictly speaking, be called hymns (e.g. ‘People over the world’, ‘You are my Soul Tattoo’, ‘I Miss my Time with You’, ‘We are the world’, ‘I’ll be there’ etc.) Others may be too “private”. The sentiments they express may not pertain to the majority of the assembly (Jesus and Me, I got Jesus in my heart). Yet others may be Bible narratives or ballads (e.g. I cannot come, Go down Moses). As a rule, such hymns are inappropriate for use in the liturgy. If at all they must be used, which is rarely, they must be preceded by a suitable commentary that “situates” them squarely within the context of the community journey towards holiness.

The nature of Hymns for the Eucharist: Regarding the choice of hymns for use at Mass, it is important to remind ourselves of the characteristics of the Mass, which they must reflect in some ways. The Mass is essentially: a) An act of praise, thanks and blessing, rendered unto the Father, by the Christian community.

b) A memorial sacrifice, i.e. a re-living of Christ’s passion, death and resurrection.

c) A covenant i.e. a relationship between God and man, sealed with three typical conventional signs: blood, a meal and marriage. (The Church, as bride of Christ, addresses the Father.) d) A Passover, i.e. a pilgrimage leading to new life.

Thus, the best hymns for use during the Mass are those that highlight “community” action, rather than “private” devotion. For this reason also, the singing of solos during the Mass is not advisable, unless the very nature of the action (e.g. proclaiming the Word in the Responsorial Psalm) demands it.

Aim Materials Required [ To explain the role of music in the liturgy.

[ To educate the participants on the appropriate choice of hymns for liturgical and para-liturgical services.

[ paper and pen.

2.8 Guidelines for Liturgical Music101 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa optional and obligatory occasions for Singing: It is generally urged that when the Eucharist is celebrated, certain parts must be sung, others may be sung, while yet others could as well be left unsung. The following table gives a clear breakdown of the three different types of occasions. Parts of the Liturgy Always sung normally sung Sometimes sung Entrance α Penitential Rite α Gloria (when used) α Responsorial Psalm (apt) α Alleluia/Gospel Acclamation α We believe α Prayer of the Faithful α Invocations α Response α Offertory Procession α Preparation of Gifts α Holy, Holy, Holy α Memorial Acclamation α Great Amen α Our Father α Lamb of God α Communion Hymn α Thanksgiving (Post Communion) α Recessional Hymn α A Comment on each occasion for Singing in the Mass: a) Entrance: The words of the entrance hymn should reflect the idea of a community assembling together for a sacred celebration. They may also serve to introduce the congregation to the mystery of the season or feast being celebrated.

b) Kyrie: The “Lord have mercy” is sung after the penitential rite, unless it has already been included as part of the penitential rite.

c) Gloria: The Gloria is a hymn of praise to the Father and the Lamb. It is not advisable to substitute it.

d) Responsorial Psalm: When sung, care must be taken to ensure that the words are scriptural and that they closely approximate the psalm of the day, or some legitimate substitute for it. Ordinarily, the congregation takes part by singing the response only, unless the psalm is sung straight through without response. If the Psalm is sung, any of the following texts may be chosen: 1. The psalm in the lectionary 2. The gradual in the Roman Gradual or, 3. The Responsorial or Alleluia Psalm in the Simple Gradual.

e) Acclamation: Like the Responsorial Psalm, it must be scriptural. The verse must be taken either from the Lectionary or the Gradual. Alleluia is sung in every season outside lent. (Gen. instruction of the Roman Missal 102 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa No. 62a). The congregation should be taught some standard Alleluia tunes which may be sung by all, before and after the scriptural verse (sung in plain chant or recited by the lector).

f) Profession of faith is to be sung or said by all (No 68).

g) offertory Procession: The hymn that is sung at this time must convey the idea of an offering made by the assembly to the Father. Hymns of dedication/offering to Jesus are not appropriate (e.g. I surrender all, I give my hands). It must always be accompanied by the liturgical song (No 73-76) h) our Father: If the Our Father is sung, the wordings of the prayer should be respected.

i) Communion Hymns: They must express the spiritual union of the communicants who join their voices in a single song. It must reflect the joy of all, and convey the feeling that communion procession is an act of community .

j) Post Communion Hymn: If sung, it should be a psalm or song of praise and thanksgiving for the privilege of having participated in the Eucharist. Here care must be taken that the song is not or does not give the impression of entertainment.

k) Recessional Hymn: Oddly enough, the General Instruction of the Roman missal mentions nothing about it but neither is there anything against it! Perhaps the most appropriate hymn at this moment would be one that amplifies the final words of the priest: “Go in peace to love and serve the Lord.” Music outside the Liturgy There are many occasions outside the Mass, when hymns are sung: prayer meetings, adoration services, community rosaries, etc. These celebrations are para-liturgical, and as such, allow for greater liberty in the selection of hymns. Much will depend on the theme chosen. There are, however, a few fundamental obligatory observances which must be borne in mind.

a) If the Blessed Sacrament is exposed, the hymn sung should not detract attention from it, but should be able to turn one’s attention to the Blessed Sacrament.

b) The hymn sung immediately before the blessing should be one of Eucharistic veneration, i.e., in praise of Jesus in the Blessed Sacrament.

Lauds, Vespers, Compline: • The animation of the Liturgy of the Hours depends much on the resourcefulness of the prayer leader. As regards the music, we may at least point out that many of the psalms are available in song in various hymn books. • If the verses are regular, one can, with a little creativity, even invent simple tunes in plain chant, for the singing of the psalms, or at least of their antiphons.

Musical instruments: • The organ does – and always will – occupy a pride of place in Western liturgical music. But beyond this fact, we must realise that the organ too could be misused. By playing it in “disco-style” one can ruin liturgical singing because of the adverse connotation that such music has in the minds of the participants. In Africa, the drum and kayamba are also used to accompany music.

• In all musical accompaniments, therefore, there should be a certain amount of sobriety and dignity, for it is these elements that are most conducive to creating an aura of sacredness, reverence and prayer, which is essential to any liturgy.

• There is no musical instrument which is intrinsically unfit for use in the liturgy. What tilts the balance one way or the other is the manner in which these instruments are played. Musical instruments must always be used only to accompany and support the singing. They ought to occupy an entirely secondary and optional role. Hence, their music must be simple (i.e. without frills) and unobtrusive.

• It is also important that the musical accompanist be given such a place as not to distract the attention of the congregation from the altar and the celebrant. For this reason, it is ill advised to position the players in the sanctuary, or any other prominent spot in front, near the altar. The same can also be said of the choir, if there is one specially constituted for any occasion.

Singing for Special occasions People-participation is perhaps the most emphasised aspect of liturgical music in our day. This can be a problem on several occasions, when the congregation is heterogeneous. On such occasions, there is a tendency to overlook the exigency for popular participation, thus making the liturgical music seem more like some sort of “concert performance.” As an antidote to this danger, here are some suggestions: a) Choose only well-known hymns for such occasions: hymns which are sure to elicit people-participation.

b) Appoint an intoner/cantor to guide the singing over a microphone and to repeatedly invite, encourage and coax the congregation to join in the singing.103 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa c) If a choir has been trained for the occasion, its sole purpose must be to boost the singing, rather than provide the singing itself.

d) Sing in unison, rather than in rigidly orchestrated polyphony. The latter is reminiscent of concert performances.

e) If new hymns must be sung, seize opportunities before the “big day” to familiarise the outsiders with the melodies. Either after Sunday Mass, or during the novena days that precede the feast.

f) Keep instrumental accompaniment to a minimum. The more the instruments and their intricate accompaniment, the more likely it is that the outsider will “sit back and listen to the performance.” Volume and Expression: • Somebody once remarked facetiously that in youth liturgies, there are only three grades of volume: loud, louder and loudest. Youth must realise that “singing with gusto” does not necessarily mean “blasting away.” Volume, if over emphasised, can often kill the spirit of devotion and reverence.

• Practically speaking, singing loudly becomes inevitable when the pitch chosen for singing is too high. At a lower pitch, the yelling is sure to diminish. (In general, young boys require singing at a pitch which is two tones lower than that suited for adult males).

Tempo and Rhythm: The pace or tempo at which church music is sung, should be reverent and devotional. One way to ensure that the tempo of a hymn is not unduly tampered with is by maintaining the correct beat/rhythm. Very often, the choice of a wrong rhythm could result in a change of tempo from the normal one. We suggest, therefore, that those who provide instrumental accompaniment for liturgical singing get familiarised not only with the pitch/scale proper to every hymn, but also with the rhythm most appropriate to that hymn.

Words • If often does seem, to our discredit, that we do not seriously mean what we sing. How often we choose particular hymns because we find the tune catchy… hardly bothering to check whether the words are appropriate for the occasion, or whether they are doctrinally sound! We ought to keep in mind that the words are the primary content of a hymn. Hence, whenever a hymn is sung in the liturgy, we should make sure that the words are directly related to the liturgical action being performed.

• In this regard, we should always be wary of adapting secular songs for liturgical use by simply modifying a few words here and there. Experience has amply proved that when “modified pop-songs” are used in the liturgy, their contra-associations are so strong, that (despite the changes in the words), they are a distraction and come in the way of harmonious action.

use of Vernacular Hymns: • With the strong drive towards indiginisation that is present in the Church, it is necessary that we too keep abreast, by singing hymns in the vernacular during our liturgical celebrations. We would recommend the moderate use of vernacular hymns, even if the liturgy is in English.

• However, whichever hymns are sung, care must be taken to have the meanings of these hymns explained to all. Secondly, vernacular hymns should not be imposed autocratically upon the people. Instead, the people must be sensitised into seeing the need for vernacular hymns in the liturgy, so that they may willingly accept them. Thirdly, in choosing vernacular hymns, the best known and most popular ones ought to receive priority.

Music for Youngsters: Youngsters are likely to meet with certain difficulties which are not normally felt by adults when singing. Hence, for their sake, a) The hymns chosen should have simple and easily understandable words.

b) The hymns chosen should not have intricate tunes. Neither should they have too wide a compass (i.e. not more than an octave).

c) The hymns must be made up of short musical phrases.

The main and overruling criterion therefore is appropriateness. To conclude, we would do well to remind ourselves that music is so much a part of the very fabric of worship, that if it is bad or inappropriate, it tears at the very soul of the rite, interrupts prayer, and diverts attention from the mysteries being celebrated. Review 1. Ever since the Second Vatican Council promulgated its momentous document, Sacrosanctum Concilium, in December 1963, there have been plenty of changes taking place in the liturgy. Many of them have been very laudable while there have been some excesses which are regrettable.

2. Hymns for use at Mass should reflect the characteristics of the Mass.

3. Para-liturgical celebrations allow for greater liberty in the selection of hymns.

4. In the use of musical accompaniments, there should be a certain amount of sobriety and dignity, for it is these 104 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa elements that an environment conducive to creating an aura of sacredness, reverence and prayer, is formed.

5. The pace or tempo at which church music is sung, should be reverent and devotional. 6. We ought to keep in mind that the words are the primary content of a hymn. Hence, whenever a hymn is sung in the liturgy, the words should be directly related to the liturgical action being performed.

7. We would recommend the moderate use of vernacular hymns, even if the liturgy is in English.

8. Vernacular hymns should not be imposed autocratically upon the people. Instead, the people must be sensitised into seeing the need for vernacular hymns in the liturgy, so that they may willingly accept them. Also, in choosing vernacular hymns, the best known and most popular ones ought to receive priority.

Reflection 1. Reflect on the process of creating and making hymns suitable for use during the Liturgical Celebration of the Mass.

2. On this reflection, compose two hymns suitable for use during Mass.

Relevant Skills Choose a Feast Day, a Sunday in Ordinary Time and a weekday in Lent and select appropriate hymns. Indicate the parts to be sung.

Resources BOSCOM-INDIA. ‘SHEPHERDS’ FOR AN INFORMATION AGE. Matunga: Tej Prasarini, 2000.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008.

References Wagner Nick. Modern Liturgy Answers the 101 Most-Asked Questions about Liturgy. California: Resource Publications Inc., 1996.105 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Aim • To explain the role of music in the liturgy.

• To learn the appropriate choice of hymns for liturgical and para-liturgical services.

Review 1. Ever since the Second Vatican Council promulgated its momentous document, Sacrosanctum Concilium, in December 1963, there have been plenty of changes taking place in the liturgy. Many of them have been very laudable while there have been some excesses which are regrettable.

2. Hymns for use at Mass should reflect the characteristics of the Mass.

3. Para-liturgical celebrations allow for greater liberty in the selection of hymns.

4. In the use of musical accompaniments, there should be a certain amount of sobriety and dignity, for it is these elements that promote an environment conducive to creating an aura of sacredness, reverence and prayer.

5. The pace or tempo at which church music is sung, should be reverent and devotional. 6. We ought to keep in mind that the words are the primary content of a hymn. Hence, whenever a hymn is sung in the liturgy, the words should be directly related to the liturgical action being performed.

7. We would recommend the moderate use of vernacular hymns, even if the liturgy is in English.

8. Vernacular hymns should not be imposed autocratically upon the people. Instead, the people must be sensitised into seeing the need for vernacular hymns in the liturgy, so that they may willingly accept them. Also, in choosing vernacular hymns, the best known and most popular ones ought to receive priority.

Parts of the Liturgy Always sung normally sung Sometimes sung Entrance α Penitential Rite α Gloria (when used) α Responsorial Psalm (apt) α Alleluia/Gospel Acclamation α We believe α Prayer of the Faithful α Invocations α Response α Offertory Procession α Preparation of Gifts α Holy, Holy, Holy α Memorial Acclamation α Great Amen α Our Father α Lamb of God α Communion Hymn α Thanksgiving (Post Communion) α Recessional Hymn α CHAPTER 2.8 PARTiCiPAnT’S HAnDouT Guidelines for Liturgical Music COMMUNICATOR FOR A CYBER AGE IN AFRICA Bosco Eastern Africa Multimedia Services - BEAMS Publication, Kenya. beams@donbosco.or.ke106 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Reflection 1. Reflect on the process of creating and making hymns suitable for use during the Liturgical Celebration of the Mass.

2. On this reflection, compose two hymns suitable for use during Mass.

Relevant Skills Choose a Feast Day, a Sunday in Ordinary Time and a weekday in Lent and select appropriate hymns. Indicate the parts to be sung.

Resources BOSCOM-INDIA. ‘SHEPHERDS’ FOR AN INFORMATION AGE. Matunga: Tej Prasarini, 2000.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008.

References Wagner Nick. Modern Liturgy Answers the 101 Most-Asked Questions about Liturgy. California: Resource Publications Inc., 1996.107 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Input Introduction • Vatican II in its Constitution, “Sacrosanctum Concillum,” has opened the door anew to a liturgy in which the whole person, mind and heart and body is actively taking part. Adaptation to different cultures especially in mission countries is called for.

• Local tradition will determine which gestures are appropriate for showing reverence, offering gifts, receiving gifts, humble listening or service. In some countries, people sit during the gospel as a sign of reverence for the word of God.

• The point is that the gestures the whole community enacts, can lead people to a deeper awareness of their worship as one body in one Body, the temple of God in which the Spirit dwells. It is the community which determines the gestures in liturgy and which gives the meaning. They must come from the heart before they become visible.

• Drama and dance in liturgy is therefore not a mere performance of some rehearsed steps. It is and should always be the communication of our inner invisible being with the mystery of life itself through the medium of our bodies. It is the communion of the local church, expressing its prayer and worship through its cultural richness and symbolism.

1. Drama in the Liturgy • When using drama as a medium for communication, the presentation happens first. Then follows the reflection on the meaning and message e.g. in a street play. In the Liturgy however, this order is reversed.

• Here the process of reflection and group prayer must precede the presentation. In this way the presentation will have that prayer quality demanded of a liturgical act. Instead of being a performance to be watched, it will be an invitation to worship. To avoid the impression of giving a performance, it is best to prepare a dramatic presentation for a small community with the whole group involved in it, so that there are no spectators but only worshippers. If several communities in a parish have had the experience, then a celebration will present no problem.

• Role-play, mime, shadow-play and drama are forms of acting which lend themselves very well for liturgical purposes. Reading a gospel text in parts is the simplest form of dramatisation. Miming a gospel scene whilst one narrator relates the story is also often done. If drama can bring out the application of the gospel to life, it is a powerful sermon.

Creating Drama from a Biblical Passage • Take a gospel passage you want to enact. The actors are assigned roles and must pause for reflection on the passage. They must try to get into the shoes of the characters they are acting and experience life from within. What words and gestures accompanied the role he is playing? How did Jesus’ response affect him and change him? • The actors are asked to reflect on their own life. Is there any situation which in some way resembles the gospel scene? Ask questions like: “If you had the chance to meet Jesus, how would you express your helplessness or joy?” • Together work out a script and rehearse the acting before you are ready to perform in plenary.

Aim Materials Required [ To encourage students to animate the liturgy through drama.

[ Vatican II Documents, work- sheets for the queries below each topic.

2.9 Drama in the Liturgy108 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa • This kind of preparation can form a very meaningful community – sharing, so that when finally the drama is part of the Eucharistic celebration, the presence of Christ in the community is truly experienced as healing, forgiving and strengthening. It is this element which distinguishes liturgical drama from all other performances. It leads people to the person of Jesus Christ, whereas in ordinary theatre the attention is on the actor.

2. Movement and Symbolic Gestures • Familiarity with prayer formulas can at times lead to thoughtless recitation of words. Interpretative movement of the body is one way of allowing the words to affect the body and make the body speak them. Not for nothing has the term body-language been coined.

• Explore with the group how we can express with our bodies that “we adore the Father who is in heaven.” How can my body say, “Thy will be done.” In exploring possibilities, the group will also rediscover the depth and meaning of prayer, both as community and as individuals.

• As these movements capture and express our attitudes before God, we will be solemn and joyful in a liturgy. It is good if the entire group follows the movements, getting out of step not withstanding.

• In a big congregation, a group may accompany the congregation’s prayer with movement, but here the movement can run the risk of easily becoming a spectacle.

Tips from the Professional Performing Arts Aims of Performing Arts 1. To make the outward behaviour of the performer this includes-gestures, voice and movement-natural and convincing.

2. To have the actor or actress convey the inner needs of a character.

3. To make the life of the character onstage, not only dynamic but continuous.

4. To develop a strong sense of ensemble playing with other performers in a scene.

Keys to great performances 1. Relaxation: Good actors are in a state of complete freedom and relaxation and let the behaviour of the character come through.

2. Concentration and Observation: The performer must start with a small circle of attention and gradually enlarge that circle. In this way performers will stop worrying about the audience and lose their self consciousness.

3. Importance of Specifics: A performer should never try to act in general and should never try to convey a feelings and emotions such as fear or love in a vague way. Performers must find concrete activities (nervous business man jangles his keys, guilty child drops things and hesitates to respond etc).

4. Inner Truth: An innovative aspect of Constantin Stanislavski’s ((Russian actor and director) work has to do with inner truth, which deals with the internal or subjective world of characters –that is, their thoughts and emotions. Stanislavski had several ideas about how to achieve a sense of inner truth, one being the “magic if.” The word if becomes a powerful lever for the mind; it can lift us out of ourselves and give us a sense of absolute certainty about imaginary circumstances.

5. Action Onstage: What? Why? How? The action onstage must have a purpose. The performer’s attention must always be focused on a series of physical actions linked by the circumstances of the play. An action is performed such as the elder son walks away from celebration (what), because his prodigal brother has returned (why), annoyed and angry (how) with his father’s rewarding treatment of a wayward behaviour.

6. Spine: The performer must be aware of the overall objective of the play and at the same time must be conscious of the objective of each of the scenes. This is called the through line or spine.

7. Ensemble Playing: Many performers tend to ‘stop acting’ or lose their concentration when they are not the main characters in a scene or are not ‘talking’. They tend move in and out of a role and hence do not perform together thus weakening the sense of ensemble.

Body and Voice Training A primary requirement for performers is to make certain that the lines they speak are heard clearly by the audience. To be heard throughout a theatre or church a performer must project, that is to throw the voice into the audience so that 109 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa it penetrates to the utmost reaches of hall. A performer needs to strike a balance between credibility and the necessity to be heard, for example in a dialogue that requires two lovers to express affection through whispers.

One technique to enable projection is by controlling the breath from the diaphragm rather than the throat so that the vocal reproduction will have power and can be sustained. In actor’s training, learning a technique for maintaining appropriate breath control are crucial. Physical training includes developing the skills necessary to deal with the peculiarities of a given historical period, skills of specific proficiency of certain characters and even learning of certain deportments and mannerisms of cultural nature.

Centering is the way of bringing everything together and allows the performer to eliminate any blocks that impede either the body of the voice.. Centering involves locating the place – roughly in the middle of the torso (belly button) – where all the lines of force of the body come together. When the performers are able to center themselves, they achieve a balance, a freedom, and a flexibility they could rarely find otherwise.

WARM-uP EXERCiSES FoR BoDY AnD VoiCE Here are some exercises designed to relax the body and the voice.

The following are typical warm-up exercises for body movement: 1 Lie on your back; beginning with the feet, tense and relax each part of the body—knees, thighs, abdomen, chest, neck—moving up to the face. Note the difference in the relaxation of various muscles and of the body generally after the exercise is completed.

2 Stand with feet parallel, approximately, as far apart as the width of the shoulders. Lift one foot off the ground and loosen all the joints in the foot, ankle, and knee. Repeat with the other foot off the ground. Place the feet down and move to the hip, spine, arms, neck, etc., loosening all joints.

3 Stand with feet parallel. Allow all tension to drain out of the body through the feet. In the process, bend the knees, straighten the pelvis, and release the lower back.

4 Begin walking in a circle; walk on the outside of the feet, then on the inside, then on the toes, and then on the heels. Notice what this does to the rest of the body. Try changing other parts of the body in a similar fashion and observe the effect on feelings and reactions.

5 Imagine the body filled with either light substance like helium or a heavy substance like lead. Notice the effect of each of these sensations, both while standing in place and while walking. Do the same with one body part at a time—each arm, each leg, the head, etc.

The following vocal exercises free the throat and vocal cords: 1 Standing, begin a lazy, unhurried stretch. Reach with your arms to the ceiling, meanwhile lengthening and widening the whole of your back. Yawn as you take in a deep breath and hum on an exhalation. Release your torso so that it rests down toward your legs. Yawn on another deep breath and hum on an exhalation. On an inhalation, roll up the spine until you are standing with your arms at your sides. Look at something on the ceiling and then at something on the floor; then let your head return to a balance point, so that the neck and shoulder muscles are relaxed.

2 Put your hands on your ribs, take in a deep breath, and hum a short tune. Repeat several times. Hum an m or n up and down the musical scale. Drop your arms; lift the shoulders an inch and drop them, releasing all tension.

3 Take in a deep breath and with the palm of your hand push gently down on your stomach as you exhale. Do this several times. 4 Standing, yawn with your throat and mouth open and be aware of vibrations in the front of your mouth, just behind your front teeth, as you vocalize on the vowels ee, ei, and o. Take these up and down the scales. Sing a simple song and then say it, and see if you have just as much vibration in your mouth when you are speaking as when you are singing.

5 Using a light, quick tempo, shift to a tongue twister (such as Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers). Feel a lively touch of the tongue on the gum ridge on the ts and ds, and a bounce of the back of the tongue on the Ms and gs. Feel the bouncing action on the lips on the p’s and b’s.

Source: adapted from lessons provided by Professor John Sipes of Illinois State University and Professor Barbara F. Acker of Arizona State University.

Review 1. Vatican II in its Constitution “Sacrosanctum Concillum” has opened the door anew to a liturgy in which the whole person, mind and heart and body is actively taking part. 110 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa 2. Local tradition determines the gestures that are appropriate for showing reverence, for offering gifts, for receiving gifts, for humble listening and for service.

3. The gestures that the whole community enacts, can lead people to a deeper awareness of their worship as one body in one Body - the temple of God in which the Spirit dwells.

4. Drama and dance in liturgy is not a mere performance of some rehearsed steps. It is and should always be the communication of our inner invisible being with the mystery of Life itself through the medium of our bodies.

5. In liturgical drama, the process of reflection and group prayer must precede the presentation. In this way the presentation will have that prayer quality demanded of a liturgical act. Instead of being a performance to be watched, it will be an invitation to worship.

6. Familiarity with prayer formulas can at times lead to thoughtless recitation of words. Interpretative movement of the body is one way of allowing the words to affect the body and make the body speak them. 7. As these movements capture and express our attitudes before God, they will be solemn and joyful in a liturgy. Reflection 1. “Drama in liturgy is not a mere performance of some rehearsed steps. It is and should always be the communication of our inner invisible being with the mystery of Life itself through the medium of our bodies. It is the communion of the local church, expressing its prayer and worship through its cultural richness and symbolism.” Reflect on this and write a half-page essay on your thoughts and conclusions. 2. In what ways can we transform drama in our local churches to be more in tune with the teachings of the church? How can we best direct the youth to be more sensitive to the centrality of God in drama and dance in the liturgy? Relevant Skills Prepare and co-ordinate a drama presentation based on a gospel passage for Sunday Mass. Ensure that you have followed all the fundamental obligatory observances. Resources BOSCOM-INDIA. ‘SHEPHERDS’ FOR AN INFORMATION AGE. Matunga: Tej Prasarini, 2000.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008.

References Wagner Nick. Modern Liturgy Answers the 101 Most-Asked Questions about Liturgy. California: Resource Publications Inc., 1996.

Edwin Wilson. The Theater Experience. New York: Mc Graw Hill, 2001111 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Aim • To learn to animate the liturgy through drama.

Review 1. Vatican II in its Constitution “Sacrosanctum Concillum” has opened the door anew to a liturgy in which the whole person, mind and heart and body is actively taking part. 2. Local tradition determines the gestures that are appropriate for showing reverence, for offering gifts, for receiving gifts, for humble listening and for service.

3. The gestures that the whole community enacts, can lead people to a deeper awareness of their worship as one body in one Body - the temple of God in which the Spirit dwells.

4. Drama and dance in liturgy is not a mere performance of some rehearsed steps. It is and should always be the communication of our inner invisible being with the mystery of Life itself through the medium of our bodies.

5. In liturgical drama, the process of reflection and group prayer must precede the presentation. In this way the presentation will have that prayer quality demanded of a liturgical act. Instead of being a performance to be watched, it will be an invitation to worship.

6. Familiarity with prayer formulas can at times lead to thoughtless recitation of words. Interpretative movement of the body is one way of allowing the words to affect the body and make the body speak them. 7. As these movements capture and express our attitudes before God, they will be solemn and joyful in a liturgy. WARM-uP EXERCiSES FoR BoDY AnD VoiCE Here are some exercises designed to relax the body and the voice.

The following are typical warm-up exercises for body movement: 1 Lie on your back; beginning with the feet, tense and relax each part of the body—knees, thighs, abdomen, chest, neck—moving up to the face. Note the difference in the relaxation of various muscles and of the body generally after the exercise is completed.

2 Stand with feet parallel, approximately, as far apart as the width of the shoulders. Lift one foot off the ground and loosen all the joints in the foot, ankle, and knee. Repeat with the other foot off the ground. Place the feet down and move to the hip, spine, arms, neck, etc., loosening all joints.

3 Stand with feet parallel. Allow all tension to drain out of the body through the feet. In the process, bend the knees, straighten the pelvis, and release the lower back.

4 Begin walking in a circle; walk on the outside of the feet, then on the inside, then on the toes, and then on the heels. Notice what this does to the rest of the body. Try changing other parts of the body in a similar fashion and observe the effect on feelings and reactions.

5 Imagine the body filled with either light substance like helium or a heavy substance like lead. Notice the effect of each of these sensations, both while standing in place and while walking. Do the same with one body part at a time—each arm, each leg, the head, etc.

The following vocal exercises free the throat and vocal cords: 1 Standing, begin a lazy, unhurried stretch. Reach with your arms to the ceiling, meanwhile lengthening and widening the whole of your back. Yawn as you take in a deep breath and hum on an exhalation. Release your torso so that it rests down toward your legs. Yawn on another deep breath and hum on an exhalation. On an inhalation, roll up the spine until you are standing with your arms at your sides. Look at something on the ceiling and then at something on the floor; then let your head return to a balance point, so that the neck and shoulder muscles are relaxed.

2 Put your hands on your ribs, take in a deep breath, and hum a short tune. Repeat several times. Hum an m or n up and down the musical scale. Drop your arms; lift the shoulders an inch and drop them, releasing all tension.

3 Take in a deep breath and with the palm of your hand push gently down on your stomach as you exhale. Do this several times. 4 Standing, yawn with your throat and mouth open and be aware of vibrations in the front of your mouth, just behind your front teeth, as you vocalize on the vowels ee, ei, and o. Take these up and down the scales. Sing a simple song and then say it, and see if you have just as much vibration in your mouth when you are speaking as when you are singing.

5 Using a light, quick tempo, shift to a tongue twister (such as Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers). Feel a lively touch of the tongue on the gum ridge on the ts and ds, and a bounce of the back of the tongue on the Ms and gs. Feel the bouncing action on the lips on the p’s and b’s.

CHAPTER 2.9 PARTiCiPAnT’S HAnDouT Drama in the Liturgy COMMUNICATOR FOR A CYBER AGE IN AFRICA Bosco Eastern Africa Multimedia Services - BEAMS Publication, Kenya. beams@donbosco.or.ke112 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Source: adapted from lessons provided by Professor John Sipes of Illinois State University and Professor Barbara F. Acker of Arizona State University.

Reflection 1. “Drama in liturgy is not a mere performance of some rehearsed steps. It is and should always be the communication of our inner invisible being with the mystery of Life itself through the medium of our bodies. It is the communion of the local church, expressing its prayer and worship through its cultural richness and symbolism.” Reflect on this and write a half-page essay on your thoughts and conclusions. 2. In what ways can we transform drama in our local churches to be more in tune with the teachings of the church? How can we best direct the youth to be more sensitive to the centrality of God in drama and dance in the liturgy? Relevant Skills Prepare and co-ordinate a drama presentation based on a gospel passage for Sunday Mass. Ensure that you have followed all the fundamental obligatory observances. Resources BOSCOM-INDIA. ‘SHEPHERDS’ FOR AN INFORMATION AGE. Matunga: Tej Prasarini, 2000.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008.

References Wagner Nick. Modern Liturgy Answers the 101 Most-Asked Questions about Liturgy. California: Resource Publications Inc., 1996.

Edwin Wilson. The Theater Experience. New York: Mc Graw Hill, 2001113 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Input introduction Dance in Liturgy • Dance in tribal cultures (and among most eastern societies), is said to be the primordial art form of expression and is considered a true ritual. Tribals are usually innocent of the dichotomy between soul and body which characterised western religiosity in the past. Here the body truly is an instrument of communication. In the body a person is in communion with the world of nature, breathing air, eating animals, land plants, but also with the world of spirits and with the Supreme Being through the mediatorship of the ancestors.

• Communion is centred in the body and is expressed in dance. It always has a communication character and is for the healing of a person. Hence it has a place in the liturgy. Rhythmical movement in dance signifies contact with the spiritual world and with the whole cosmos.

• What has in practice been integrated into the liturgy is not so much this or that particular dance, but the value of dancing, expressed in various ways. There is a great variety of movement in dances. Many of these are quite specific to a particular context and may not be performed in any other.

• Liturgical dance is distinct from any other. It is characterised by controlled rhythmic movements of the whole body. In tribal societies dance in liturgy should always be a community action, never a solo performance. African liturgy is unique in its blend of dance and liturgy where the whole community sways while it participates in the rhythmic singing.

The dance has never been made an integral part of the official worship of the Latin Church.

If local churches have accepted the dance, sometimes even in the church building, that was on the occasion of feasts in order to manifest sentiments of joy and devo- tion. But that always took place outside of liturgical services.

Conciliar decisions have often condemned the religious dance because it conduces little to worship and because it could degenerate into disorders. Actually, in favor of dance in the liturgy, an argument could be drawn from the passage of the Con- stitution on the Sacred Liturgy, Sacrosanctum Concilium, in which are given the norms for adaptation of the liturgy to the character and the traditions of the various peoples: “In matters which do not affect the faith or the well-being of an entire community, the Church does not wish, even in the Liturgy, to impose a rigid uniformity; on the contrary, she respects and fosters the genius and talents of various races and people. Whatever in their way of life is not indissolubly bound up with supersti- tion and error, she looks upon with benevolence and if possible keeps it intact, and sometimes even admits it into the Liturgy provided it accords with the genuine and authentic liturgical spirit.” (Vatican Council II, Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, no. 37).

Theoretically, it could be deduced from that passage that certain forms of dancing and certain dance patterns could be introduced into Catholic worship. Neverthe- less, two condition should be observed. The first: to the extent in which the body is Aim Materials Required [ To encourage students to animate the liturgy through dance. [ Vatican II Documents, work- sheets for the queries below each topic.

2.10 Dance in the Liturgy114 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa a reflection of the soul, dancing, with all its manifestations, would have to express sentiments of faith and adoration in order to become a prayer. The second condition: just as all the gestures and movements found in the liturgy are reg- ulated by the competent ecclesiastical authority, so also dancing as a gesture would have to be under its discipline.

Concretely: there are cultures in which this is possible insofar as dancing is still reflective of religious values and becomes a clear manifestation of them. Such is the case of the Ethiopians. In their culture, even today, there is the religious ritualized dance, clearly distinct from the martial dance and from the amorous dance. The ritual dance is performed by priests and Levites before beginning a ceremony in the open and in front of the church. The dance ac- companies the chanting of psalms during the procession. When the procession enters the church, then the chanting of the psalms is carried out with and accompanied by bodily movement.

The same thing is found in the Syriac liturgy by means of chanting of psalms. In the Byzantine Liturgy, there is an ex- tremely simplified dance on the occasion of a wedding when the crowned spouses make a circular revolution around the lectern together with the celebrant.

Such is the case of the Israelites: in the synagogue their prayer is accompanied by a continuous movement to recall the precept from tradition: “When you pray, do so with all your heart, and all your bones.” And for primitive peoples the same observation can be made. In many Old Testament biblical allusions to, and descriptions of, dance there is no disapproval, only affirmation of this medium of worship. The people are exhorted to praise God with ‘dancing, mak - ing melody to him with timbrel and lyre’ (Psalm 149:3), and to ‘praise him with timbrel and dance’ (Psalm 150:4). Dancing is so common that in passages alluding to rejoicing without specific mention of dancing, it can be assumed dance is implied (Gagne 1984:24).

The most frequently used root for the word ‘dance’ in the Old Testament is hul which refers to the whirl of the dance and implies highly active movement. Of the 44 words in the Hebrew language for dancing, only in one is there a pos- sible reference to secular movement as distinct from religious dancing (Clarke and Crisp 1981:35).

The New Testament gives few direct references to dance. ‘But even this points to a possible parallel of the Jewish tradition of presuming the presence of dance without the need to mention it explicitly’ (Gagne 1984:35). Evidence of the use of dance as an accepted expression of joy is reflected in Jesus’ comment, ‘We piped to you but you did not dance’ (Matthew 11:17). Similarly, in Jesus’ parable of the prodigal son there was dancing and rejoicing on the son’s return to his home (Luke 15:25).

Paul reminds Christians that their bodies are temples of the Holy Spirit and that they should glorify God with their bodies (1 Corinthians 6:19-20). He further indicates physical movement is an approved part of prayer-like expression when he exhorts Timothy to pray lifting up holy hands (1 Timothy 2:8). The biblical stance for most prayers included raising arms and hands above the head (1 Timothy 2:8). In prayers of confession, kneeling or prostration was com- mon, and in thanksgiving prayers or intercession standing with arms raised was common (Adams 1975:4).

In the two earliest Christian liturgies recorded in detail, dance is used in the order of service. Both Justin Martyr in A.D. 150 and Hippolytus in A.D. 200 describe joyful circle dances (Daniels 1981:13). In the early church, dance was perceived as one of the ‘heavenly joys and part of the adoration of the divinity by the angels and by the saved’ (Gagne 1984:36). In the writings of the Church Fathers of early centuries, there is evident concern with the changing focus of Christian dances. Epiphanius (AD 315-403) sought to emphasise the spiritual element in the dance. How- ever, with the commencement of the Reformation, the dance was forced out of its place in the liturgical celebrations of the Christian church, and with few exceptions flourished instead in the secular realm. Gradually, with the renewal of the church in the twentieth century, including liturgical renewal, dance has begun to find increasing acceptance in the worship life of the church once again.

In the western culture however, dancing is tied with love, with diversion, with profaneness, with unbridling of the senses: such dancing, in general, is not pure. For that reason it cannot be introduced into liturgical celebrations of any kind whatever: that would be to inject into the liturgy one of the most desacralized and desacralizing elements; and so it would be equivalent to creating an atmosphere of profaneness which would easily recall to those present and to the participants in the celebration worldly places and situations.

Therefore, there is a great difference in cultures: what is well received in one culture cannot be taken on by another culture. The traditional reserve of the seriousness of religious worship, and of the Latin worship in particular, must 115 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa must never be forgotten. If the proposal of the religious dance in the West is really to be made welcome, care will have to be taken that in its regard a place be found outside of the liturgy, in assembly areas which are not strictly liturgical. Moreover, the priests must always be excluded from the dance.

We can recall how much was derived from the presence of the Samoans at Rome for the missionary festival of 1971. At the end of the Mass, they carried out their dance in St. Peter’s square: and all were joyful. The pastoral guidelines of the regions will be the best guide in incorporating dance into liturgy. Hence the following suggestions do not in any way over ride these directives as the pastoral guidelines are drawn up after good delibera- tions on culture, practice and norms of the Church.

At what Moments in the Liturgy is Dancing Allowed? • The entrance and recession processions are obvious occasions for dancing. So are the Gloria and Sanctus. Other parts of the liturgy may equally well be highlighted by a dance. However, be clear what you want to emphasise, when the whole congregation can join in, and when it is best for a group to dance alone. A group needs some kind of choreography and rehearsal while the congregational dance is usually very spontaneous.

• A gospel procession is a way of honouring Christ, the living Words of God. The Bible is carried aloft by the Deacon who moves behind the dancers towards the lectern. When it has been placed on the lectern, the Deacon is led by the dancers across front of the sanctuary.

• In response to a reading, a psalm may be danced. Many psalms in fact make direct reference to music and dance; the words could be enacted while the congregation sings the psalm.

• The Easter Vigil provides many suitable moments for dance. So do any of the major feasts of the church. Apart from Eucharistic celebrations, there are other services of the Word, Penitential Services, Thanks Rituals, etc., which are occasions for building community through dance.

Review 1. Communion is centred in the body and is expressed in dance. It always has a communication character and is for the healing of a person.

2. Dancing in the liturgy can be done during: entrance and recession processions, in response to a reading, during Penitential Services and Thanks rituals. You should however check in each case with the norms of the Diocese.

Reflection In what ways can we transform dance in our local churches to be more in tune with the teachings of the church? How can we best direct the youth to be more sensitive to the centrality of God in dance in the liturgy? Relevant Skills Do a selection of songs for any Para-liturgical celebration e.g. a prayer meeting, or adoration service. However, keep in mind the fundamental obligatory observances.

Resources BOSCOM-INDIA. ‘SHEPHERDS’ FOR AN INFORMATION AGE. Matunga: Tej Prasarini, 2000.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008.

References Wagner Nick. Modern Liturgy Answers the 101 Most-Asked Questions about Liturgy. California: Resource Publications Inc., 1996.

Wilson, Edwin. The Theater Experience. New York: The McGraw - Hill Companies, Inc., 1998.

Adams D. Involving the People in Dancing Worship: Historic and Contemporary Patterns. Austin: Sharing. 1975 Brooke, C. Medieval Church and Society. London: Sidgwick & Jackson. 1971 Clark, M. & Crisp, C. The History of Dance. New York: Crown. 1981 Daniels, M. Christianity: A History of Religious Dance through the Ages. New York: Paulist. 1981 Fallon, D. J. & Wolbers, M. J. eds. Focus on Dance X: Religion and Dance. Virginia: A.A.H.P.E.R.D. 1982 Gagne, R., Kane, T. & Ver Eecke, R. Dance in Christian Worship. Washington: Pastoral. 1984 Kraus, R. & Chapman, S. History of the Dance in Art and Education. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. 1981116 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa Aim • To encourage students to animate the liturgy through dance.

At what Moments in the Liturgy is Dancing Allowed? • The entrance and recession processions are obvious occasions for dancing. So are the Gloria and Sanctus. Other parts of the liturgy may equally well be highlighted by a dance. However, be clear what you want to emphasise, when the whole congregation can join in, and when it is best for a group to dance alone. A group needs some kind of choreography and rehearsal while the congregational dance is usually very spontaneous.

• A gospel procession is a way of honouring Christ, the living Words of God. The Bible is carried aloft by the Deacon who moves behind the dancers towards the lectern. When it has been placed on the lectern, the Deacon is led by the dancers across front of the sanctuary.

• In response to a reading, a psalm may be danced. Many psalms in fact make direct reference to music and dance; the words could be enacted while the congregation sings the psalm.

• The Easter Vigil provides many suitable moments for dance. So do any of the major feasts of the church. Apart from Eucharistic celebrations, there are other services of the Word, Penitential Services, Thanks Rituals, etc., which are occasions for building community through dance.

Review 1. Communion is centred in the body and is expressed in dance. It always has a communication character and is for the healing of a person.

2. Dancing in the liturgy can be done during: entrance and recession processions, in response to a reading, during Penitential Services and Thanks rituals. You should however check in each case with the norms of the Diocese.

Reflection In what ways can we transform dance in our local churches to be more in tune with the teachings of the church? How can we best direct the youth to be more sensitive to the centrality of God in dance in the liturgy? Relevant Skills Do a selection of songs for any Para-liturgical celebration e.g. a prayer meeting, or adoration service. However, keep in mind the fundamental obligatory observances.

Resources BOSCOM-INDIA. ‘SHEPHERDS’ FOR AN INFORMATION AGE. Matunga: Tej Prasarini, 2000.

Kunnel, Tom. Salesians of Don Bosco for a Cyber Age in Africa, Kenya: BEAMS, 2008.

References Wagner Nick. Modern Liturgy Answers the 101 Most-Asked Questions about Liturgy. California: Resource Publications Inc., 1996.

Wilson, Edwin. The Theater Experience. New York: The McGraw - Hill Companies, Inc., 1998.

CHAPTER 2.10 PARTiCiPAnT’S HAnDouT Dance in the Liturgy COMMUNICATOR FOR A CYBER AGE IN AFRICA Bosco Eastern Africa Multimedia Services - BEAMS Publication, Kenya. beams@donbosco.or.ke117 Communicator for a Cyber-Age in Africa