Don Bosco

Don Bosco the Educator, Narrative Pedagogy (1854-1862)


1. Description of the existing documents in the ASC (Rome) 95
2. Dates of composition of the texts 102
3. Edition criteria 104
2. Abbreviations used in the source apparatus 106
Il. TEXTS 108
1. The "Introduction" and the "Historical Reference" 108
2. The "History" 134
From "History of Italy »(1855) 154
Circular for a lottery 160
A day of celebration at the oratory of St. Francis de Sales 163
Regulations of the Congregation of St. Francis of Sales 165


Events that are almost natural in themselves, at some point quite obvious, have led Don Bosco to stay in Turin, a priest from the countryside, quickly acclimatized with the world of the city and with problems that perfectly matched the aspirations and anxieties that had oriented him to the priestly commitment. For this reason, the first steps marked by the concrete difficulties of studying and following the vocation, germinated and felt towards the age of nine or ten, had been difficult for the country. Decisive was the choice made at the end of his ecclesiastical training, in 1844. In theory he could have opted for the universe of origin, to return to the familiar "roots", environmental, cultural, as a simple "country curate". But in practice the experiences of the years 1841-1844 had oriented him in a rather precise direction,

Thus begins an adventure which, due to increasingly dilated concentric circles, before and after death, will propose it to catholicity, and beyond, admired "father and teacher of the young" on all continents, with a "preventive", spiritual message pedagogical, social, which far exceeds the spaces of the institutions he has set up and managed directly.

Much has been written and written about the global historical significance of his experience and his proposal. But perhaps it is particularly important to grasp its essential traits at the moment of explicit decision-making, which by setting a preference automatically excludes all the others. All the better if this can be obtained from documents left by the protagonist himself.

In truth, a man of action, Don Bosco never attempted to systematically trace his thoughts about his preventive action in favor of youth, which he constantly called "poor and abandoned", even "dangerous and dangerous". The only time he did it on purpose, in 1877, he limited himself to exposing "some thoughts" on the preventive system in a narrow educational angle, hoping at most to arrive later, "to benefit the difficult art of youth education", to publication of "a specially prepared operetta".

On the other hand, he very often loved to "tell" his experience, outlining it "narratively" in "historical notes", "historical news", "informative" and supporting circulars, "memories", as well as in humble "peda novels

gogic », such as The Strength of Good Education (1855), Valentino or the impeded vocation (1866), Severino or adventures of a young alpigiano (1868); similarly through the significant testimonies of "narrative pedagogy" entrusted to the biographies of Domenico Savio (1859), Michele Magone (1861), Francesco Besucco (1864).

And again in confidential discourses and lectures of the 1960s Don Bosco, with a large indulgence for the "extraordinary" aspects, recalls to the first adherents of Salesian society in formation the salient moments of his prehistory, which coincide with the capital phases of the events of the "Oratory", which is his essential occupation: therefore, "congregation of orators".

In the impossibility of reporting all the extensive documentation of this kind, we will limit ourselves to presenting three series of short documents below.

First, two noteworthy Don Bosco manuscripts are reproduced on the history of the oratory, which is not yet "Salesian" history, but the creation of the diocesan priest Don Bosco, mirror of the first developments in Turin of his work: the Introduction to the regulation of the 'Oratory of St. Francis de Sales and the historical reference to the same, both dating back to 1854. By analogy of content and meanings (there is no reference to the incipient "Salesian society") the twin document of 1862, Historical outline around the Oratory of S. Francesco di Sales.

Secondly, there are short clips relating to a book that wants to be of history, but which is even more manual than moral, Christian and civil education, the History of Italy told to the youth (1855), and to Turin's echoes of the oratorian activity, view still closely linked to the diocesan and city reality: a circular for the lottery of 1857 and an article of the most important Catholic newspaper of the metropolis, L'Armonia, which reports with sympathy and fidelity on the Oratory's lifestyle.

At the end of the section is placed the first significant document of a "narrative pedagogy" which is no longer the sole initiative of a single man, but tends to become a style of welfare and educational action of an incipient "religious congregation". The genesis and the developments of the interest for the young and of the "preventive" solicitude in their favor, in the "functional" evocation of Don Bosco, end up making a whole with the genesis and the developments of the "Society of Saint Francis of Sales », both of them united from 8 December 1841, who with the Memoirs of the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales in the 1970s, would have seen the fateful meeting of Don Bosco with the first oratorian-symbol, Bartolomeo Garelli.



The texts are three: 1) an Introduction to the Regulation Plan of the festive Oratory; 2) a historical outline on the development of the work of the oratories in Turin from 1841 to 1854; 3) other historical notes on the development of the work of the oratories in Turin from 1841 to 1862.

The Introduction and the Cenno constituted in the primitive editorial offices of the regulation of the oratory a sort of preliminary and justifying part. They disappear from successive widespread manuscript copies of the speakers and those prepared for publication and are ignored by the definitive official edition of 1877.

The Introduction is published for the first time, but incomplete (lin, 1- 25, 47-51), by Don Lemoyne in the second volume of the Biographical Memoirs and related to the date of 3 November 1841, when Don Bosco, from a few months priests, he settled in Turin. "What his thoughts and affections were in that solemn moment - the biographer writes, anticipating the times of real history - we seem to find them reproduced in an old paper written by his hand in a time shortly after this year". " Entirely transcribed from Don Bosco's autograph, it probably appears for the first time in the collection of St. John Bosco, Writings on the Preventive System in Youth Education, edited by P. Braido.2

The historical reference, the oldest and most interesting written testimony of Don Bosco on the beginnings of his work, has remained unpublished so far. They know it, however, and the best scholars of Don Bosco refer to it. '

'MB II 45-46.

2 Brescia, La Scuola 1965, pp. 360-362.

See for example E. CERIA in the edition of the Memoirs of the Oratory (1846), p. 146, lin. 103; p. 165, lin. 7; 172-173, lin. 18; P. STELLA, Don Bosco in economic and social history (1815-1870), p. 160, n. 6.

The historical notes, according to Don Lemoyne, should have been printed 4 and as such appear listed in the volume of P. STELLA, The printed writings of St. John Bosco. ' A passage (corresponding to the lines 211-237 of the present edition) is reproduced in MB VI 804-805. Subsequent corrections and clarifications suggest a text that is gradually prepared to be publicized. But there was no trace of it, not even in archives and libraries of people who could have been the most obvious recipients (for example the bishops to whom Don Bosco asked for "commendatizie" to obtain the approval of the nascent religious society).

For the essentiality and linearity of the discourse they seem to represent the simplest of things Don Bosco has handed down, on an informative level, on the "real" events of his oratory, without superstructures, interpretations, comments.

It seems extremely interesting, on the other hand, that the speakers be presented to you not yet as a "Salesian" work, strengthened and limited together by particular "religious" aims and structures, but simply as a youth institution run by ecclesiastics and lay people of Turin, including don Bosco himself, 'supported by local authorities and private individuals, organizations and people, worried or benevolent according to the different mentalities and opinions.'

We have the enormous advantage that Don Bosco, his intentions and the initiative he promotes, afterwards and together with others, appear in the most basic forms, in the essential traits: therefore with an increased richness of virtuality and of universal pedagogical proponence.

First of all there appears Don Bosco, a man of his land, who knows the fatigue of miserly agricultural work, sensitive to the disorientations and dangers of the young people of the mountains and the countryside lost in the anonymity and hardships of the big city. Moreover he is present as a believer and a priest, convinced that without a moral and religious principle ade cannot be resolved

4 "As for the workers, we will say how in 1862 Don Bosco wrote a historical outline of the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales. This document was printed "- MB IV 31. See P. STELLA, Printed writings ..., p. 40. The title is recorded on the basis of the testimony of the scarcely credible Lemoyne.

Still in 1861 - a date that makes the speech somewhat problematic - Don Bosco wrote to the rector of the diocesan seminary, can. Alessandro Vogliotti: "Besides, you know that for twenty years I've always worked and still work and I hope to spend my life working for our diocese; and I have always recognized the voice of God in that of the ecclesiastical Superior "- lett. of September 3, 1861, EI 208.

'See G. BRACCO, Don Bosco and the institutions, in Turin and Don Bosco, vol. The wise. Turin, Historical Archive of the City of Turin 1989, pp. 125-159.

not even the problems of their economic precariousness, of housing, of food, of clothing, of a reference point.

The humble form of the oratory, a festive and festive gathering, which will then also become "school", in the most varied forms, and "annexed house", hospice (retired and interned) immediately proves to be the most suitable for the "needs of the time ». It is a first realization, but it is also a symbol of what should and could be done for all children "in difficulty", "abandoned", "poor", and therefore "dangerous" and, potentially, "dangerous".

In short, a vast humanitarian and religious, moral and social aspiration is specified, together with a concrete program, which can be translated into the most varied initiatives: "Do good to those who can, harm anyone" .8

The three documents reveal, therefore, a Don Bosco that belongs to everyone, of those who in any sphere consider the youth problem extremely and perpetually serious, for the destiny of individuals and society.

Published texts are already rich in historically significant information. For an indispensable framework some few notations about the social and cultural context will be sufficient, as well as the usual information in the edition of critical texts.

1. Description of the existing documents in the ASC (Rome) I. The "Introduction" and the "Historical reference"

The two texts are found in four different manuscripts. The first, ms A, autograph of Don Bosco, seems to have been conceived as an introductory supplement to the text of the Regulations of the first festive oratory, previously drawn up, which appears in the first or in one of the first handwritten drafts of Don Bosco. Two other manuscripts are copies, due to two different scribes, which contain the Introduction, the Historical Reference and the Rules below. The fourth, ms B, presents only the text of the Introduction and the Hint. In the same ASC there are also other manuscripts of the Regulation, lacking the Introduction and the historical Reference. They seem to reflect an inter-media phase between the first manuscript tradition and the press in 1877.

A schematic description of the manuscripts concerning the Introduction and the Historical Reference will be given.

MB IX 416.

1. A = ASC 132 Oratory 1 - microsch. Don Bosco Fund 1.972 B 3-C 5.

The document consists of 4 double sheets, protocol format, 300x208 mm, placed side by side, numbered with Roman numerals I to XV; the last page is white. The paper, very yellowed due to the wear and tear of time, is rather light, hand in typography.

Don Bosco's autograph manuscript with the characteristic fast and discontinuous spelling. The ink is black, generally more pronounced in corrections.

Many corrections and additions cover the large margin, 70/80 mm, left on the left side of each page.

The text of the Introduction occupies the pp. I-II; the text of the Reference pages III to XV.

This group of sheets should be joined by another one, which is its real continuation, which contains the autograph manuscript text of Don Bosco of the Regulations of the Oratory ... - ASC 026 (1) Regulations of the Oratory microsch. 1.955 B 1-D 5. It is a block of simple sheets (1st and 3rd) and double sheets (2nd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th), numbered 1 at 28.

The paper, the margins, the ink, the handwriting have the same characteristics as the sheets occupied by the text of the Introduction and the Hint. However, two particularities should be noted: the format of the sheets is slightly different, 290 / 300x215 mm; and the spelling is generally lighter in corrections.

For dating, perhaps, it is not permissible to assign a single time to the three texts, which may involve one from the other an oscillation of 1 or 2 years.

2. B = ASC 026 (2) Regulations of the Oratory - microsch. FDB 1,955 D 6-1.956 B 3.

A single undivided manuscript, overlapped by a single amanuensis, contains the following three elements, included under the same title Primitive Regulation of the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales: the Introduction, the historical reference, immediately followed by the regulatory text.

Opens an un-numbered, simple guard sheet, separated for wear by the other half (which constitutes pages 33 and 34 of the manuscript), format 300x205 / 206 mm. It has some tears and the signs of a horizontal bend. In the r it is rather blackened, it does not bear any sign of rifling and presents in the upper margin to the right, in calligraphic sections, in black ink, the title: Primitive Regulation of the Oratory. For the rest, both r and v are white.

The Introduction is contained in a simple sheet, detached from the other block, format 306x206 mm. The card is striped with a large margin on the left, of approx. 50 mm in the king ca. 70 mm in the v. The two pages are numbered 1 and

2. The ink is sepia-colored. The title Introduction is written in large Gothic characters, underlined by three curved lines and two twigs of leaves. A swirl closes page 2 at the end of the text.

Following in the order: 5 double sheets inserted one into the other; 3 simple sheets; a double sheet; a simple sheet: together they constitute a dossier of 32 pages, numbered from 3 to 33; the last one is not numbered and has remained white; from p. 3 on p. 13 there is also numeration in Roman numerals. The size of the sheets up to page 24 is identical to that of the sheet containing the Introduction, 306x206 mm, with a left margin of approx. 70 mm, bordered with blue crayon up to p. 6 and with pencil starting with p. 7. The other sheets, numbered 25 to 33 [and p. 34 not numbered] have the same dimensions as the guard sheet, 300x205 / 206 mm.

The spelling of the entire manuscript is secure, regular, rather thin, inclined slightly to the right, racy; the ink is brown.

In the upper part of p. 3-111 we find the title Primitive Regulation of the Oratory of S. Francesco di Sales and immediately below Historical Reference of the Oratory of S. Francesco di Sales.

The Hint occupies pages 3 to half p. 13 (III-XIII). From the middle of page 13 to p. 33 contains the full text of the Regulation. In the lower margin of p. 33, the two words LAUS DEO are written in capital letters inside a scroll and intercalated between them the greeting W. GGM (= Viva Jesus, Giuseppe, Maria). In the lower margin to the right of p. 34 (not numbered, white) there is an indication of the recipient and user of the manuscript, in a time still far from the printed edition: Director.

3. C = ASC 132 Oratory, 1 (Introduction) - ASC 026 (3) Regulations of the Oratory (Historical reference) - microsch. FDB 1.972 C 8-9 and 1.956 B 4- C 2.

Even this manuscript, indivisible, although the Introduction sheet has an anomalous position both in the Archivio and in the micro-slat, overlapped by the hand of a single amanuensis, presents the Introduction, the Historical Reference and the text of the Regulation below.

Missing a presumable guard sheet with a general title, similar to ms B.

The Introduction occupies the first and half of the second page of a simple sheet, 305x208 mm format. The paper is rather sturdy, with very light bluish stripes. The sheet suffered a tear remedied with adhesive. The

left margin, bordered with a vertical pencil line, is 50 to 56 mm wide. The spelling is accurate, not beautiful, slightly inclined to the right. The ink is black and marked in the title and in the John quote; sepia color, faded in the text.

The title Introduction is written in large Gothic characters, with three concave underlining, with frieze representing two twigs of leaves, which branch off from the center towards the two sides of the page.

Immediately below the last line of the text, in the center of the page, the amanuensis has traced a small twirl.

In another archival position, 026 (3), is preceded, preceded by a simple sheet, white on the two sides, not numbered, a bunch of 8 double sheets (the 6th and 7th are split, giving rise to 4 sheets simple), format 305x208 mm, numbered in pencil, probably by an archivist from 1 to 31; page 31 is only half occupied and p. 32, not numbered, is white. On each page a margin of about 60 mm is delimited in pencil with a vertical line. The paper has a barely noticeable bluish color striped.

Le caratteristiche della grafia e dell'inchiostro sono identiche in tutto, nei titoli e nel testo, a quelle segnalate per l'Introduzione.

Il Cenno storico occupa le pagine da 1 a metà p. 11; il testo del Regolamento da metà pagina 11 fino a metà p. 31.

4. D = ASC 132 Oratorio, 1 (Introduzione) — ASC 026 (4) Regolamento dell'Oratorio (Cenno storico) — microsch. FDB 1.972 C 6-7 e 1.956 D 11- E 10.

Il manoscritto occupa due posizioni diverse in archivio e nella microschedatura. Ma è da considerarsi indivisibile. I due testi sono tracopiati da uno stesso amanuense. Per di più, come si preciserà a suo luogo, nel margine superiore del foglio dell'Introduzione don Bonetti scrive: «Manca un po' di esattezza nelle date», inesattezze che vengono poi da lui riscontrate nei fogli, che contengono il Cenno storico.

The Introduction occupies the first two unnumbered pages of a double sheet, 306x210 mm format; the other two pages, even not numbered, are white. The paper has small spots. The left margin of the pages occupied by the text is delimited with a vertical pencil line for the space of 60 mm. The handwriting, slightly tilted to the right, appears to be safe, rapid, full-bodied and well marked, with the d characterized by coils, which claim to elegance. The ink is sepia-colored. The title is in Gothic characters, but without the underlining and frieze of B and C. Instead, like C, it adds a modest flourish at the end of the text.

The Hint is contained in a file consisting of 4 double sheets inserted one into another sewn with thread. The format is 308x208 mm. The paper and the margin are identical to those of the Introduction. The ink is black in the titles, brown in the text, in which however it appears quite faded, even for the paper yellowed by time.

The text leaves to be desired in terms of fidelity; sometimes the amanuensis confuses the letter S with the L (Li = Si; Lassi = Sassi), sometimes the equivocating law (follow = regime; appositori torr apparatori = apparitori), sometimes influenced or imitated by ms C or by another ms unknown to us .

On the first page, it appears in large, partly Gothic, calligraphic characters, a title thus conceived: Primitive Regulation of the Oratory of St. Francis of Sales, and under Historical Reference of the Oratory of St. Francis of Sales. But no trace was found of a document of the Regulations related to paper, handwriting and characteristics.

As we said in the edition we will only follow the ms A, the only unquestionably referable to Don Bosco and reliable. The insignificant variants present in others are mostly due to misunderstandings and negligence. Three papers by Don Giovanni Bonetti in the MS D.9

II. The «Historical notes»

Some historical records are found in the ASC 4 specimens, the first all autographed by Don Bosco, the others due to three distinct amanuenses, but with subsequent interventions, corrections and autographed details by Don Bosco.

9 Don Giovanni Bonetti, was born in Caramagna (Cuneo) on 5 November 1838. At 17 he entered the Valdocco Oratory, where, with previous knowledge of Latin, he completed the first three years of his secondary school in two years. In the seminary of Chieri, in the two-year period 1857 and 1858, he attended the course on humanity and rhetoric. The first group that constitutes the Salesian Society elects him 2nd Councilor of the Superior Chapter in the inaugural session of 18 December 1859. He attended courses in philosophy and theology at the Archbishop's Seminary and was ordained a deacon on 22 April 1864 and a priest on 17 May, Tuesday of Pentecost. Having obtained the qualification to teach in lower secondary school in 1863, in the autumn of the same year he is a teacher and catechist or spiritual director in the college of Mirabello. He is director of the college at the Mirabello headquarters from 1865 to 1870 and in the Borgo San Martino site from 1870 to 1877. He is called to Valdocco editor-director of the "Salesian Bulletin" (1877-1886). He was elected by the General Chapter as the 4th General Spiritual Director of the Congregation (1886) and held this office until his death (5 June 1891). Writer and controversialist, he was often a reviser of Don Bosco's writings in a new edition and one of his trusted men.

1. A = ASC 132 Oratorio 2.1 - microsch. FDB 1.972 C 10-D 4.

The text is contained in 3 double sheets inserted one in the other (the first, which gathers the others, presents the two simple components sheets detached from each other), format 310x208 mm. The paper is light, without lines, yellowed by time, and the ink shines through in both directions. On the left a margin of variable width is constantly preserved, from 40 to 50 mm. The ink is sepia, rather faded, sometimes black in the corrections. The pages are numbered from 1 to 7; the eighth is white.

A tear in the upper edge of the first sheet was remedied with transparent adhesive.

The manuscript is entirely autograph of Don Bosco, studded with corrections in the text and in the margin, not easy to read; some variants are illegible.

La composizione va collocata con certezza non prima del 1860, poiché don Rua vi appare già sacerdote (venne ordinato il 29 luglio 1860) e come tale da tempo collaboratore e quasi successore del teol. Roberto Murialdo nella gestione dell'oratorio dell'Angelo Custode; e non dopo la metà del 1863 quando don Bosco sta approssimandosi alla fondazione del collegio di Mira-bello, di cui don Rua sarà nel novembre direttore. L'intero discorso riguarda esclusivamente gli oratori torinesi e si spiega se fatto nel 1862. Qualcuna delle copie, in particolare C e D si collocano nel 1863.

2. B = ASC 132 Oratorio 2,2 – microsch. FDB 1.972 D 5-12.

Il testo è contenuto in un fascicolo, costituito da tre fogli doppi inseriti l'uno nell'altro legati con filo, formato 275x212 mm. La carta è resistente, tipica dei registri per contabilità: con rigatura orizzontale color verde e linee verticali a sinistra e a destra color rosso granata. La carta è ingiallita, l'inchiostro color bruno piuttosto sbiadito. A sinistra di ciascuna pagina è lasciato un margine di ca. 50 mm. L' amanuense, non identificato, presenta una scrittura leggermente inclinata a destra, poco raffinata, non calligrafica, però regolare e adulta.

Il testo sembra ricopiato direttamente dall'originale di don Bosco ed è l'unico veramente fedele ad esso. Don Bosco interviene discretamente nel testo con correzioni e brevi aggiunte e due volte in margine con integrazioni più consistenti.

3. C = ASC 132 Oratory 2.4 - microsch. FDB 1,972 E 9-1.973 A 6.

The text is contained in two double sheets and a simple sheet of rough paper from typography, placed next to each other. The format of the first sheet is of

278x190 mm and the other two of 300x215 mm. Normal margin on the left, about 25/30 mm. The pages are numbered from la to 9a, que

last part occupied in small part; the tenth, not numbered, is white. The black ink shines through the two lines. The spelling is fast, safe and mature, strongly inclined to the right. He is of the lay Salesian, cav. Federico Oreglia di S. Stefano. '° Every now and then the text is interrupted by a certain white space, as if to leave possibilities of additions, not allowed by the reduced margin.

Subsequently in the text two types of intervention are noted: of Don Bosco which corrects and specifies; of other unidentified amanuensis, who reports in the text of the cav. Oreglia the corrections and clarifications introduced by Don Bosco in the document D.

The doc. C ignores the doc. B and the interventions in it operated by Don Bosco. It depends directly on A, but with variations of content and style ab

significant significance. In addition to seven different plots - come see you see

recorded in the notes to the text — 1 amanuensis adds brief observations, requests for clarifications and some doubts in the text in brackets. It is not arbitrary

think that in view of a possible publication of the document or a

its official use, as the person responsible for typography, the cav. Oreglia has been (or has been heard) authorized, copying the text, introducing and pro

set data and style improvements. The knight was a cultured person: he had completed his humanistic studies at the Jesuit college of Carmine in Turin; so much so that among the Jesuits, after the novitiate, he only had to complete his theological course to enter the priesthood.

4. D = ASC 132 Oratory 2.3 - microsch. FDB 1.972 E 1-8.

The manuscript consists of three double sheets, inserted one into the other and sewn together with thread, size 308x207 mm. The paper is light, from typography without lines, very yellowed, with sepia-colored ink, which shines through in both directions. The spelling is neat, elegant, inclined to the right, with flourishes

10 The cav. Federico Oreglia of S. Stefano, son of the baron Carlo Giuseppe Luigi (17951851), was born in Benevagienna (Cuneo) on 15 July 1830. He met Don Bosco at the Spiritual Exercises in S. Ignazio sopra Lanzo Torinese in the summer of 1860 and entered the Oratory on November 16th of the same year. He professed three-year vows in the Salesian Society as a lay brother or religious on 14 May 1862 and perpetual on 6 December 1865. He already appears as secretary of the lottery of 1862 and is constituted by Don Bosco from the beginning responsible for the management of the printing press and the bookshop (1862 / 1863). In 1869 he left the Salesian Society and entered the Roman province of the Society of Jesus (one brother is already one of the fathers of "La Civiltà Cattolica" and another, since 1866, an internship in the Netherlands, then a cardinal), in which he professed in 1870 and was ordained a priest. He died on 2 January 1912.

in the de in the double t. The pages are not numbered: the first two are white; the text is contained in pages 3 to 10; pages 11 and 12 are white. To the left of each page a margin of approx. 40 mm.

The amanuensis seems to be the Salesian cleric Paolo Albera, who had professed three-year vows with the first group on May 14, 1862. "

The relationship between the four documents can be represented with the following emblem:




C x

2. Dates of text composition

The composition of the three documents, the Introduction, the Historical Reference, the Historical Outlines is located in the period from 1854 to 1862/1863. It is indeed possible to give each one a sufficiently precise dating.

All the material and formal elements, as they result also from the description of the manuscripts, induce to assign rather close dates to the Introduction and to the historical Reference. With a similar certainty we can think that the autograph in our possession passes on the first draft of the text. The last lines of the Hint also make it possible to establish the time in which its writing ended; not very far from the beginning. Don Bosco concludes his historical re-enactment by hinting very briefly at a

"Paolo Albera was born in None (Turin) on 6 June 1845. He entered the Oratory on 8 October 1858 and was part of the squad that opened the college of Mirabello Monferrato (20 October 1863). Priest in 1868 was then director of the hospice of Marassi (1871), transferred to Sampierdarena in 1872: he remained there until 1881 when he was appointed (provincial) inspector in France.From General Chapter V (1891) he was elected general spiritual director of the Salesian Society, occupying several years on the visit of almost all the Salesian works in the world He was elected to succeed Don Rua as Rector Major of the Congregation in 1910, governing until his death on October 29, 1921.

decorative element introduced in the church of S. Francesco di Sales, gift of the co. Cays elected in the Easter of 1854 for the second time prior of the Compagnia di S. Luigi and underlines the anxieties of the year (but Don Bosco does not mention the cholera morbus manifested also in Turin in early August). It also indicates the number of patients admitted to the hospice: 86, a figure that seems to correspond exactly to the actual reality of 1854.12

The date of composition of the writing should not go beyond the summer of 1854.

The Regulation has its own independent history and, at least in the parts of which the primitive drafting is preserved, could date back to the years 1851/1852, when Don Bosco had not yet been declared by Msgr. Luigi Fransoni, chief conductor of the three oratories of St. Francis de Sales, of St. Luigi, of the Guardian Angel.

It is significant that the title Regulation Plan for the male Oratory of St. Francis de Sales in Turin in the Valdocco region was first, with some variations, at the head of the sheet containing the beginning of the text of the Regulation. And that in the upper margin to the left of the same sheet was the Johannine text: Ut filios Dei qui erant dispersed congregaret in unum Ioan. 11,52. The two texts are deleted in the primitive sheet and the title is added in the upper margin to the left of the sheet containing the Introduction, which in turn begins with the mentioned Johannine passage. It seems to emerge from these variations that, contrary to the intentions expressed in the Introduction, the primitive Regulation Plan intended only to regulate the Valdocco oratory,

The historical outline in Don Bosco's intentions should not have had as preferential recipients their own collaborators. Instead they could be thought of as an essential tool of correct information about his work in various

12 La cifra si avvicina molto a quelle date tra novembre 1854 e gennaio 1855 in due lettere, inviate rispettivamente alla «Mendicità Istruita» (13 novembre 1854 - Em I 235: gli ospiti sarebbero 90) e al sindaco di Torino (25 gennaio 1855 - Em I 243: i giovani sarebbero 95). «Nel 1854 don Bosco poteva accogliere circa ottanta ragazzi; tra i quali, alcuni orfani o privi di sostentamento a causa del colera che aveva infierito in Piemonte e specialmente a Torino nei quartieri di periferia» (P. STELLA, Don Bosco nella storia della religiosità cattolica, vol. I, p. 114). In una lettera indirizzata al salesiano don Giuseppe Bologna, direttore dell'opera di Marsiglia, il 6 gennaio 1879, il maestro dei novizi don Giulio Barberis, facendo un elenco di fonti idonee a far conoscere l'anima e lo stile di don Bosco, informa: «11 Tu forse avrai manoscritto un regolamento dell'Oratorio antico — regolamento che non si stampò mai — preceduto da una relazione storica scritta da Don Bosco medesimo — molto importante» (Cronichetta, quid. 14°, p. 75).

direzioni: giudici più o meno benevoli, benefattori, autorità ecclesiastiche e civili. Nel 1860 e 1861 l'Oratorio era stato oggetto di qualche perquisizione o ispezione; e a don Bosco poteva premere di sottolineare lo scopo essenzialmente caritativo della sua opera.

The dating of the handwritten version is relatively easy. The list of the various laboratories includes typographers, but not blacksmiths. Well, the idea of ​​a personal typography is concretized in Don Bosco during the last months of 1861; the authorization of the prefecture of Turin is dated December 31, 1861 and communicated to Don Bosco by the public security authority on January 2, 1862; in the following months he began his work and in May the first consistent production came out: the book of Catholic Readings entitled Theophilus or the young hermit. The manuscript allographer B, the most faithful to the original text and revised by Don Bosco, does not change anything. The blacksmiths appear in the copy transcribed with some freedom from the cav. Oreglia di S. Stefano, which became responsible for typography in 1862 which in his manuscript clearly sets the date of 1863, repeated in the manuscript D strictly dependent on C. It does not seem incongruous to suppose that the two manuscripts A and B date back to the first half of 1862. Meanwhile in the second half stands the laboratory of blacksmiths, engaged in work connected with the construction of a new building (the construction lasted from the summer of 1862 to the summer of 1863). It is probable that, according to what has already been said, Cav. Oreglia has been commissioned to resume the manuscript in view of a possible publication and that in 1863 the two transcripts C and D take place with the obvious inclusion of the blacksmiths. It does not seem incongruous to suppose that the two manuscripts A and B date back to the first half of 1862. Meanwhile, in the second half, the workshop of blacksmiths stands, engaged in work connected with the construction of a new building (the construction lasted from summer 1862 to the summer of 1863). It is probable that, according to what has already been said, Cav. Oreglia has been commissioned to resume the manuscript in view of a possible publication and that in 1863 the two transcripts C and D take place with the obvious inclusion of the blacksmiths. It does not seem incongruous to suppose that the two manuscripts A and B date back to the first half of 1862. Meanwhile, in the second half, the workshop of blacksmiths stands, engaged in work connected with the construction of a new building (the construction lasted from summer 1862 to the summer of 1863). It is probable that, according to what has already been said, Cav. Oreglia has been commissioned to resume the manuscript in view of a possible publication and that in 1863 the two transcripts C and D take place with the obvious inclusion of the blacksmiths. It is probable that, according to what has already been said, Cav. Oreglia has been commissioned to resume the manuscript in view of a possible publication and that in 1863 the two transcripts C and D take place with the obvious inclusion of the blacksmiths. It is probable that, according to what has already been said, Cav. Oreglia has been commissioned to resume the manuscript in view of a possible publication and that in 1863 the two transcripts C and D take place with the obvious inclusion of the blacksmiths.

3. Edition criteria

The edition of the Introduction and Cenno will be made exclusively on Don Bosco's autograph manuscript. Of the others it will not be taken into account: they contain not always accurate transcriptions of scribes and do not show any intervention by Don Bosco. Reference will be made to Ms D, limited to the three entries already mentioned, of Don Bonetti, which is one of the first, in order of time and importance, authoritative witnesses to Don Bosco's educational initiatives.

As for the Historical Notes we proceeded differently.

In the editing work the most obvious way could be chosen. Take as a basis document D, which is, in all probability, the last that Don Bosco has checked and corrected; and integrate compatible corrections into it

introduced by him in document B. The apparatus of variants should have highlighted the evolution undergone by the text starting from the original redaction A, all autographed by Don Bosco, up to the final document D.

But it was preferred to privilege what Don Bosco actually and directly wrote in his own hand. On the ACD line something happened that is due to Oreglia and that does not seem to derive properly from Don Bosco, which, therefore, is not strictly his; and this was then poured into D.

It was therefore preferred to start from the original document A, enriching it and reconstructing it based on the explicit interventions of Don Bosco who succeeded him in B,

C, D, favoring some rare times those found in D incompatible with some intervention in B. In the apparatus are recorded all the variants, by anyone introduced in the various editorial phases.

Considering the archaic character of the published texts, we wanted to stick to Don Bosco's mens, understood in the most literal sense. Legitimacy is not excluded

and the validity of another type of edition. At the level of interpretation of intentions and ideas this was considered more significant, which guarantees that every word and syllable has come out exclusively from Don Bosco's pen, even if the texts of the two amanuensis may have enjoyed its tacit approval.

In this edition, in which it concerns more the substance of the document that certain morphological or graphic peculiarities are not included, in the app

variations, purely formal anomalies and peculiarities: punctuation

(when it is not indispensable for the exact comprehension of the text), different way of indicating the pl / ural of the words ending in -io (eg. laboratories or

laboratories, oratorios or / oratories ...), the exchange of capital letters and small letters for many common names (eg Oratory or oratory, Carpenter or carpenter, Education or instruction ...), the absence or presence of underlines in the subtitles , the use for certain verbal forms of accents and elisions (eg fù-fu, fà-fa) and of the indicative imperfect (facea-fa, avean-hanno ...).

Abbreviations used in the source apparatus:

ASC = Central Salesian Archive - Via della Pisana, 1111 - ROME.

BARICCO, Popular Education = Popular Education in Turin. Monograph of TC Pietro Baricco, councilor of the municipality and royal inspector of primary studies in the province of Turin. Turin, tip. Heirs Botta 1865, 236 p.

BARICCO, Turin described = Turin described by Pietro Baricco. Turin, tip. GB Paravia and comp. 1869, [IV] -972 p.

Brief information = Brief account of the feast made in distributing the gift of Pius IX to the youth of the oratories of Turin. Turin, tip. Heirs Botta 1850, 27 p. - OE IV 93-119.

BS = Catholic bibliophile or monthly Salesian Bulletin (begun in Turin in August 1877) and Salesian Bulletin from January 1878, year II, n. 1.

Cafasso = Biography of the priest Giuseppe Caffasso exposed in two funeral reasonings by the priest Bosco Giovanni. Turin, tip. GB Paravia and comp. 1860, 144 p. - OE XII 351-494.

CASALIS, Dizionario XXI = Historical-statistical-commercial geographic dictionary of the states of SM the King of Sardinia compiled by the professor ... Goffredo Casalis ..., vol. XXI. Turin, at G. Maspero librajo and G. Marzorati typographer 1851, 1144 p.

Constitutions SDB = G. Bosco, Constitutions of the Society of St. Francis of Sales 1858-1875. Critical texts by Francesco Motto. Rome, LAS 1982, 272 p.

E = Epistolario of S. Giovanni Bosco, vol. I From 1835 to 1868, Turin, SEI 1955, XII-624 p.

Em = G. Bosco, Epistolario. Introduction, critical texts and notes by Francesco Motto, vol. I (1835-1863). Rome, LAS 1991.

FDB = Central Salesian Archive, Don Bosco Fund. Microsching and description. Rome, 1980, 629 p.

Strength = The strength of good education. Curious contemporary episode by the Sac. Bosco Giovanni. Turin, tip. GB Paravia and comp. 1855 - OE VI 275-386.

GIRAUDI, The Oratory ... = F. GIRAUDI, Don Bosco's Oratory. Beginning and progressive building development of the mother house of the Salesians in Turin. Turin, SEI 1935, VIII-367 i11., Tav.

GP (1847) = The young man provided for the practice of his duties the exercises of piety for the recitation of the office of the Blessed Virgin and of the principal Vespers of the year with the addition of a choice of sacred praises, etc. Turin, tip. Paravia and comp. 1847, [VI] -352 - OE II 183-352.

MB = Biographical memoirs of Don [of the venerable - of the blessed - of saint] Giovanni Bosco, 19 vols. in extra-commercial edition. San Benigno Canavese-Turin 1898-1939.

MO = G. Bosco (S.), Memoirs of the Oratory of San Francesco di Sales from 1815 to 1855, edited by Eugenio Celia. Turin, SEI 1946, 260 p.

Mo'rro, The "oratory" ... = F, MOTTO, The "oratory" of Don Bosco at the cemetery of S. Pietro in Turin, in "Historical Salesian Researches" 5 (1986), pp. 199-220.

OE = G. Bosco, Published works. First series: Books and booklets [anastatic reprint], 38 vol. Rome, LAS 1977-1987.

The shepherd boy = The shepherd boy of the Alps or the life of the young Besucco Francesco d'Argentera for the priest Bosco Giovanni. Turin, tip. dell'Orat. of S. Frane. of Sales 1864, 193 p. - OE XV 242-435.

Confidential memories = F. MOTTO, Don Bosco's "confidential memories for the directors", in "Salesian Historical Researches" 3 (1984) 125-166.

STELLA, Don Bosco in the history of Catholic religiosity, vol. I, vol. II = P. STELLA, Don Bosco in the history of Catholic religiosity, vol. I. Life and works. Rome, LAS 1979, 303 p .; vol. II Religious mentality and spirituality. Ibid. 1981, 585 p.

STELLA, Don Bosco in economic history ... = P. STELLA, Don Bosco in economic and social history (1815-1870). Rome, LAS 1980, 653 p.

Ecclesiastical history = Ecclesiastical history for the use of schools useful for every class of people dedicated to E Ervé de la Croix compiled by the priest BG Turin, tip. Speirani and Fen • I was 1845, 398 p. - OE I 160-556.

Sacred history = Sacred history for use of schools useful to every state of people enriched with similar engravings Compiled by the priest Gioanni Bosco. Turin, Speirani and Ferrero Printers-Publishers 1847 - OE III 1-212.


1. The "Introduction" and the "Historical Reference"

A = handwritten editorial staff of Don Bosco A ', A' ... = successive interventions by Don Bosco

Regulation Plan p. 1

for the masculine oratory of St. Francis de Sales in Turin

in the Valdocco region.


5 For the children, who were driven together into one. Joan. c. 11 v.52.

The words of the holy Gospel that make us know that we are the Savior who came from heaven to earth to gather together all the children of God, scattered throughout the earth, seem to me to be literally healthy to apply to the youth of our days. This portion, the most diluted and the most precious of the human society, on which the hopes of a happy future are based, is not in itself perverse in nature. With the neglect of the parents removed, the idleness, the clash of the sad companions, to whom they are especially subject in the holidays,

1-3 Floor ... Valdocco om A add mrg sin A2 4 Introduction om A add mrg s A2

7-8 ci ... earth] demonstrate the purpose of the coming of the Savior A they make us know to be the divine Savior who came from heaven to earth to gather together all the children of God, dispersed in the various parts of the earth em mrg sin A2

10-13 "The portion of the human Society, on which the hopes of the present and the future are founded, the portion worthy of the most attentive regard is undoubtedly Youth. This rightly educated there will be order and morality, on the contrary vice and disorder "- Spiritual exercises for the youth. Sacred notice (1849).

13-18 "A modest work of charity was undertaken, or ten years ago, in the district of this city under the title of Oratory of St. Francis de Sales, directed solely to the intellectual and moral good of that part of youth that for carelessness of the parents, due to the habit of perverse friends or due to lack of means of fortune, are exposed to continuous danger of corruption "- Call for a lottery, December 20, 1851, Em 139. -" Things to be escaped most of all from youth. Article 1 Escape from idleness (...). Article 2 Fugue of the bad companions (...) "- GP (1847) 21-23.

it is very easy for them to insinuate into their tender hearts the principles of order, morality, respect, religion; because if it happens sometimes that they are already broken at that age, they are rather out of consideration, than out of malice consumed.

These young people really need a beneficial hand, which takes care of them, cultivates them, guides them to virtue, drives them away from vice.

The difficulty consists in finding ways to gather them, to be able to speak, to moralize them.

This was the mission of the son of God; this can only make his holy religion. But this religion which is eternal and immutable in itself, which was and will never be always at all times, the teacher of men contains a law so perfect, that it knows how to bend to the vicissitudes of the times, and adapt itself to the different nature of all men. Among the means to spread the spirit of religion in the hearts of those who are angry and abandoned,

19-21 These ... vice om A add mrg sin A2 23 post moralizzarli add To this sco

the Oratories of St. Francis de Sales in Valdocco, of St. Luigi Gonzaga at Porta Nuova, of the holy Custodian Angel in Vanchiglia tend. There, through moral and religious instruction, pleasant recreation, Sunday and evening schools, very satisfying results were obtained. The test of over twelve years assured me of a happy outcome

of these speakers A del A '24-28 This ... men om A add mrg sin A2

28-30 From ... Oratori about A add mrg A2

28-32 «Alcune persong, amanti della buona educazione del popolo, videro con dolore farsi ogni giorno maggiore il numero dei giovani oziosi e malconsigliati(...). Videro pure con sentimento di profonda tristezza molti di coloro che si sono dedicati per tempo all'esercizio delle arti e delle industrie cittadine, andar nei giorni festivi consumando nel giuoco e nelle intemperanze la sottile mercede guadagnata nel corso della settimana, e desiose di portare rimedio ad un male da cui sono a temersi funestissime conseguenze, divisarono di aprire una casa di domenicale convegno, in cui potessero gli uni e gli altri aver tutto l'agio di soddisfare a' religiosi doveri, e ricevere ad un tempo una istruzione, un indirizzo, un consiglio per governare cristianamente e onestamente la vita(...). Varii giocherelli atti a sviluppare le forze fisiche e a ricreare onestamente lo spirito furono pure adottati, e così si studiò di rendere utile ed insieme gradita la loro dimora in quel luogo» — Appello per una lotteria, 20 dicembre 1851, Em I 139. — «Lo scopo di quest'Oratorio è di trattenere la gioventù ne' giorni festivi con piacevole ed onesta ricreazione dopo di aver assistito alle sacre funzioni di chiesa» — prima redazione manoscritta autografa del Regolamento dell'Oratorio effettuata da Don Bosco verso il 1852 — «(...) oso nuovamente esporre li miei gravi bisogni(...): 1° Fitto di due di questi Oratorii, che sono recinti abbastanza spaziosi per capire un considerevole numero di giovani che ivi si radunano per fare ricreazione dopo di aver assistito alle sacre funzioni di chiesa» — Richiesta di un sussidio alla Pia Opera della Mendicità Istruita, 13 nov. 1854, Em I 235.

30 si reputano gli Oratori. Sono questi oratori certe radunanze in cui si trattiene la gioventù in piacevole ed onesta ricreazione, dopo di aver assistito alle sacre funzioni di chiesa.

I conforti che mi vennero dalle autorità civili ed ecclesiastiche, lo zelo con cui molte benemerite persone vennero in mio aiuto e con

35 mezzi temporali e colle loro fatiche, sono segno non dubbio delle benedizioni del Signore, e del pubblico gradimento degli uomini.

Trattasi ora di formare un piano di Regolamento che possa servire p. 2 di norma ad amministrare questa parte di sacro ministero, e di guida alle persone ecclesiastiche e secolari che con caritatevole sollecitudine

40 in buon numero ivi consacrano le loro fatiche.

I have started many times, and I have always given up on the innumerable difficulties that you had to overcome. Now and because unity of spirit and conformity of discipline is preserved, and to satisfy several authoritative people,

30-32 where ... chiesa om A add mrg sin A2 40 in good numbers om A add sl A2

42-43 and why ... discipline, and om A add mrg sin A2

33-36 "So far everything has progressed with the help of some charitable ecclesiastical and secular persons. The priests who are especially dedicated to this are the S. Teol. Borrelli, Teol. Carpano, Teol. Fly, Don Ponte, Don Grassino, Teol. Murialdo, Don Giacomelli, Teol. Prof. Marengo »- to the administrators of the Pia Opera della Mendicità Istruita, 20 February. 1850, Em I 96. - "This is my feeling: note, however, that the government and the city, inclined to public education, are in favor of the Oratorios, and have already repeatedly shown their desire to establish daily schools in all three Oratorios: to which I have not yet been able to adhere for lack of teachers »- lett. to Don Carlo Gilardi of the Institute of Charity, 15 April 1850, Em I 102.

37-40 "Someone here will ask: How was it possible to keep the discipline and keep the order among thousands of youngsters of that fact? It is not as difficult as it seems at first sight. You have a regulation for the festive Oratory, in which the various offices that refer to the Church and a garden of pleasant recreation are distributed. A Director who directs, the others who do their part fixed, everything proceeds with the utmost satisfaction, without ever having to resort to either threat or punishment of any kind »- BS 1 (1877) week, p. 2.

41-42 Don Bosco refers to the serious disagreements that arose between him and some collaborators on the leadership unit of the Oratories in the years 1851-1852; they are recalled in the MB IV, chapters XXVII and XXXII-XXXIII, respectively pp. 309-317 and 366-386 on the basis of documents of the time and a testimony of a lay collaborator of Don Bosco, Giuseppe Brosio (1829-1883), ASC 123 Brosio (Memory, pp. 16-19). On March 31, 1852 the archbishop mgr. Fransoni appointed Don Bosco as "Chief Director" of the Oratories and the theolists. Roberto Murialdo and Paolo Rossi conductors, respectively, of the Oratory of the Guardian Angel in Vanchiglia and of S. Luigi at Porta Nuova.

that they advise me, I decided to do this work anyway to succeed. 45

First of all I state that I do not intend to give laws or precepts; my purpose was to expose the things that are done in the male Oratory of St. Francis de Sales, in Valdocco; and the way these things are done.

Perhaps some will find expressions which pajano demonstrate that I know goes looking for glory or honor, don't believe it: this attributes to the commitment that I have to write things as they really happened and as they still are.

When I gave myself to this part of the sacred ministry I intended to consecrate my every effort to the greater glory of God and to the advantage of souls, intent on working to make good citizens in this land, so that they might one day be worthy inhabitants of heaven. God helps me to be able to continue until the last breath of my life. So be it.

p. 3 Historical mention of the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales. 60

This Oratory, or meeting of young people in the holidays began in the church of St. Francis of Assisi. For many years Mr. D. Caffasso had a catechism every Sunday in the summer of a masonry in a small room attached to the sacristy of the said church

44 which ... recommend om A add sl A2 44-45 anyway ... succeed om A add A2

56-57 understood ... heaven onj A add mrg sin A2 60 I on this A of the era sl A2

of S. ... Sales om A add 'sl A' 62 ante Mr add In 1840 A of the A2

50-53 «Ho udito alcuni del clero che interpretavano poco benignamente l'apertura di questi Oratorii di D. Bosco, perché li consideravano un'opera in cui egli cercasse la propria ambizione, ma a me non risultò mai che tale fosse la sua intenzione, e sempre ho ammirato il felice e benefico esito dell'opera sua» — testimonianza di s. Leonardo Murialdo al Processo Ordinario per la beatificazione di don Bosco (20 febbr. 1893), Copia publica transumpti processus, fol. 1046r. — Cfr. anche MB IV 310.

56-57 «Vi presento un metodo di vivere breve e facile, ma sufficiente perché possiate diventare la consolazione dei vostri parenti, l'onore della patria, buoni cittadini in terra per essere poi un giorno fortunati abitatori del cielo» — GP (1847), Alla gioventù, p. 7. 61-62 La chiesa di S. Francesco d'Assisi aveva annesso l'ex-convento dei Minori Conventuali, dal 1817-1818 sede del Convitto ecclesiastico fondato dal teol. Luigi Guala e dal P. Brunone Lanteri — cfr. CASALJS, Dizionario XXI 559-561, 473-477.

62 Cafasso Giuseppe, sac., santo: n. a Castelnuovo d'Asti, diocesi di Torino nel 1811, morto a Torino, rettore del Convitto Ecclesiastico, nel 1860; vi era entrato come alunno nel gennaio del 1834 dopo pochi mesi dall'ordinazione sacerdotale (sett. 1833). Ripetitore di morale dal 1837 assume la responsabilità delle quotidiane «conferenze», privata e pubblica, dal 1843. Insieme alla vasta attività di moralista, confes sore, formatore di sacerdoti e laici qualificati, apostolo tra i carcerati, diede validi sostegni all'opera dei catechismi e degli oratori.


65. The seriousness of the occupations of this priest made him interrupt this exercise, which was so pleasing to him. I resumed it at the end of 1841, and began by gathering two young adults, seriously in need of religious instruction, in the same place. They were joined by others and in the course of 1842 the number rose to twenty and ta

70, twenty-five hours. These principles made me know two very important truths: that in general the youth is not bad by itself; but that for the most part becomes such through the contact of the sad and that the same sad ones separated from the others are susceptible of great moral changes.

75 In the year 1843 the catechism continued on the same foot and the nu

mero brought up to fifty, a number that could contain the place assigned to me. In the meantime, attending the prisons of

62-63 already ... years om A add sl A2 65 i om A add sl A2 66-67 on ... del] in A

at the end of corr A2 67 two] some A due em sl A2 69 in ... 1842] in that

year A in the course of 1842 em sl A2 72 which ... by] becomes such by the A that for

the more it becomes such for the mrg sin A2 75 1843] 1842 A 1843 corr A2

62-65 On the priority origin of catechisms in the Boarding School by s. Giuseppe Cafasso, Morale Repeater since 1837, see G. COLOMBERO, Life of the Servant of God D. Giuseppe Cafasso ... Turin, Canonica 1895, pp. 188-189; L. NICOLIS DI ROBILANT, Life of the Venerable Giuseppe Cafasso ..., vol. Il. Torino, Scuola Tip. Salesian 1912, pp. 8-9; P. STELLA, Don Bosco in the history of Catholic religiosity, vol. I. Rome, LAS 19792, p. 95. The Salesian Fr. Gioachino Berto (ASC 123 - Microsch. 556 C 8-11), but especially Fr Abbondio Anzini, also a Salesian, in the popular life of the Fr. Benigno Can., Libr. Salesiana 1912), pp. 96-103, and in a controversial Manuscript Memorandum of February 1925 (ASC 123 - microsch. 556 B 1-C 4). 66-68 No reference to the

75-77 The number appears more realistically measured than in Cenni, lin 31-32.

77 Cafasso was accompanied to the jails of Turin by priests of the ecclesiastical boarding school or entrusted them to the tool. Giovanni Borel for the Lenten catechisms in preparation for Easter, for spiritual exercises and for confessions: among them was also Don Bosco. Before the opening of the "Correctional Education House" for young discoli (la Generala), in 1845, some delinquent rooms were reserved for the male delinquents for the men at the church of the SS. Martyrs - L. NICOLIS DI ROBILANT, Life of the Venerable Giuseppe Cafasso, vol. II, p. 81, 94, 96.

77-85 Cf. OE IV 149-154 Appeal of the Commission to the piety of fellow citizens dated 16 January 1852.

Turin I could see that the clueless ones who are led to that place of punishment, for the most part are poor young people who come from far away in the city or need to look for work or bedridden by some other. Which, above all, in the festive days left to themselves, spend the little money they earn during the week in games or delicacies. Which is the source of many vices; and those young men who were good, soon become perishing for themselves and dangerous for others. Nor do the prisons produce any improvement over them, because as they dwell there they learn more refined ways to hurt, and therefore on their way out they become worse. THE

p. 4 I therefore turned to this class of young people as more abandoned and in danger and in the course of each week or with promises, or with regaluzzi tried to buy me students. I greatly increased their number, and in the summer of 1844, having been granted a more spacious room, I sometimes found myself surrounded by about eighty boys. My soul enjoyed seeing me surrounded by pupils, all according to my purpose, all set to work, whose conduct in both weekdays and holidays could in a certain way guarantee. He gave a glance over them and saw one led back to the parents from which he had fled, the other placed as master, all about getting educated in religion.

But the community regime, such as the ecclesiastical boarding school of St. Francis of Assisi, the silence and tranquility that the pubs required of that very popular church stumbled my plans. And although Benemerito Fu T. Guala encouraged me to persevere, but I realized that it was indispensable for another local. Because religious education holds young people for some time, afterwards it is a few ventures, either walking or playing around.

78 that the greater number of those who are led A than em sl A2

81-85 Which ... others om A add mrg sin A '94 started work om A add sl A' la

whose conduct om A em sl A2 94-96 so much ... he saw om A add mrg sin A2

102 Teol. Luigi Guala (1775-1848), dottore collegiato della Facoltà Teologica dell'Università di Torino, esponente di primo piano dell'Amicizia Cattolica, amico del P. Brunone Lanteri, rettore della chiesa di S. Francesco d'Assisi, nel 1808 inizia un corso di teologia morale ispirato a S. Alfonso; il corso riconosciuto legalmente da Vittorio Emanuele I nel 1814 divenne Convitto Ecclesiastico per l'anno 1817-1818 ed ebbe la definitiva approvazione ecclesiastica dall'arcivescovo Colombano Chiave-roti. «Nasceva una nuova 'scuola' di sacerdoti, formati alla morale alfonsiana e al-l' ultramontanesimo» — G. TUNINETTI, Lorenzo Gastaldi 1815-1883, vol. I. Roma, Edizioni Piemme 1983, pp. 35-37.

105 Providence provided that at the end of October 1844 I went to the refuge as spiritual director. I invited my children to come and see me in my new living room, and on the following Sunday they found themselves in far greater numbers than usual. Then my chamber came Oratorio and piazza di trastullo. It was a pretty sight! There was no chair, no table or any other object, which was not targeted by that friend invasion.

Meanwhile, in concert with Mr T. Borrelli, who from then on was the strongest arm of the Oratory, we chose a room for Fr. 5

115 Refectory and recreation of ecclesiastics assigned to the Refuge, which seemed to us quite spacious for our purpose and to reduce it to the shape of a chapel. The archbishop was in favor of us, and on the day of the Immaculate Conception of Mary (8 December 1844) the longed-for Chapel was blessed, with the faculty of celebrating the sacrifice of Holy Mass and giving the blessing with the Blessed Sacrament. Sacrament. 120

107 spiritual om A add sl A 'post spiritual add of the hospital of S. Filomena ivi annex A del A'

105 «Recreation is the greatest enticement for youth; and we want everyone to participate, but only with those games that are in use between us (...). Recreation takes place from 10 am to 12 am; from 1 hour to 21/2 in the afternoon; and from the end of the sacred functions until night "- chap. 2nd part of the 2nd part of the Regulation, ms autograph of Don Bosco of 1852.

106-107 The Pia Opera del Rifugio (under the protection of Maria SS. Refugium peccatorum) was founded by the Marquise Giulietta Falletti of Barolo, born Colbert, to welcome free women already imprisoned or misled, eager to change their lives. They were assisted by the Sisters of the Institute of St. Joseph. There were annexed the Magdalene and the Maddalenine, women and girls oriented to a life that could lead to the monastic vocation. There were already spiritual directors Don Giovanni Borel and don Sebastiano Pac-chiotti. Don Bosco joined in, waiting to become spiritual director of the Ospedaletto of S. Filomena, for infirm girls, which would open on 10 August 1845. 113 Teol. Giovanni Borel, priest from Turin (1801-1873), chaplain in the schools of S. Francesco da Paola, then in the works of Barolo, popular preacher, a fervent collaborator of Don Bosco in the work of the orators, as he already was of the Cafasso in the apostolate in prisons. - On Borel there is a brief profile of Salesian E. CALVI, Theologian Gio. Battista Borel and Blessed Don Bosco. Turin, SEI 1931, 40 p.

117 Mons. Luigi Fransoni, n. in Genoa on March 29, 1789, a refugee in Rome from 1797 to 1814, a priest in that year in his hometown, he entered the Congregation of Urban Missionaries, bishop of Fossano from 1821, apostolic administrator of the archdiocese of Turin in 1831-1832, archbishop from 1832 to death, exiled to Switzerland in 1848-1850, expelled from the Sardinian Kingdom in 1850, he settled in Lyon, until his death, on 26 March 1862. Don Bosco had the greatest trust in him and found a decisive support in him.

118 Don Bosco writes: November; Bonetti corrects with: Dic.

The voice of a chapel destined solely for youngsters, the sacred functions purposely made for them, a little free site for jumping, were powerful reminders, and our church which, at that time began to be called the Oratory, became restricted. We adjusted ourselves to the fullest. Rooms, kitchen, corridors, in every corner 125 classes of catechism, everything was Oratory.

Things walked at this rate when an accident, or rather Divine providence with secret aims, put our Oratory in consternation. On August 10th 1845 the hospital of S. Filomena was opened, and the room of which we had used nine months had to undergo another 130 destination. It was necessary to look for another place. Following a formal request, the Mayor of the city allowed us to go to the church of S. Martino near the Molazzi or Mills of the city. Then the change of our home is announced on Sunday. Those young men become afflicted because they had to abandon a beloved place as their own, all anxious for novelty they all prepared to leave. You would have seen one carrying a chair, the other one a bench, these a picture or a statuette, the other one paramentali, or baskets, or cruets. Others much more festive wore crutches or pockets of bowls or tiles; but all anxious to see the new oratory.

127-128 or better ... segréte om A add mrg sin A '132 post city add that was then Mr. cav. Pinchia A del A '133 Molazzi or om A add sl A2

129-131 «In the enclosure of the Refuge and of the Monastery of the Maddalene this hospital of St. Filomena was founded in the year 1843 (= 1845) for poor girls aged 4 to 14, preferably stunted. The beds are 56. The students of the Refuge after a few years of trial constitute a kind of religious corporation called of the Oblates of MV, and these in number 26 are employed in the service of the Hospital of S. Filomena, of which the Sisters have the direction of St. Joseph. Readers and writers are taught to convalescent girls »- BARICCO, Turin described, p. 826.

131-133 Don Bosco, insieme ad altri come don Michele Rua, don Gioachino Berto, don Giovanni Cagliero (il futuro cardinale), colloca la presenza dell'oratorio presso la cappella di S. Martino ai Mulini Dora (o Molassi) prima di quella presso il cimitero di S. Pietro in Vincoli. La documentazione disponibile inverte senza alcuna pos-sibilità di dubbio la fermata nelle due località. In data 12 luglio la Ragioneria concedeva al teol. Borel (e ai colleghi sacerdoti del Rifugio) «la facoltà di servirsi della Cappella de' Mulini per catechizzarvi i ragazzi(...) fissando l'ora di detta catechizzazione dal mezzodì alle tre» — cit. da MOTTO, L'«oratorio»..., p. 215.

Colà passammo tranquillamente due mesi, sebbene le cose si fa cessero solo imperfettamente, giacché non si poteva celebrar messa, né dare la benedizione col Sacramento, I né farsi liberamente ricrea- p. 6

145 zione. Quella calma fu presagio di una burrasca, che doveva mettere a più dura prova l'oratorio. Si sparse voce che tali adunanze di giovani erano pericolose, e che in un momento si poteva passare dalla ricreazione ad una sommossa. Bella sommossa potevano fare giovani ignoranti, senza armi e senza danaro, che unicamente si radunavano

150 to learn the catechism, and that they would have become trembling at the only flutter of a crow. In spite of this the rumors increase; and a report is made to the mayor, in which I was qualified as gang leader; that the mills were making an unbearable noise, a disorder not to be tolerated, with immense damage to the walls, to the

155 benches and the same pavement of the courtyard. I said a great deal about the absence of such statements; all in vain. An order stands out in which he is commanded to evacuate immediately from the place that had favored us.

I then asked to go to the church of the cenotaph of the Holy Cross called S. Pietro in Vincoli. It was allowed. We went with great joy; but it was only a public holiday. Because new reports made in writing to the Mayor, in which they qualified our meetings as acts of insubordination; we were forbidden no longer to set foot there.

145-146 to put ... test] to try if To put a strain on torr A2 to put to the hardest test a A 146 before the oratory add if A of the A2 post oratorio add was the work of God or of men A of A2

142 The catechisms at St. Martin - excluding, however, the celebration of the Mass and of the sacred functions - which began on July 13th ended towards the end of the year, since on November 14th the Accounting Department ordered the theol. Borel to cease using the Mulini chapel from 1 January 1846 - see Mano, The "Oratory" ..., pp. 214-215. 145453 Don Bosco dilates and dramatizes the dimensions and meaning of the protests. They simply come from the population of the Mulini area (Piazza Emanuele Filiberto or Porta Palazzo), disturbed in its quiet by the clamor of the boys. The Depurational Deputation will receive them on 7 November, opening the way to the notice of the Accounting Office, of which it is said above.

152 Before the law of 17 October 1848 at the head of the municipal administration was the Vicar, assisted by two mayors and fifty-seven decurions. In 1845 the two mayors were Count Giuseppe Bosco di Ruffino and Count Giuseppe Pochettini of Serravalle.

159-160 The very short stay in San Pietro in Vincoli took place before that at the Mulini Dora and precisely on Sunday 25 May 1845. S. Pietro in Vincoli had been one of the two cemeteries established in Turin in 1777 (the other of S Lazarus was on the opposite side, to the east). "Both were of the same shape, squares with porticoes on three sides, at the back of the church, and in the middle a courtyard with the wells of the common sepulchres, in which coffins and corpses were crowded one on top of the other, where particular sepulchres were found in the basement that ran under the portico. In the cemetery of s. Pietro in Vincoli, commonly called s. Pier de 'cabbage (...). It remains open for the exclusive use of some families who have private tombs. The Turin municipality keeps at its expense u.ncappellano resident "- CASALIS,

I omit the names of the individuals, who presented the acres of relationships in 165 cities; I only observe (God free that I am pleased with it) one survived one day, the other survived one another: something that made a profound impression on the soul of the young, who were aware of such things.

What to do? he found me a bunch of church and tools

creation; a crowd of young people who followed me everywhere, and not a palm of land where we could shelter ourselves.

Fearing that my children would cease to intervene, he concealed my worries, and in the festive days he led them when to Sassi, when to the Madonna di Campagna, when to the Capuchins of the mountain. The thing that did not diminish the number increased it. Meanwhile, as winter approaches, the weather no longer favorable for country walks, in agreement with T. Borrelli we took three rooms in the Moretta house, a building not far from the current Oratory of Valdocco. During that winter our exercises are limited to a simple catechism on the evening of each public holiday.

161-162 new reports] a report A new reports em A2 165-169 Taccio ... aware om A add mrg sin A2

160-169 For the whole affair in S. Pietro in Vincoli and documented corrections of the reconstructions handed down so far, see MOTTO, The "oratory" ..., pp. 204-211.

170-172 These festive peregrinations towards different churches of. Turin and its surroundings are rather to be assigned to the period of the Mulini Dora stop, where only catechisms were permitted.

174-175 Sassi was a small village on the 1000 inhabitants, mostly washed, about three kilometers from the city, on the right bank of the Po, to the left of the royal road of Superga. The parish (S. Giovanni Decollato) had been reinstated in 1821. The curate teol. Pietro Abbondioli (1812-1893) was a friend of Don Bosco.

The parish church of the SS. Annunziata, known as the Madonna di Campagna, officiated by the Capuchin Fathers, was located about three kilometers north-west of Turin beyond the left bank of the Dora and on this side of the right bank of the Stura, not far from the right side of the road leading to Venaria Real. At that time Fr. Nicolò of Villafranca Piemonte was a parish priest, who in 1842 had opened a school attended by 150 boys and girls, providing the poorest of food and clothing CASALIS, Dizionario XXI 156-162; BARICCO, Turin described, pp. 208-209.

The Monte dei Cappuccini is a hill overlooking Borgo Po on the right bank of the river, with the church and convent of the Capuchin Fathers.

At this time, another rumor prevailed which was already spreading before: being the speakers a means to remove youth from their respective parishes; to instruct her in utter suspicion.

185 This last imputation was based especially on what I allowed my boys all sorts of recreation as long as it was not sin and not contrary to civilization. As for the first I was trying to get away by saying that it was my purpose to collect only those young people who did not go to any parish, and most of them,

190 being strangers, they didn't even know which parish they belonged to. The more I tried to make things known in the true aspect, the more they were ominously interpreted.

Furthermore, some circumstances concurred to have us fired from the Moretta house, so that in March 1846 I had to rent a 195 piece of lawn from the Filippi brothers, where I currently have a foundry

180 and our ... limit] the oratory limited to our limitless exercises sl A2 187 In ... first om A add sl A '

178-179 The house with ground floor and first floor had about 20 rooms; belonged to the former Capuchin Giovanni Battista Antonio Moretta (1777-1847). The oratory led you between December 1845 and March 1846.

179 Valdocco: western area of ​​Borgo Dora, between the right bank of the river to the north and Borgo S. Donato to the south-west side.

180-181 At this point there is no mention of evening schools, of which Don Bosco writes in the Memoirs of the Oratory: "in that same winter we began evening schools. It was the first time that in our countries this kind of school had been spoken of "(MO 151). On Sunday and evening schools, see later in the Historical Notes. 185-187 St. Philip Neri "ran through the squares, through the districts, gathering especially the most abandoned boys, who gathered somewhere, where with lepidzze and innocent amusements he kept them away from the corruption of the century, and instructed them in the truths of faith »- Ecclesiastical History, p. 315. - "I want to teach you a method of Christian life, which is at the same time cheerful and happy, pointing out to you what the real fun and true pleasures are" - GP At Youth, p. III-IV.

193-194 The complaints of the tenants lead Don Moretta not to renew the rent. 194-196 The lawn of the brothers Pietro Antonio and Carlo Filippi was adjacent to the Moretta house to the east. Less than two hundred meters to the north-west, there was a shed under construction, supported by the Pinardi house.

of cast iron. And I found myself there in the open air, in the middle of a meadow, surrounded by a thick hedge, which defended us only from those who did not want to enter; surrounded by about three hundred young men, who found their earthly paradise in that Oratory, whose vault, whose walls were the same vault of the sky. 200

In addition, the Vicar of the city, Marquis Cavour, already biased against these festive gatherings, sent for me, and made me a summary of what turned out about the oratory and ended by telling me: "My good priest: take my advice." Leave those mascalp free. 8 zones; such meetings are dangerous. I replied: I have no other goal than to improve the fate of these poor children, that if the municipality wants only to assign me a local, I have founded hope to be able to reduce the number of children a lot, and at the same time decrease the number of those who go to prison.

- You are deceived, my good priest, you tire yourself in vain. Where to get the means? I cannot afford such meetings.

- The results obtained convince me that I don't work in vain: the means are in the hands of the Lord, who sometimes uses the most despicable tools to carry out his works ...

208 very om A add sl A 'and at the same time om A add sl A' 213 sometimes om A add sl A2

201-233 From 1687 to 1848 the vicariate of Turin "was a complex magistracy, which supported uffizii giudizjarii, municipal and administrative police". He was the supreme municipal authority. As far as police powers are concerned, the vicar was entitled to "promote the observance of orders concerning religion, morality, healthiness, abundance and the reasonable price of food; tranquility and safety and cleanliness of public squares and streets »- CASALIS, Dizionario XXI 424.

Michele Benso, Marquis of Cavour (1781-1850), eldest son of the Marquis Filippo and Philippine de Sales, in his infamous anti-Jacobin youth, later close, also for practical reasons, to the regime of the Consulate and Empire, married in 1805 the Genevan Adele de Sellon. From 1819 it was a decurion and from 1833 to 1835 one of the two mayors of the city of Turin. In 1835 he was named "vicar and general superintendent of politics and police of the city" and after the first two years the office was renewed for another four. In it he brings "not only the inexhaustible energy and the" immense et insatiable activité "that were proper to him, but also some dose of implacability", which gave him very hard judgments between the liberals of the time and the following decades R . ROMEO, Cavour and his time (1810-1842). Bari, Laterza 1984, pp.

Reasonable and documented reservations about the accuracy of what Don Bosco recalls about the attitude of the Marquis Michele Cavour towards the speakers advances Giuseppe Bracco in the important study on Don Bosco and the institutions (in Turin and Don Bosco I. Turin 1989, pp. 126-130), where the significant letter from the Turin priest to the Town Vicar of 13 March 1846 is reported.

215 - But I cannot allow you such meetings.

- Do not grant it to me, Mr. Marchese, but grant it for the sake of those children, who perhaps left to themselves would end up badly.

- I am not here to dispute: this is a disorder: I want to prevent it; you do not know that any gathering is prohibited where there is no legitimate permission.

- My gatherings have no political purpose: it is only to teach the catechism to poor boys; and this I do with the permission of the archbishop.

225 - Is the Archbishop informed of these things?

- He is informed of it and I have never moved without advice or consent from him.

- But I can't afford these gatherings.

- I believe, Mr. Marchese, that you will not want to forbid me from doing a catechism with the permission of my archbishop.

- Go, I will speak with the archbishop, but do not then be obstinate to those orders that will be imposed on you, otherwise you will force me to measures that I do not want.

The Archbishop was informed of everything and animated me to patience

235 and courage. Meanwhile, in order to be able to wait more deliberately for the culture of my children, I had to dismiss them from the Refuge; so that I found myself without employment, without means of subsistence, every sinisterly interpreted project of mine, exhausted of strength and health; a sign that we were going

saying that I had gone mad. P. 9

240 Not being able to make others understand my drawings, study me

to procrastinate, because I was intimately convinced that the facts would be

217 abandoned to themselves om A add mrg sin A '235 Meanwhile] But the multiplicity of occupations A Meanwhile I oppressed by the multiplicity of occupations corr A' Meanwhile corr A3 235-237 for power ... subsistence om A add mrg sin A '

235-236 The first year of engagement with the Marquise of Barolo for spiritual assistance in the Ospedaletto of St. Filomena expired, in the summer of 1846, after the choice was made in favor of the young people of the oratory, Don Bosco left the Refuge , his belongings are placed in the rooms he sublets on the upper floor of Casa Pinardi from 1 July; in it he will enter after a long convalescence, together with his mother, on 3 November 1846; on 1 December sublet by Pancrazio Soave the entire Pinardi house with the surrounding land - STELLA, Don Bosco in economic history ..., pp. 74-75.

what he did was justified. More so was the desire to have an adapted site that in my mind judged it as a fact and this was the reason that my very best friends qualified me with altered head; and my cooperators, because they did not want them to go down, and to cease from my enterprise, completely abandoned me.

T. Borrelli entered my ideas and could not do otherwise he decided to choose a dozen children, and privately take catechism to them; waiting for more favorable times to carry out our designs. 250

- Not so, I replied, the Lord began and must finish his work.

- Meanwhile, where can we gather our boys?

- In the Oratory. 255

- Where is this Oratory?

- I see it already done - I see a church - I see a house

I see a fence for recreation, this is there and I see it.

- Where are these things?

- I don't know where they are yet, but I see them. 260

This said that he wanted to have such things alive, and he was intimately

convinced that God would provide them.

T. Borrelli pitied my state, and he too was saying, that he strongly feared that my head was altered. D. Caffasso told me not to take any deliberation by then. The archbishop was inclined to continue.

Meanwhile, the Marquis Cavour, firm of wanting to stop these gatherings, which he called dangerous, and not wanting to take deliberations that could return to the Archbishop, he summoned

the Accounting Office, which corresponds to the municipal council, in the Archbishop's Palace 270

243-247 and this ... they abandoned] My dearest friends advised me to desist from everything, to which they refused to comply and left me to A and this was the reason that the same dearest friends qualified me as head altered; and not wishing to accede to them, and to cease from my enterprise, they entirely abandoned me em mrg sin A 'and this was the reason that the same my dearest friends of mine qualified me with altered head; and my co-operators, because they did not want to comply with them, and to cease from my enterprise, entirely abandoned me at A3

270 The Accounting office did not coincide with the general municipal council. Don Bosco refers either to the particular Council, which met at least once a month "for the handling of the daily and obvious things of the city" or to the accounting office, which met once a week, but which "had particular inspection on the economic government of the city "- CASALIS, Dizionario XXI 423.

It seemed to me, the Archbishop said to me, that there should be a universal judgment. After brief discussion it was absolutely necessary to ban such gatherings.

Then Count Provana of Collegno was part of the Accounting Department

275 Minister of General Control. He had always encouraged me and given me subsidies of his own, and also by his Majesty Carlo Alberto. This prince of grateful memory loved very much to talk about this oratory; he assisted me in particular needs; and he told me several times by the prefect Count of Collegno, who

280 he loved this part of the sacred ministry very much, and that concerned him as part of the foreign missions, which was his wish, that similar gathering of poor and unsafe young men, had taken place in all the cities of his states.

When he heard the criticism of my position, he sent me three

285 a hundred francs at the hands of the prefect count with words of encouragement, instructing the same to participate in the Accounting office to have his intention that such festive meetings continue, and if there was danger of disorder, they tried to prevent them and prevent them. The Vicar was silent about this communication and said he would see to it

290 that disorders did not occur. The measures were to send a certain number of archers every day, especially to the public, so that they could come to assist our meetings to make a proper report to those responsible.

274 "Count Giuseppe Provana of Collegno was part of the Accounting Office" - MO 179 (count Giuseppe, 1785-1854). - "Rather than Giuseppe, it could be Luigi Provana of Collegno, father of the knight Saverio, long benevolent towards the orators and then towards the Salesians" - P. STELLA, Don Bosco in the economic history ..., p. 80.

275 It was an office of the Ministry of Finance with the task of registering and monitoring everything concerning finances, the general treasury and the state budget - CASALIS, Dizionario XXI 309-310.

277-288 Carlo Alberto di Savoia (1798-1849), principe di Carignano, del ramo cadetto dei Savoia, succede a Carlo Felice sul trono del regno sardo, per mancanza di eredi maschi nel ramo diretto (1831-1849). — Nella monografia di N. RODOLICO, Carlo Alberto negli anni di regno 1831-1843 (Firenze, Le Monnier 1936) viene più volte sottolineato il fattivo interesse del re per tutte le opere benefiche: ospedali, asili infantili, la Piccola Casa del Cottolengo, gli oratori di don Bosco, i discoli.

288-293 In riferimento ai diversi poteri del Vicario gli arcieri potevano essere semplicemente guardie civiche o più temute guardie di pubblica sicurezza.

Gli arceri assistevano al catechismo, predica, canto e ricreazione, e riferendo puntualmente ogni cosa al Vicario, in pochi mesi gli fecero prendere migliore opinione dell'Oratorio e le cose cominciarono a prendere buona piega.

p,11 Principio dell'attuale Oratorio di Valdocco e suo ingrandimento fino al presente.

Era una sera festiva del quindici marzo, giorno memorando pel 300 nostro Oratorio, quando alla vista di un numero grande di giovanetti che si trastullavano, il vedermi solo in mezzo di loro, sfinito di forze e di sanità, senza sapere dove sarei andato, giacché il prato pigionato doveva avere altra destinazione, io rimasi così commosso che mi cadevano le lagrime. Mio Dio, andava dicendo alzando gli occhi al cie- 305 lo, perché non farmi conoscere il luogo dove volete che io raduni questi miei cari figli? O fatemelo conoscere, o ditemi che cosa debbo fare!

Volgeva in cuor mio tali espressioni, ed ecco un certo Soave Pancrazio mi vien dicendo esservi un cotale Pinardi che aveva un sito da 310 affittarmi, molto adatto al mio scopo. Andai immediatamente; era una rimessa. Parlarci, accordarci sul prezzo del fitto, sul modo di ridurre quel locale in forma di cappella, fu la cosa di pochi minuti. Corsi precipitoso da' miei figli, li radunai e nel trasporto di gioia mi posi a gridare: Coraggio figli, abbiamo un Oratorio. Avremo una chiesa, una sa- 315 crestia, posto per làfscuola e per la ricreazione.

Tale notizia fù accolta con una specie di entusiasmo. E la Domenica di Pasqua nel giorno di aprile furono portati colà tutti gli attrezzi di chiesa e di ricreazione e fu inaugurata la nuova cappella.

296 migliore] buona A migliore em sl A2 299 e suo...presente om A add A2

313-314 precipitoso] con trasporto di gioia A precipitoso em sl A2

309-310 Pancrazio Soave era un immigrato di Verolengo (Torino) che il 10 novembre 1845 aveva preso in affitto l'intero fabbricato di Francesco Pinardi, esclusa una tettoia addossata, in via di costruzione, per impiantarvi una fabbrica di amido. Il 5 giugno 1846 darà in subaffitto a don Bosco tre stanze e il 1° dicembre l'intero edificio. — STELLA, Don Bosco nella storia economica..., pp. 75-76.

310 Francesco Pinardi è un immigrato di Arcisate (Varese). Il 1° aprile affitta a don Bosco la tettoia che diventerà la prima sede stabile dell'Oratorio. Dal 1° aprile 1849, scaduto il contratto d'affitto con il Soave, affitta a don Bosco l'intera casa, che gli vende poi il 19 febbraio 1851 per 28.500 lire — STELLA, Don Bosco nella storia economica..., pp. 75-76, 84-85.

317-318 Nel 1846 Pasqua cadeva nel giorno [12] di aprile.

320 Poco dopo furono pigionate altre camere della medesima casa Pinardi ove si die' principio alle scuole domenicali e serali. Queste scuole piacquero tanto al Cav. Gonella, insigne benefattore di quest' Oratorio, che diede opera p. 12 onde fossero erette a S. Pelagia. Lo stesso municipio prese in considerazione le scuole serali, e ne aprì in parecchi quartieri della città ove

325 oggi si porge comodità d'istruirsi a qualsiasi artigiano che lo desideri.

Le cose posteriori a questo tempo essendo note a tutti io mi limito solo di accennarle.

L'anno 1846 in giorno di Domenica di aprile fu benedetta la chiesa

attuale con facoltà di celebrare la santa messa, catechizzare, predicar, 330 dare la benedizione col SS. Sacramento.

323 post Pelagia add e quindi dilatate ne' varii quartieri A del A2 323-325 Lo stesso...città om A add mrg sin A2

320 Il 1° dicembre 1846 don Bosco subaffitta dal Soave tutto il piano superiore della casa Pinardi.

321-323 The explicit reference is to cav. Marco Gonella (1822-1886), generous in collaborating and helping Don Bosco; but as for the schools the father, Cav. Andrea (1770-1851), munificent towards the Opera of the Educated Beggar. The Directorate of the latter, with a manifesto of December 3, 1845, announced that it had "impelled by SM the faculty to establish evening schools for adults, entrusting them to the Brothers of the Christian Schools" and that while awaiting the preparation of appropriate rooms, one would be "open in the meantime in the first days of January in the same house of the Friars of the Christian Schools (contrada delle Rosine) ", next to the church of S. Pelagia, entrusted to the Beggar Educated by the archbishop Colombano Chiaveroti - see STELLA, Don Bosco in economic history ..., pp. 64-65; C. VERRI, The Brothers of the Christian Schools and the history of the school in Piedmont (1829-1859). Contribution to the history of the Risorgimento pedagogy. Erba (Como), «Sussidi» Publishing House [sd], pp. 120-121; S. SCAGLIONE, Don Bosco and the Brothers of the Christian Schools, in «Rivista Lasalliana» 55 (1988) n. 1, pp. 18-23 (Times and priorities of evening schools in Turin).

323-325 In the first half of 1849 at the suggestion of two municipal councilors, the industrialist Cav. Gabriele Capello and the cav. Zenone Quaglia was set up a Commission that would study appropriate initiatives to "promote the moral and material improvement of the working class"; and this "obtained from the municipal council the adoption of its proposals, essentially consisting in the establishment of evening schools exclusively for the benefit of the young workers. On November 17th of the same year the first school was inaugurated »- BARICCO, Popular Education, pp. 112-113.

328-330 The celebration of sacred functions began after a blessing imparted by Don Bosco on the same day of entry, April 12, Easter day; the official blessing was given on Easter Monday by the theol. Borel, delegated in this by an archiepiscopal decree, in the back of which he left written: "The undersigned reached the blessing of the Oratory on April 13, running the second feast of Easter".

Evening and Sunday schools progressed a lot, education was reading, writing, singing, sacred history, elements of arithmetic and Italian language; of which he gave public essay by the students of the Oratory.

In November, I established my home in the 335 annexed house at the Oratory. Many ecclesiastics, including the T. Vola, T. Carpano, D. Trivero took part in the things of the Oratory.

Year 1847. The company of s. Luigi with the approval of the ecclesiastical authority: the statue of the saint was provided, made six

335 post November add year itself following a serious illness A of the A2 338 post 1847 add In this year A of the A2

331-333 In the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales "they began to teach first on Sundays, and then every evening in the winter season, reading, writing, the elements of arithmetic and the Italian language, and a particular study. he posed to make those young men willing to use the legal measures of which, being the most involved in 'trades, they felt the greatest need' - Appeal for a lottery, 20 December 1851, Em I 140.

333-334 The printed program of two essays is kept, respectively of 1848 and 1849: Essay of the sons of the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales over the sacred history of the Old Testament 15 ag. 1848 4 pm. Turin, tip. GB Paravia and comp. 1848; Essay given by the children of the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales on the decimal metric system in the form of dialogue on December 16th 1849 2 pm. He assists the illustrious Professor DG Ant. Rayneri. Turin, tip. GB Paravia and comp. 1849. Both the presence of F. Aporti is reported: MB III 428 and 601.

335 November 3 the mother chooses Margherita.

336-337 Theol. Giovanni Battista Vola (1805-1872) is often remembered in Don Bosco's letters to Don Borel from 1846 to 1850 and among the benefactors carefully recorded by them.

Of teol. can. Giacinto Carpano (1821-1894) don GB Francesia gave the funeral eulogy (Canon Giacinto G. Carpano. Turin, typical Salesian 1894); of wealthy family of Bioglio (Biella) he helped Don Bosco with subsidies and collaboration in the oratories, then extending his action to other youth welfare projects and in favor of ex-prisoners.

Aiuta pure don Bosco e i suoi oratori con oblazioni e l'opera don Giuseppe Trivero (1816-1894), custode della cappella della S. Sindone. In una lettera al teol. Borel del 31 agosto 1846 don Bosco scrive: «Va bene che D. Trivero si presti per l'Oratorio; ma stia attento che egli tratta i figliuoli con molta energia, e so che alcuni fu-rono già disgustati. Ella faccia che l'olio condisca ogni vivanda del nostro Oratorio» (Em I 71) — cfr. STELLA, Don Bosco nella storia economica..., pp. 78-82.

338-339 Con l'oratorio stabile ha inizio la compagnia di S. Luigi, per la quale nei primi mesi del 1847 don Bosco redige il Regolamento, approvato dall' arcivescovo il 12 aprile — cfr. STELLA, Don Bosco nella storia della religiosità cattolica, vol. Il, pp. 347-349; ID., Don Bosco nella storia economica..., pp. 259-260.

340 Domeniche precedenti alla solennità di s. Luigi con gran concorso. Il giorno della festa del Santo l'arcivescovo venne ad amministrar il Sacramento della cresima ad un gran numero di ragazzi, e fu recitata una breve commedia con canto e musica.

Furono pigionate altre camere cui mercè si aumentarono alcune 345 classi di scuola serale. Si diede ricovero a due giovani poveri, orfani, privi di professione, rozzi di religione; e così cominciò il ricovero, che andò sempre crescendo.

La grande affluenza de' giovani all'Oratorio, divenuta ristretta la chiesa e il recinto di Valdocco, nel giorno dell'Immacolata Concezione

350 I fu aperto un novello Oratorio a Porta Nuova in casa Vaglienti, ora p. 13 Turvano, sotto al titolo di S. Luigi Gonzaga, e ne fu affidata l'amministrazione al T. Carpano Giacinto. Questo nuovo Oratorio fu iniziato colle medesime norme, e scopo di quello di Valdocco; e fra breve divenne assai numeroso.

355 1848. Il numero de' figli ricoverati si aumentò fino a quindici. In

seguito ad alcune difficoltà insorte per motivo delle promozioni de'

345 poveri om A add mrg sin A2 346 post religione add ed abbandonati A del A2

348 La grande affluenza] Crescendo in maniera straordinaria il numero A La grande affluenza em sl A2 356 difficoltà insorte] inconvenienti insorti A difficoltà insorte em sl A2

339-340 Cfr. Le sei Domeniche e la novena di s. Luigi Gonzaga nel GP (1847) 55-71; P. STELLA, Don Bosco nella storia economica..., pp. 260-261.

341-342 Cf. Cimesati at Valdocco (1847), in STELLA, Don Bosco in economic history ..., p. 438.

344 Pancrazio Soave held the ground floor of the Pinardi house for his business until 1 March 1847. On that date Don Bosco was able to dispose of the entire STELLA building, Don Bosco in economic history ..., p. 76.

345-346 In the MO 199, a 15-year-old from the Valsesia is described as the first guest of the "annexed house" to the Oratory. On the other hand, from the registers two Turinese, one student and the other craftsman are the first to be admitted - see STELLA, Don Bosco in economic history ..., pp. 175-176.

350-352 The archiepiscopal decree erecting the oratory of St. Louis bears the date of December 18, 1847; therefore began on Sunday 19th. It was initially entrusted to the teol. Giacinto Carpano and Don Trivero; then, in 1849, to don Pietro Ponte, secretary of Barolo.

The rented room is by the widow Vaglienti, who is the heir of Mr. Giuseppe Turvano, among other things notary of the Beggar Menduita and Don Bosco, municipal councilor around 1852, secretary in 1858 of the company of Mercy, to which Cafasso also belonged.

young to holy communion the Archbishop formally gave faculty to be able to promote to receive confirmation, and holy communion, and to fulfill the Paschal precept in the chapel of the Oratory.

The spiritual exercises were dictated for the first time to a specific number of young people in the house adjoining the Oratory; and they saw excellent results. The Municipality sends a commission to visit the Oratories, and after a letter of satisfaction offered a subsidy of 600 francs. Even the work of begging came as a temporary aid to the Oratorii. A solemn 365 procession was held at the Consolata sanctuary to make a communion in May in honor of M. SS. This has been done for two years but not processionally. The paintings of the holy Via crucis were blessed, visits were made to the Sepulchres together on Holy Thursday; and in the evening of that day the function of the 370 Lavabo took place for the first time.

In the same year the school of piano and organ began, and the children began to go to sing masses and vespers in music on the orchestras of Turin, Carignano, Chieri, Rivoli etc.

357 the Archbishop om A add sl A2 gave ... faculty] authorized A gave faculty em A2 formally gave faculty torr A '359 chapel] church A cappella em sl A2

372-374 In...etc. om A add mrg sin A2

360-362 They were preached by the theol. Federico Albert (1820-1876), then palatine chaplain, then pastor and vicar forane in Lanzo Torinese - MO 207 and note to lin 72. Those of 1849 are documented by a printed sheet Spiritual exercises for youth. Sacred notice. Turin, tip. GB Paravia and comp. 1849.

364-365 The first formal request for "charitable subsidies" to the administrators of the "Mendicità Istruita" seems to be February 20, 1850 (see Em I 96-97). The Opera granted him 1,000 lire. Don Bosco mentions it in a new question of November 18, 1852, "still mindful and grateful for the subsidy that the deserving Lords of the Pia Opera della Menduita three years ago (...) assigned to the three Oratories in this city erected" (Em I 172-173).

365-368 The sanctuary of the BV of the Consolata was several times the destination of festive pilgrimages in 1845 and 1846. Near Valdocco, particularly dear to the piety of the Turinese, it constituted an ideal place to nourish the Marian religiosity of Don Bosco and his boys. In the years 1834-1857 it was officiated by the Oblates of Mary V., founded by the Lanteri. 369 At the end of the Mass "In Cena Domini" on Holy Thursday, the consecrated hosts are brought processionally to the "place of reposition" in a conveniently decorated chapel, open to visits by the faithful for a short time of adoration, commonly called "visits to the sepulchres".

370-371 Don Bosco improperly calls Lavabo the ceremony of the "washing of the feet" or "Mandato", which on Holy Thursday recalls what Jesus did to the Apostles at the Last Supper, as recalled in John's Gospel (XIII, 1- 17). It took place in the evening, now included in the Mass.

375 1849. The whole house Pinardi, the site ahead and behind the house is

rented; the space of the church is enlarged almost by half: the number of young patients is extended to thirty. The Pope moves away from Rome and flees to Gaeta in the Kingdom of Naples, and the children of the Oratories make a collection; for which the Holy Father is tenderly

380 commosso i e fa scrivere una lettera di ringraziamento dal Cardinal An- p. 14 tonelli, e manda la sua santa benedizione ai figli dell'Oratorio. Manda poi da Gaeta un pacco di 60 dozzine di corone pei figli dell'Oratorio, e con gran festa se ne fa solenne distribuzione il 20 luglio. v. libretto stampato in quella circostanza.

375 post è add tutto A del A2 379 per...teneramente] di cui ne è grandemente A per cui il Santo Padre ne è teneramente em sl A' 381-384 Manda...circostanza om A add mrg sin A2

373 I «figli» sono i ragazzi, italianizzazione del termine dialettale piemontese «fieul» (figlio, ragazzo), «fieuj».

374 Carignano, Chieri, Rivoli: città rispettivamente a 18, 15, 11 chilometri a sud, ad est e a ovest di Torino.

375-376 Scaduto il termine del subaffitto dell'intera casa Pinardi e del terreno circostante con Pancrazio Soave, don Bosco affitta il tutto dal proprietario Francesco Pinardi, con decorrenza dal 1° aprile 1849 — cfr. STELLA, Don Bosco nella storia economica..., p. 76.

376 La cosiddetta «tettoia» Pinardi era lunga poco più di 20 metri, larga 6; la cappella lunga 15 metri; trasferendo la sacrestia in una stanzetta di casa Pinardi e trasformando in coro l'altro locale la cappella veniva ad occupare la «tettoia» in tutta la sua estensione — cfr. GIRAUDI, L'Oratorio..., pp. 70-73.

377-384 Pio IX (1792-1878; papa: 1846-1878) si allontana da Roma e ripara a Gaeta, nel Regno delle Due Sicilie, il 24 novembre 1848 dopo l'assassinio del suo ministro Pellegrino Rossi (15 nov.); ritorna, dopo la riconquista di Roma da parte delle truppe francesi (4 luglio 1849), il 12 aprile 1850. Sul coinvolgimento dei giovani degli oratori nel tempo dell'esilio e sulla festa per il ritorno del 20 luglio 1850, don Bosco invita a leggere l'opuscolo da lui compilato: Breve ragguaglio della festa fattasi nel distribuire il regalo di Pio IX ai giovani degli oratorii di Torino. Torino, tip. Eredi Botta 1850, 27 p. — OE IV 93-119.

380-381 Giacomo Antonelli, n. a Sonnino il 12 aprile 1806, m. a Roma il 6 novembre 1876, delegato apostolico successivamente a Orvieto, Viterbo, Macerata, tesoriere della Camera Apostolica nel 1845, cardinale e presidente della Consulta nel 1847; protagonista nell'organizzazione della fuga di Pio IX a Gaeta alla fine di novembre del 1848 e del ritorno a Roma nella primavera del 1850; resse la Segreteria di Stato dal 1850 alla morte.

Per motivo della guerra il Sig.r D. Cocchis chiude l'Oratorio del 385 S. Angelo Custode, rimane chiuso un anno; quindi è da noi subbaffittato, se ne affida l'amministrazione al T. Vola.

La camera dei Senatori, ed il ministero mandano una commissione a visitare gli Oratori e se ne fa relazione e discussione favorevole. v. Gazzetta Piem. del 29 marzo 1849. 390

Savio Ascanio primo giovane dell'Oratorio che veste l'abito chericale.

1850. Si compra la casa Pinardi col sito annesso. Il numero dei ricoverati monta a cinquanta. Il concorso de' giovani all'Oratorio di Francesco di Sales è straordinario, si progetta una nuova chiesa, e il 395 20 luglio il cav. Cotta ne mette la pietra fondamentale, e il canonico

385 Don Cocchis: propriamente Cocchi Giovanni, n. a Druent (Torino) nel 1813, sac. nel 1836, uomo dalle molteplici iniziative, nel 1849-1850 è tra gli animatori della Società di carità a pro dei giovani poveri ed abbandonati; più tardi fonda il Collegio degli Artigianelli, l'Oratorio di S. Martino, la Colonia agricola di Moncucco. Muore il 25 dicembre 1895, ricordato anche dal BS 20 (1896), p. 49.

385-386 Don Bosco accenna alla partecipazione di un gruppo di giovani dell'oratorio dell'Angelo Custode con alla testa don Cocchi a fatti della guerra 1848-1849 del Piemonte contro l'Austria.

386-387 L'oratorio dell'Angelo Custode fu riattivato da don Bosco nell'autunno del 1849 in locali affittati agli avvocati Bronzini Zapelloni e Daziani e rimase sotto la sua alta direzione fino al 1866, quando fu trasferito alla nuova parrocchia di S. Giulia.

388-390 Secondo MB 1; 16-25, 42-51 la visita dei senatori conte Fed. Sclopis, marchese Ignazio Pallavicim e conte Luigi di Collegno sarebbe avvenuta nel gennaio del 1850 e la discussione al Senato il 1° marzo. — «Il Senato del Regno dietro unanime deliberazione instava presso il governo del Re affinché sostenesse un'istituzione così benemerita della religione e della società. Il Municipio delegava un'apposita Commissione per riconoscere il bene che si operava e coadiuvarlo» — L'Armonia, 26 luglio 1850, cit. in Breve ragguaglio, p. 22.

391-392 «Il Savio ricevette l'abito chiericale nel 1848 presso la Casa del Cottolengo, perché il Seminario di Torino era chiuso. Dopo, ottenne di non andare al Seminario di Chieri per restare nell'Oratorio e aiutare don Bosco(...). Nell'Oratorio le prime vestizioni chiericali sono del 1851» — E. CERTA in MO 216, nota alla lin 73. Il Savio (1831-1902) divenne sacerdote e fu rettore del Rifugio.

393-396 Nel margine sinistro del manoscritto allografo B don Giovanni Bonetti scrive: «Sbagliato l'anno: comprata 15-2-51 e la pietra fondamentale il 20-6-51».

«Con atto rogato Turvano, il 19 febbraio del 1851 Francesco Pinardi vendette per la somma di lire 28 mila e cinquecento, in comune ai sacerdoti G. Bosco, teol. Giov. Borel, teol. Roberto Murialdo, Giuseppe Cafasso, i terreni e fabbricati che avevano per coerenti i fratelli Filippi a levante e a notte, la strada della Giardiniera a giorno, e la signora Bellezza a ponente» — GIRAUDI, L'Oratorio..., p. 99.

396 Il comm. Giuseppe Cotta, n. a Torino il 4 aprile 1785, m. ivi il 29 dicembre 1868, senatore dal 1848: il «banchiere della carità» versò in vita e lasciò in eredità in morte cospicue somme in beneficenza. Tra i suoi eredi non comparve don Bosco, col quale, tuttavia, era stato largo di aiuti — cfr. STELLA, Don Bosco nella storia economica..., pp. 65-66.

Moreno la benedice con immensa folla di popolo. Si trascriva l'atto della Funzione.

Il vescovo di Biella con apposita circolare raccomanda la costru

400 zinne della nuova chiesa e vi si ottiene una colletta di Mille franchi. Mancando danaro per la continuazione della chiesa si dà mano ad una Lotteria, che si compie l'anno seguente, che ha favorevolissima accoglienza. Si raccolgono tre mila e trecento oggetti, che, dedotte le spese, danno il risultato netto di 26 mila franchi.

405 Il primo Giugno cominciò la Società di mutuo soccorso, di cui veggansi gli statuti nel libro stampato.

1851. Il 20 di Giugno, giorno della SS. Consolata, con grande apparato, con numeroso intervento di personaggi distinti, con grande trasporto di gioia si benedice la novella chiesa, e vi si fanno per la prima volta le sacre funzioni. La seguente poesia dà un cenno di quanto si 410 fece in quel giorno: Come augel di ramo in ramo etc.

397 trascriva] trascrive A trascriva corr A2 400 vi si ottiene] si fa A vi si ottiene em sl A2 402 che...seguente om A add mrg sin A2 402-403 favorevolissma accoglienza] un favorevolissimo entusiasmo A favorevolissima accoglienza corr A2

405-406 Il primo...stampato om A add mrg sin A2 407 1851 om A add mrg sin A2

396-397 Il can. Ottavio Moreno (1779-1852): v. pag. 63.

397-398 L'atto non risulta trascritto; comunque finora non è stato rinvenuto.

399-400 Era vescovo di Biella Giovanni Pietro Losana, n. a Vigone (Torino) nel 1793, vescovo titolare di Abido e Vicario Apostolico ad Aleppo (Siria), traslato a Biella nel 1833, dove rimase fino alla morte, nel febbraio del 1873. Nell'ASC esistono due copie, una ms e l'altra a stampa, della circolare inviata dal vescovo ai parroci della diocesi in data 13 settembre 1851. Cfr. lettera di don Bosco, del 4 maggio 1852, che ringrazia il vescovo per la circolare e per l'offerta di mille lire — Em I 155-156. 401-404 Più precisamente l'iniziativa della lotteria parte dal 1851 (autorizzazione del 9 dicembre) e si conclude nel 1852 (estrazione nei giorni 12, 13, 14 luglio). Sugli scopi, il regolamento, i promotori, cfr. l'opuscolo Catalogo degli oggetti offerti per la lotteria a beneficio dell'oratorio maschile di S. Francesco di Sales in Valdocco. Torino, tip. dir. da Paolo De-Agostini 1852, XVIII p. — OE IV 145-162. Cfr. G. BRACCO, Don Bosco e le istituzioni, in Torino e Don Bosco I. Torino 1989, pp. 130-133. 405-406 La Società di mutuo soccorso era cominciata mesi prima; intorno a giugno del 1850 viene stampato il regolamento con una Avvertenza firmata da don Bosco. L'articolo 18 e ultimo suona: «Il presente regolamento comincierà essere in vigore il primo di luglio del 1850»: cfr. Società di mutuo soccorso di alcuni individui della compagnia di San Luigi eretta nell'oratorio di San Francesco di Sales. Torino, tip. Speirani e Ferrero 1850, 8 p. — OE IV 83-90.

Si fecero varie provviste per la chiesa, si comperò l'altare di S. Luigi: fu fatta costruire l'orchestra.

p. I5 1852. Lo scoppio della polveriera del 26 aprile anno antecedente

scosse e danneggiò considerevolmente la casa dell'Oratorio perciò in 415 quest'anno si dà principio ad un nuovo corpo di fabbrica. Vicino ad essere coperto (2 dicembre) rovina giù quasi intieramente con grande spavento e danno. Non si ebbe a lamentar alcun danno personale.

Il Sig.r Scanagatti Michele provvede una muta di candellieri eleganti per l'altare maggiore. Si costruisce il campanile. Non essendovi 420 più posto per fare la scuola serale, si combinano le classi nella chiesa nuova. La chiesa antica è ridotta in dormitorio e camere di studio e scuola.

414-416 Lo scoppio...anno om A add mrg sin A2 419-420 Il Sig.r ...maggiore om A add mrg sin A'

407-410 Nel margine sinistro del manoscritto allografo B don Giovanni Bonetti annota: «Si benedice solo la pietra». Effettivamente la benedizione della pietra fondamentale era stata fatta il 20 luglio 1851. La benedizione solenne della chiesa ebbe luogo il 20 giugno 1852.

410-411 Don Bosco fa stampare dalla Tip. Marietti un foglio volante con il testo dell' Ode in 21 quartine. In alto il titolo: Nel giorno in cui si benediceva la nuova chiesa dell'Oratorio di S. Francesco i giovani al medesimo addetti nel colmo della loro gioia i sentimenti della più sincera gratitudine verso i loro Benefattori così esprimevano. Al termin1e dell'Ode, la firma: A nome degli Ecclesiastici e de' Figli dell'Oratorio Il Sacerdote Bosco GIOVANNI. Il testo è riprodotto nelle MB IV 437438 con questa notizia: «Quest'ode fu stampata a migliaia di copie, messa in musica, e i giovani l'avevano imparata».

412-413 I lavori indicati furono fatti dopo l'inaugurazione della chiesa nella seconda metà del 1852.

414 The factory and deposits of gunpowder and army explosives were located near the cemetery of San Pietro in Vincoli, just over 500 meters from the Oratory of San Francesco di Sales. The outbreak occurred, causing about thirty victims among the workers, at 113/4 hours on 26 April 1852 and not in the "previous year".

416-418 The collapses occurred in two stages: a partial one, on November 20, 1852, due to the breaking of a bridge, the second of almost all the new construction, two weeks later, on December 2nd. Construction was resumed from the ground up in spring. The house was completed in October 1853 - GIRAUDI, L'Oratorio ..., pp. 122-124.

419 Michele Scanagatti is a well-to-do bourgeois who appears several times among the benefactors; it is also found in the list of members of the Lottery Commission of 1852 together with the lawyer. Gaetano Bellingeri, who worked in the S. Luigi Oratory, the engineer Giuseppe Blachier and Mr. Federico Bocca, respectively designer and impresario of the construction of the church of S. Francesco di Sales.

D. Caffasso makes the current pulpit.

425 1853. The ruined body of the house is raised: it is completed, most of it is established and in October it is inhabited. The new room allows the dormitories, the Refectory of the young patients to be better regularized. Their number is 65.

Mr. Cav. Duprè buys a marble balustrade, and embellishes the altar of St. Louis. Mr. Marchese Fassati provides an altar with a marble balustrade, a set of bronzed brass candlesticks for the altar of the Madonna.

Mr. Conte Cays prior of the company of S. Luigi buys a bell, and is blessed by the Curé of Borgodora. It provides the current 435 Canopy.

For the first time the exhibition of the forty hours with an octave is made in the Easter holidays.

To remove the disturbance of the tavern, and remove people from con

424 D. Caffasso ... current om A add A2 426 and in ... October] and it is soon to and in the month of October em A '

429 It is the banker Giuseppe Luigi Duprè (t 1884), city councilor, member of the lottery commission of 1852, son of Giuseppe Duprè (1767-1852), also a banker.

430 Great benefactor of Don Bosco the marquis Domenico Fassati Roero San Severino was born in Casale on 4 August 1804, the greatest commander of the body guards of King Carlo Alberto. He died in Turin on 3 May 1878.

433 Carlo Cays, count of Gilletta and Caselette, was born in Turin on November 24, 1813. A law graduate, widower at the age of 32, he played a leading role in Turin's charitable and social activities, president of the Conferences of St. Vincent de ' Paoli, catechist and benefactor in Don Bosco's oratories. He was also a deputy to the Subalpine Parliament from 1857 to 1860. In 1877 he asked to be part of the Saleian Society, in 1878 he became a priest. He died on 4 October 1882. He was Prior of the Compagnia di S. Luigi in the two-year period 1853-1855.

434 The bell is blessed by Don Agostino Gattino, curate of the parish of Sts. Simon and Judas of Borgo Dora, the same who had solemnly blessed the church on June 20th.

436-437 The Quarantore: an extra-liturgical rite, governed by the MstruOtio Clementina of Clement XI (1705), during which the SS. Sacramento remains exposed in the monstrance to the veneration of the faithful for the space of 40 hours, usually distributed over 3 consecutive days. - Octave: Easter commemoration in the eight days following the festival. 438-440 Don Bosco rents the whole house of Mrs. Teresa Caterina Novo vedova Bellezza from 1 October 1853 to the end of September 1856, renewing the contract from 1 October 1856 to 30 September 1859 - see STELLA, Don Bosco in economic history ..., pp. 91-92.

learned suspect from home Beauty, near the church, takes the whole house. 440

1854. New jobs are not expected after the shortage of the year. They are only completed with some basic necessities. Mr. Conte Cays is re-elected prior of the company of S. Luigi, and has provided a new and long sweep around all around the interior cornice of the church. 445

The caress of edibles, the lack of work, exposing many young people to the danger of the soul and the body, many receive at home and their number increases to eighty six.

441-442 «Se avesse tardato appena di un anno, don Bosco si sarebbe trovato impigliato nella'crisi economica generale del 1853-1854 con le spese edilizie e quelle del sostentamento di un numero di convittori più che triplicato rispetto al 1850» STELLA, Don Bosco nella storia economica..., pp. 90-91.

444-445 Panta è vocabolo dialettale piemontese, desunto dal francese pente, tendaggio corto che orna in alto un baldacchino, un cornicione; questo di cui si parla correva tutto intorno al cornicione superiore della chiesa di S. Francesco di Sales.

446-448 «L'incarimento d' ogni sorta di cibo, il maggior numero di giovani cenciosi ed abbandonati, la diminuzione di molte oblazioni che private persone mi facevano e che ora non possono più, mi hanno posto in tal bisogno da cui non so come cavarmi» — lett. al co. Clemente Solaro della Margherita, 5 gennaio 1854, Em I 212.

— «Ora trovandomi in un caso eccezionale oso nuovamente esporre li miei gravi bisogni, persuaso, che saranno con bontà sentiti; e sono: (...) 3° Mantenere alcuni dei più poveri ed abbandonati, il cui numero in quest' anno dovette accrescersi fino a novanta a cagione de' molti ragazzi rimasti orfani ed abbandonati nella trista invasione del colera morbus» — Agli amministratori della Pia Opera della Mendicità Istruita, anter. 13 novembre 1854, Em I 235. — «La maggior carezza di commestibili e la cessazione di lavoro misero al più grave rischio parecchi giovani abbandonati e pericolanti, i quali forse andrebbero a finir male se non fossero aiutati coi mezzi materiali e morali. Parecchi di costoro, circa cento, in gran parte di quelli fatti orfani nella fa-tale invasione del colera dell'anno scorso, sono attualmente ricoverati in Valdocco»

- Remembrance to the administrators of the Pious Work of Educated Beggar, Nov. 21 1855, Em I 271-272.

2. The «Historical notes»

A = handwritten editorial staff of Don Bosco A2, A '... = successive interventions by Don Bosco

B = manuscript of amanuensis

B2 = subsequent intervention of the amanuensis B Bb = interventions of Don Bosco in manuscript B

C = manuscript transcribed by cav. Oreglia of S. Stefano

C2 = subsequent interventions by the amanuensis, the cav. Oreglia

Cb = interventions of Don Bosco in manuscript C

Cx = transcription in the ms C, by amanuensis (P. Albera), of the introduced variants

from Don Bosco in the ms D

D = manuscript transcribed by amanuensis D2 = subsequent interventions by the amanuensis

Db = interventions by Don Bosco in manuscript D

Historical outline around the Oratory of S. Francesco di Sales.

The idea of ​​the Oratories was born from the frequency of the prisons of this city. In these places of spiritual and temporal misery you find yourself

s many young men on the flourishing age, of woken genius, of good heart, capable of forming the consolation of families and the honor of the fatherland; and yet they were shut up there, dejected, made the shame of society. By carefully weighing the causes of that misfortune it was possible

3 of the] of these A of em sl A2 3-4 of ... city om A add sl A2 4 misery ... temporal] punishment A of spiritual and temporal misery em sl A2 of the homeland] of the countries of the homeland sl A2 8 Weighting ... misfortune om A add sl A2 of that misfortune] of their misfortunes A CD of their misfortune B of that misfortune corr Bb

3-4 Clear discrepancy from what Don Bosco writes at the beginning of the historical reference. 4-22 "As soon as he began to negotiate and talk with that new kind of hearers, Fr. Caffasso was soon to realize that they had become unfortunate, indeed abrogated; but rather by lack of religious instruction, which gives malice. He speaks to them of religion and is listened to; he offers to return and is with expected pleasure. He continues his catechisms, invites other priests and especially boarders to help him, and soon manages to earn the hearts of those lost people; the sermons begin, confessions are introduced, and in a short time those prisons, which due to imprecations, blasphemies and other brutal vices seemed infernal bolgies, were changed into the homes of men whom they knew of to be Christians begin to praise and serve the Creator God by raising sacred songs to the adorable name of Jesus »- Cafasso, pp. 82-83.

to know that for the most part they were unhappy rather than lack of education rather than malice. It was also noted that from hand to hand he was making them feel the dignity of man, which is reasonable and must obtain the bread of life with honest labors and not with the thief; in short, as soon as they made their moral and religious principle resound in their minds, they felt in their hearts a pleasure which they could not give reason to, but which made them want to be better. 15 In fact, many of them moved into the same prison, others came out so they no longer had to be translated.

Then it was confirmed with the fact that these youngsters had become unhappy because of a lack of moral and religious education, and that these two educational means were those that could effectively cooperate to preserve good when they were still and to reduce the wilful when they were come out of those places of punishment.

To come to some tests they began to make special catechisms in the prisons of this capital and soon after in the sacristy of the church of St. Francis of Assisi; and thus the festive 25 principles began. There were invited those who came out of the prisons and those who used to go here and there in the squares, in the streets and even in the gathering workshops. Moral and religious stories, songs of sacred lauds, small gifts, some toys were the ammonitia

che si usavano per trattenerli ne' giorni festivi. 30

9-10 that ... besides that .om A add mrg sin A2 11 the dignity ... that is] that the man has the soul A the dignity of the man that is em sl A2 12 with ... and om A add sl 14 mind] ears With mind corr A2 14-15 a pleasure ... reason om To a pleasure of which they could not give reason add sl A2 a pleasure of which you could not give reason corr DbCx 15 them ... wish ] proposed A made them resolve em the A2 made them resolute B made them solve CD they made wish corr DbCx 18 confirmed with the fact om A add sl A2 19 of education] of education A of education corr A2 of education em sl A 'morale om A add sl A2 20 could ... cooperate with] could make good the urchins, the more A could effectively cooperate to em mrg sin A2 21 to make sense O A add sl A2 to do B well Bb in the good way CD 21-22 the urchins ...punishment om A if they were already misled add sl A2 when they were already misled B those who had come out C the urchins when they had come out of those places of punishment em sl Cb 23 For ... test] With this purpose A For this purpose for test corr A2 For this purpose, for test C To come to some test corr Cb 24 in prisons om A add mrg sin A2 and shortly after om A add mrg sin A2 25-26 and then ... festive om A and then gave himself principle to festive gatherings add mrg sin A2 26 were invited om To welcome everyone add mr sin A2 to collect them B collecting CDs were invited em sl DBCx those ... jails and om A add mrg sin A2test] With this purpose A With this purpose to test corr A2 For this purpose, for test C To come to some test corr Cb 24 in prisons om A add mrg sin A2 and shortly after om A add mrg sin A2 25-26 and then ... festive om A and then the principle was given to festive gatherings add mrg sin A2 26 were invited om To welcome everyone add mr sin A2 to collect them B collecting CDs were invited em sl DBCx those ... jails and om A add mrg sin A2test] With this purpose A With this purpose to test corr A2 For this purpose, for test C To come to some test corr Cb 24 in prisons om A add mrg sin A2 and shortly after om A add mrg sin A2 25-26 and then ... festive om A and then the principle was given to festive gatherings add mrg sin A2 26 were invited om To welcome everyone add mr sin A2 to collect them B collecting CDs were invited em sl DBCx those ... jails and om A add mrg sin A2

The year was 1841 and the young people who intervened on average were seventy. With great satisfaction the oratory continued three years on this site of St. Francis of Assisi, until the extraordinary number of young people forced them to choose a larger room. Laonde year

35 1844 the sac. For reasons of ecclesiastical employment, Bosco went to the direction of the pious work of the Refuge in Valdocco, where a site more adapted to the need was chosen, and on 8 December 1844 it was well-known. 2 the first chapel dedicated exclusively to youth. This church consisted of two rooms adjoining the building intended for it

40 for priests directors of the aforementioned work of the Refuge. Here the Oratory lasted a year.

In the autumn of 1845 for the growing number of youngsters, who often exceeded two hundred, and the building that up until then had served as a church, having to have another destination, it was necessary to look for a more suitable place. For the space of about four months 45 went to the church of S. Martino near the city Mills, from which it ceased to make room for another catechism intended for young women. The cenotaph of S. Pietro in Vincoli, Morettk house, a fence of the Filippi house served as an Oratory until the spring of 1846.

31 on average om A add sl A2 32-33 With ... this om A add sl A2 33 site ... of Assisi om A local add sl A2 local BC site of Francis of Assisi em sl Cb 36 to the direction] to Work A in the direction of the A2 of the A of the A 2 corr ... Refuge] small Hospital called of S. Filomena A pia opera del Rifugio em sl A2 pious work of Refuggio [Refugio corr Db] CD 37 site] place A site em sl A2 adapted to the need] spacious for recreation, and a part A adapted to the need and the A2 eight ... 1844 om A add sl A2 8 December year 1844 B the day eight December 1844 CD 37-38 was ... chapel] The building was consecrated in the church The first em sl was consecrated A2 the first chapel was blessed [church A 'capella emend sl A4] cm A' 38 post chapel add by the ecclesiastical authority and also by prior consent of theecclesiastical authority and also of the municipal civil authority corr A2 of the intended ... youth om A add sl A2 39-41 This ... lasted om A add mrg sin A2 41 one year] about two years Two years corr A2 about two years, that is, until the beginning of 1847 corr Cb almost two years, that is, until the end of 1846 corr Cb2 a year, that is, until the beginning of 1846 corr Cb3 a year corr Cb4 post year add the oratory was stable in the mentioned site A of the 42 In _1845] but AB But C Then em sl Cb In the autumn of 1845 em Cb2 43-44 had ... destination om ABC had served having to have another destination add Cb of Cb2 had served as church having to have another destination add sl Cb3lasted a year add A2 A2 41 a year] about two years two years approximately two years, that is until the beginning of 1847, nearly two years, that is, until the end of 1846, Cb2 a year, that is, until the beginning of 1846 Cb3 a year corr Cb4 post year add the oratory was stable in the mentioned site A of A2 42 In _1845] but AB But C Then em sl Cb In the autumn of 1845 em Cb2 43-44 had ... destination om ABC had served having to have another destination add the Cb of Cb2 had served as a church having to have another destination add sl Cb3lasted a year add A2 A2 41 a year] about two years two years approximately two years, that is until the beginning of 1847, nearly two years, that is, until the end of 1846, Cb2 a year, that is, until the beginning of 1846 Cb3 a year corr Cb4 post year add the oratory was stable in the mentioned site A of A2 42 In _1845] but AB But C Then em sl Cb In the autumn of 1845 em Cb2 43-44 had ... destination om ABC had served having to have another destination add the Cb of Cb2 had served as a church having to have another destination add sl Cb3_1845] but AB But C Then em sl Cb In the autumn of 1845 em Cb2 43-44 had ... destination om ABC had served having to have another destination add Cb of Cb2 had served as church having to have another destination add sl Cb3_1845] but AB But C Then em sl Cb In the autumn of 1845 em Cb2 43-44 had ... destination om ABC had served having to have another destination add Cb of Cb2 had served as church having to have another destination add sl Cb3

31-32 Number contained in Cenno.

32-33 In place of "site of Francis of Assisi" Don Bosco had used the generic term "local". In the doc. The amanuensis follows the question: "(which one?)". Don Bosco emenda, specifying.

41 "one year": a largely debatable succession of the variants introduced in the C from Cb is assumed; Don Bosco corrects and recurs in search of a chronological coherence, which he does not succeed. From the blessing of the makeshift chapel (8 December 1844) to the forced abandonment for the opening of the S. Filomena hospital (10 August 1845) exactly 8 months passed.

42-56 See Cenno, lin. 127-200 and various information about the events of the pilgrimage oratory.

In this year the Pinardi house was taken over and then bought in the Valdocco region, where the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales was built. The number of young people grew to such that the year 1850 often exceeded the two and even the three thousand.

In order to provide for this need the year 1851 raised the present church and this was done with the help of Lotteries of objects and with 55 other private oblations.

Oratory of S. Luigi at Porta Nuova. The year 1847, given that for the great number of young people could no longer be contained in the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales, another opened in Porta Nuova between the avenue

45-46 for ... months om AB some time C for the space of about four [three Cb four em Cb2] months em Cb 49 until ... 1846] until the year 1846 ABC until the spring of 1846 corr Cb of the Cb2 until the spring of 1846 add sl Cb3 52 1850] 1860 CD 1850 corr Db 55 Lotteries] a lottery CD 56 post oblations add the treasurer contributed you with the conspicuous sum of francs 10000 A of the A2

45 "For the space of about four (Don Bosco corrects a previous three) months": it is a clarification that Don Bosco introduced in doc. C, at the invitation of the amanuensis, who following the indication contained in the first drafting «for some time» adds: «(if you can specify the time)».

47 Following the word "young people" in doc. C the amanuensis adds: "(you seem to have been some other reason yet)". Don Bosco does not intervene in the text. The historical reference, lin. 151-155 is more exact and explicit.

49 Following the indication «1846» in doc. C the amanuensis adds: ("you seem to me that the epochs indicated by the last do not agree"). Don Bosco emenda, specifying: "until the spring of 1846".

50-52 Summary concentration of different events distributed over five years.

52-53 The figure certainly refers to all the speakers at peak times. Writing on 10 July 1850 to a young priest, already a collaborator in the first oratory and returned to Portugal in 1848, Don Bosco informed him that on the recent feast of St. Louis there were 150 confirmations and 500 communions and that for the evening functions the number of young people present exceeded 1600 - lett. to Daniel Rademaker (18281885), Em I 104. - The Harmony of the following July 26th says of the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales: «It does not count yet two decades of life and already more than a thousand youngsters who diligently they run »- cit. in Brief Information, p. 22.

54-55 It is the church of St. Francis of Sales.

60 of the Platani and that of the Valentino. The direction of it was entrusted to the Teol. Carpano Giacinto, then passed to others, and now the Teol. Leonardo Murialdo is a zealous director. The average number of young people is around 500.

Oratory of the Holy Guardian Angel. The extraordinary competition of 65 young people at the Oratorio di Porta Nuova soon made it necessary to know a new site to be chosen where it was most needed. Vanchiglia is the highly populated and regurgiting section of Turin of youngsters who in the festive days go here and there wandering. The worthy D. Cocchi had already opened an Oratory there, which for other 70 occurrences had to abandon. In that same place and with almost identical purpose in the year 1849 in that region the Oratory of the Holy Guardian Angel near Po was reopened to the public. The direction was aff. 3 given to Mr. T. Murialdo Roberto; presently being health care

62 The number om A add A2 64 The ... competition om A add sl A2 65-66 made ... indispensable] could not satisfy the need A soon made known to be indispensable emend sl A2 66-67 new ... need om A add mrg sin A2 70-71 In ... purpose om A add mrg sin A2 72 near Po] in Vanchiglia A near Po em A2 post Po add the Lords Daziani and Bronzini who were the CDs 72-74 The management ... Michele om A add mrg s A '73 post present add (1863) CD

61 Theol. Carpano Giacinto: see Hint, lin. 336-337.

62 Teol. Leonardo Murialdo, saint, cousin of the theol. Roberto Murialdo (see lin. 73), n. in Turin October 26, 1828, sac. on 21 September. 1851, director of the oratory of S. Luigi from July 1857 to the autumn of 1865, when he went to Paris for a year of study at the Seminary of San Sulpizio, rector of the College of Artigianelli from 1866, he founded the Pious Society in 1873 of St. Joseph, m. in Turin on March 26, 1900.

67-68 Borgo Vanchiglia occupied a vast populated area to the north-east of the city situated between the Dora river, the Po and Corso San Maurizio. Vanchiglia was not really a section of Turin, but belonged to the Dora section; the other three sections of Turin were Po, Monviso, Moncenisio. The villages were minor units: Po, Dora, San Donato, Pallone, Vanchiglia, Rubatto, San Salvatore, San Secondo, Crocetta, Borgo Nuovo. 69-70 Before Don Bosco, Don Giovanni Cocchi, vice-curate in the parish of the SS. Annunziata in Vanchiglia, had begun the work of orators in Turin, founding one dedicated to the Holy Guardian Angel: cf. Program of the oratory and Project of Sunday and evening schools, established there, in "L'Educatore" 3 (1847) 762-765; they are signed by the Directors Priests D. Gio. Cocchi and Teol. Roberto Murialdo.

73 Teol. Roberto Murialdo (1815-1883), from Turin, chaplain of the Holy Majesty the King. His charitable activity remained from the beginning intertwined with both the work of Don Cocchi and that of Don Bosco, with increasing preferences for the cousin's initiatives and in particular for the College of Artigianelli.

very poor is entrusted to the Sac. D. Rua Michele. The average intervention of this Oratory is about four hundred. 75

General remarks. These Oratories can be defined as places destined to keep the children in danger during the festive days with pleasant and honest recreation after having attended the sacred functions of the church. So beyond the churches there are enough spacious enclosures for recreation and special rooms for schools and to repair the 80 pupils from the weather in the cold season or in case of rain. The means to entice to intervene are: small prizes, playthings and good reception. Medals, images, fruit, some collection or snack; sometimes a pair of trousers, shoes or other clothes for the poorest; job placement; assistance to relatives and to the 85 same masters. The trastulli are: bullets or bowls, tiles, crutches, swings of various kinds, the giant's step, gymnastics, military exercises, singing, concerts with instrumental and vocal music. But what most attracts young people is good reception. A long experience has made known that the good result of education in youth consists especially in knowing how to make ourselves loved in order to make us fear later.

77 in public holidays om A add sl A2 unsafe om A add sl A2 79-80 spacious] large C spacious em sl Cb 85 at work] a master A at work corr A2 87 swings ... gender] swing AB swings of various genus corr Bb swing CD 89-90 A long ... know that om ABCD add sl Bb 90-91 the good ... youth om A to get good restitutions in youth education add sl A2 to get good results in education of youth B the good result of education in youth corr Bb 91-92 consists ...fear] we must do to make ourselves loved and never be afraid of us. We must study the way of making ourselves loved to make us fear fro A2. we must study the way of making ourselves loved so as to make us fear. B consists especially in knowing how to make ourselves loved in order to make us. of then to fear corr Bb it is necessary to study the way to make to be loved to make then to fear for the purpose CD

74 Don Michele Rua, blessed, successor of Don Bosco in the government of the Salesian Society (1888-1910), n. in Turin on 9 June 1837, m. April 6, 1910. A young student cleric has been active since 1853 in the oratory of St. Louis; from 1854 to 1856 he collaborated with the teol, Paolo Rossi, then with teol. Leonardo Murialdo. At the end of 1857 it passes to the Oratory of the Guardian Angel in Vanchiglia. Ordained a priest on 29 July 1860, "he could have been called the Director, because in the direction he fulfilled the most important parts; instead of deference to Don Roberto Murialdo who continued to take care of it, he considered himself for three years and called himself vice-director »- E. CERTA, Life of the Servant of God Don Michele Rua. Turin, SEI 1949, p. 49.

89-92 "Study to make yourself loved before you fear" - Confidential memories, p. 146.

The religious functions in the holidays are as follows: in the morning comfort for those who want to confess; mass followed by a story of sacred or ecclesiastical history or the exposition of the gospel of the day; then recreation. After noon catechism in the classroom, vespers, brief instruction from the pulpit, blessing with the venerable, which he keeps behind the usual recreation. Once religious services are over, everyone is free to stay and play or go home. On the night they are all sent to their homes and the Oratory closes.

There is a special regulation which guides everything in the church, in recreation and in schools. The people who take part are ecclesiastics, kerici and even bourgeois civilians, who help each occurrence. In the time of Lent there is in all three places the daily Catechism at noon for those who are not free in another hour of the day. The Marian month is also celebrated with a similar sermon or spiritual reading, a rosary and a blessing with the venerable either at sunrise or in the Hail Mary in the evening according to the circumstances.

110 The people who took the most active part on the principle of the Oratories, in addition to the aforementioned are: D. Ponte, D. Trivero, D. Pacchiotti, T. Vola Gio. In a particular way, T. Borrelli Gioanni made himself worthy. It was like the soul and the support with exercising therein the sacred Ministry and in the material and moral aid. Cav. T. Baricco has taken part in it several times. I 115

93 in public holidays om A add sl A2 95 or ecclesiastical om A add sl A2 107 or similar spiritual reading om C add sl Cb 113-115 It ... part om A add mrg sin A '

92 Following «to fear» of the doc. C the amanuensis adds: "(and the libretti of the Cattechismo? And the lotteries?)". Don Bosco does not intervene.

104-106 «I have about four hundred catechisms for the daily catechism of the midday. It means that morality in the poor youth is not yet lost »- lett. with teol. Pietro Abbondioli, curate at Sassi, 4 April 1854, Em I 224-225.

111-112 Don Pietro Ponte (1821-1892), of Pancalieri (Turin), for some time boarder at Don Bosco (1847-1848), friend of Silvio Pellico, chaplain and secretary of the Marchesa Barolo, often named in the biographies of the Marchesa and of the second general superior of the Sisters of St. Anne, Maria Enrichetta Dominici (1829-1896).

Don Trivero: see Hint, lin. 336-337.

Don Pacchiotti Sebastiano (1806-1884), chaplain at the refuge together with the theol. Borel, collaborator in the first oratory, then canon of Giaveno (Turin).

Teol. Jn. B. Fly: see Hint, lin. 336-337.

112-113 Teol. Borelli, Giovanni Borel: cfr. Cenno, lin. 113.

p. 4 Scuole domenicali. Molti giovanetti o per mancanza di mezzi o di comodità si trovavano già ad età alquanto avanzata senza I avere la istruzione necessaria per apprendere un mestiere. Lungo la settimana non potevano frequentar scuola di sorta, quindi la necessità suggerì le scuole domenicali. Queste tra noi cominciarono per la prima volta nel 120 1845. Sul principio sembrava cosa difficile, non esistendo né libri né persone che potessero a ciò dare norme o consigli. Si faceva scuola, s'insegnava, ma lungo la settimana dimenticandosi in gran parte quanto erari insegnato ed imparato la domenica. Tuttavia si giunse a 125 superare in parte questo grave ostacolo, prendendo un solo ramo scientifico per volta e dando una lezione sola da studiarsi lungo la settimana.

120 tra noi om A add sl A2 Per la prima volta om A add sl A2 121 1845] 1846 ABC 1846 D 1845 torr Db Cx Sul principio] Da prima A Sul principio em sl A2 121-123 non...settimana om A add mrg sin A2 123 in gran parte om ABC add sl Cb

114-115 Il teol. cav. Pietro Baricco (1819-1887) era teologo collegiato dell'Università, membro dell'Accademia Solariana, di cui fu preside dal 1846 al 1860; consigliere comunale, assessore all'Istruzione e vicesindaco. Nelle sue pubblicazioni si occupò in particolare dell'Istruzione popolare a Torino.

116-124 «Negli Oratorii festivi, mercé lo zelo di sacerdoti ed anche di laici caritatevoli, si cominciò nel 1846 ad insegnare i primi elementi della lettura, della scrittura e dell'aritmetica, e così fyrono istituite le scuole domenicali» — BARICCO, L'istruzione popolare, p. 126 — La. data del 1846 (e cioè inverno 1846-1847) è la più realistica e coincide con Cenno storico, lin. 179-181, 320-321. — Le Letture di famiglia (18421847) di L. Valerio davano talora notizie sull'apertura qua e là di scuole domenicali e serali. — Sulla diffusione delle scuole domenicali o festive in Germania, Svizzera, Olanda, Inghilterra, Stati Uniti, Regno Lombardo-Veneto informa J.M. DEGÉRANDO, Della pubblica beneficenza, t. III. Firenze, C. Torti 1844, pp. 349-353; F. APORTI, Sulle scuole festive di Lombardia. Lettera ad Alessandro Torri a Pisa, 11 gennaio 1834. Pisa, tip. Nistri 1834; R. LAMBRUSCHINI, Sulla istruzione del popolo. Memoria letta all'Accademia dei Georgofili in Firenze nell'adunanza del dì 4 dicembre 1831, ora in R. LAMBRUSCHINI, Scritti politici e di istruzione pubblica raccolti e illustrati da A. Gambaro. Firenze, La Nuova Italia 1937, pp. 437-450: parla, tra l'altro, della scuola delle feste da lui fondata a Figline Valdarno (Firenze) in favore degli artigiani, «in cui si insegna il disegno lineare applicato alle arti, la prospettiva, e qualche più ovvio principio di geometria e di meccanica» (p. 445); lo scopo era «non levarli dal lavoro nei giorni feriali, e distoglierli dall'ozio e dal gioco nei giorni festivi» (lett. del 3 giugno 1833 allo zio, card. L. Lambruschini, in difesa contro un articolo apparso sulla retriva «Voce della Ragione», che vedeva nell'iniziativa il pericolo del liberalismo e disprezzo per il giorno festivo: A. GAMBARO, Primi scritti religiosi di Raffaello Lambruschini. Firenze, Riv. Bibl. Italiana 1918, pp. 308-310, n. 1).

Con questo mezzo si riuscì a far imparare da prima a leggere e scrivere e successivamente le quattro prime operazioni dell'aritmetica, dipoi gli elementi del sistema metrico, della gramatica 130 italiana e la storia Sacra, ma senza mai passare ad un novello ramo d'insegnamento se non quando fosse bene appreso quello che si aveva tra mani. I pubblici saggi, che furono dati, appagarono gli insigni personaggi, tra quali l'abate Aporti, il Sindaco della città Cav. Bellono ed il Sig. Cav. T. Baricco, i quali ci vollero onorare della loro presenza. 135

124 ed imparato om A add sl A2 126 sola om AB add sl Bb 128 e successivamente om A add sl A2 129 dipoi om A add sl A2 129-130 della...italiana om A add sl A2 130 ma om A add mrg sin A2 senza...passare om A sempre continuando add mrg sin A2 senza mai passare em A' un novello ramo om A materia novella add mrg sin A2 un novello ramo em A' 131-132 d'insegnamento...mani om A add mrg sin A2

127-130 Informando sulla scuola festiva, da lui fondata a Cremona nel 1822-1823, Ferrante Aporti così ne precisa il programma: «La scuola festiva abbraccia: 1° gli insegnamenti del disegno a mano libera e geometrico applicato alle arti, ed accoglie altresì gli istruiti già nella 4' classe, i quali furono emancipati dalle scuole, porgendo loro in tal modo l'opportunità di progredire e perfezionarsi; 2° gli insegnamenti proprj delle prime due classi elementari. Si amò introdurre anche gli insegnamenti della prima classe, perché fosse aperta la via ai più adulti, più prossimi a divenire padri di famiglia, di acquistare le prime cognizioni di religione e di morale, di leggere, scrivere, conteggiare, ortografia ecc., necessarie a tutti di qualunque condizione essi sieno» — F. APORTI, Scritti pedagogici, a cura di A. Gambaro, vol. II. Torino, Chiantore 1945, pp. 221-222. — In Lombardia nel 1834 si contavano 228 scuole festive: in quelle di campagna per lo più si impartivano gli insegnamenti elementari; in città si insegnava soprattutto geometria e disegno applicato alle arti più utili: cfr. G. SACCHI, Intorno all'attuale stato dell'elementare istruzione in Lombardia in confronto di altri Stati d'Italia. Memoria statistica. Milano, Stella 1834, pp. 7-8.

133 Ferrante Aporti, n. nella provincia di Mantova nel 1791, m. a Torino nel 1858, sac., professore di esegesi biblica nel seminario di Cremona e direttore della scuola elementare maggiore della città (1821-1848), fondatore del primo asilo infantile in Italia, tra la fine di agosto e l'inizio di ottobre del 1844 tenne a Torino un corso straordinario di metodica. Compromesso con l'Austria nel 1848 per l'appoggio dato alla guerra di libera-zione, fu esule a Torino, creato senatore da Carlo Alberto, nominato nel 1849 Presidente del Consiglio Universitario della capitale e della Commissione permanente per le scuole secondarie, quindi prima autorità scolastica del Regno dopo il Ministro della P.I. 133-134 Nel doc. C si trova l'indicazione «sindaco della città di Torino»; di seguito l'amanuense scrive: «(si sa il nome?)»; sopra la linea don Bosco aggiunge: «Cav. Bellono»: è l' avv. Giorgio Bellono, deputato di Ivrea, sindaco di Torino dal 1850 al 1852, benevolo verso gli oratori di don Bosco, m. a Torino il 4 dicembre 1854.

Scuole serali. In mezzo alla moltitudine de' giovani che intervenivano apparve un altro bisogno, perciocché sebbene l'istruzione domenicale producesse buoni effetti, tuttavia per molti non bastava. Cominciarono pertanto ad invitarsi a venire lungo la settimana in que' giorni e in quelle ore che tornavano più comode agli allievi. Un gio- 140 vane ingaggiava l'altro ed in breve si giudicò opportuno di stabilire un'ora fissa per tutti e quest'ora fu la sera, quando appunto gli artigiani hanno terminati i giornalieri loro lavori.

In 1846 evening schools began for the first time. The competition was extraordinary, so we had to limit ourselves to a 145 number of students compatible with the narrowness of the venue. As the evening schools were then opened by the town hall in many districts of the city, so the need for this school ceased in the other speakers. Only in the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales did they continue until the present. The subject of the course is: Reading, writing, 150 metric system, Italian language, stationary song, vocal music, instrumental music and some design, piano forte, organ and even French language.

136-144 In the middle ... in the om A add mrg sin A2 144 1846] forty seven A 1847 em A2 1847 BCD 1846 torr Db Cx for the first time om A add sl A2 144-145 evening posts add for those who could take part A of the A2 146-148 As ... this om AB But shortly afterwards the Municipality of Turin effectively fulfilled this need and opened in many districts of the city many classes of evening schools well provided by masters add mrg sin Bb Special reasons prevented continued this CD Since 19 'evening schools were then opened by the town hall in many districts of the city, so the need for this em mrg sin Db the Cx ceased

144 Don Bosco corrects the date indicated in the first draft of A, 1847. As mentioned for evening schools, winter 1846-1847 appears more realistic and probable. "In 1847 the daily evening schools for the teaching of the Italian language, of the French language, of the metric system, of calligraphy and singing were added in the Oratory of St. Francis of Sales" - BARICCO, The popular education, p. 138. - The anticipation of this date at the end of 1844 to the Refuge, supported by E. Cena (and by Don Bosco himself in MO 183), or to the winter 1845- 46 in the Moretta house indicated by Don Bosco in the MOs: see MB XVII 850-858; MO 151, n. to the lin. 33. - See again: "In 1846 the evening schools began, which were visited by a deputation of municipal councilors. They showed themselves to be highly satisfied, and, having liaised in full with the Council, a gift of a thousand francs was decreed with an annual subsidy of 300 francs for evening schools, a subsidy which continued until 1877 "- The Oratory of St. Francis de Sales charity hospice. Exposition of the Priest Giovanni Bosco. Turin, Salesian Typography 1879, p. 4 - OE XXXI 260. 150-153 "Since through assiduity in the evening school, Pietro had come to learn arithmetic and the metric system very well with the elements of the Italian language, his master esteemed him capable of keeping the register of work of a certain number of comrades »- La forza, p. 54. - "The same corporal furiere having been informed that Pietro had a beautiful character to write and knew arithmetic and the metric system very well, he applied it in certain solicitous jobs, to which the quartermaster alone could not give sixth - lb., p. 77.

Daytime working schools. Another class of youngsters wandered unsafe for the city, they are those youngsters who either because they are badly dressed or because they cannot get used to regular discipline are not welcomed in public schools or fired. These mostly orphans or neglected by their relatives even at an early age run the streets and squares quarreling, swearing and scrounging. For them 160 a day school was opened in the Oratory of S. Francesco di Sales and another in that of S. Luigi.

154 diurnal working schools] In the Oratory of S. Francesco di Sales there are also the day schools for A, day and day schools and sl A '154-155 Other ... youngsters] that class of youngsters A Other class of youngsters wandered unsafe for the city, and they are those em mrg sin A2 Another class of youths wandered unsafe for the city, and they are these B Another class of youths wandered unsafe for the city, they are those youngsters torr Bb 157-161 They ... S. Luigi om A add mrg sin A '157-158 for ... relatives om A' add mrg i A3

154-165 "I do not cease to recommend myself to his proven charity (...) even to open a day school in Ognissanti" - lett. to the Duchess Laval de Montmorency, 12 August 1856, Em I 297. - "In view of the growing need to educate the boys belonging to the lower class of the people, I decided to open a day school to receive at least a part of those who overwhelming numbers go wandering along the day, both because relatives do not care for them and also because they are far from public schools; because in the district of Borgo Dora, S. Barbara, Piazza Paesana, Borgo S. Donato, Collegno, Madonna di Campagna, there are no less than thirty thousand inhabitants without either church or public school. It is to take the need of these children that I have given a hand to the construction of a school capable of containing about one hundred and fifty. But since we need expenses for the masters, for the construction works, for the school supplies and for the administration of the scholastic objects, so I resort to the note of Her goodness pleading with her to come to the rescue of me, which is how much to come to the rescue of these young men who they can be called truly abandoned, unsafe and dangerous "- Circular of 1 October 1856 - Em I 304.

Between the entrance to the Oratory on Via della Giardiniera and the church of S. Francesco di Sales "Don Bosco had two classrooms built (...). In a short time the schools were ready to receive the students. At the beginning of 1857, many outside youths flocked to the new daytime elementary school from the houses of the surroundings of Ora-torio »- GIRAUDI, L'Oratorio ..., p. 129.

Their intervention is very numerous in both speakers and through the care of prudent and charitable teachers, satisfactory results were obtained for morality and discipline. Many of them were later admitted into the municipal classes, others into the evening classes, some placed as master. 165

Casa dell'Oratorio di S. Francesco di Sales. Fra i giovani che frequentano questi oratori se ne trovarono di quelli talmente poveri ed abbandonati che per loro riusciva quasi inutile ogni sollecitudine senza un sito dove possano essere provveduti di alloggio, vitto e vestito. A questo bisogno si studiò di provvedere colla casa annessa e 170 detta anche Oratorio di S. Francesco di Sales. Ivi in principio si prese p.5 a pilgione una piccola casa nel 1847 e si cominciarono a raccogliere alcuni de' più poveri. In quel tempo essi andavano a lavorare per la città restituendosi alla casa dell'Oratorio per mangiare e dormire.

161-162 in ambidue gli oratori om A add sl A' 163-165 Parecchi...padrone om A add sl A' 166 Casa dell'] Ricovero annesso all' AB Casa dell' em sl Bb 168 quasi om ABCD add sl Db Cx 173 post poveri add o orfani o trascurati dai parenti CD In...essi] che A Allora em sl A' Allora B In quel tempo essi em sl Bb Nei dì feriali CD

166-171 «Fra i giovani che frequentano gli Oratori della città ce ne sono di quelli che trovansi in condizion tale da render inutili tutti i mezzi spirituali se non si porge loro soccorso nel temporale. S'incontrano talora giovani già alquanto inoltrati nell'età, orfani, e privi dell'assistenza paterna perché i genitori non possono o non vogliono curarsene, senza professione, senza istruzione. Costoro sono esposti a' più gravi pericoli spirituali e corporali, né si può impedirne la rovina, se non si stende una mano benefica che li accolga, li avvii al lavoro, all'ordine, alla Religione. La casa annessa all'oratorio di S. Francesco di Sales ha per iscopo di dare ricetto ai giovani di tal condizione» — Piano di Regolamento per la Casa annessa all'Oratorio di S. Francesco di Sales in Valdocco. Scopo di Questa, redazione ms del 1852 ca. ASC 026 Regolamento. — «La parola Oratorio si prende in varj sensi. Se si considera come adunanza festiva s'intende un luogo destinato a ricreare con piacevoli trastulli i giovanetti, dopo che essi hanno soddisfatto ai loro doveri di religione. Di questo genere sono in Torino l'Oratorio di s. Francesco di Sales in Valdocco; di s. Giuseppe a s. Salvarlo; di s. Luigi presso al viale dei platani; del s. Angelo Custode in Vanchiglia; di s. Martino presso ai molini municipali. Diconsi anche oratorii feriali le scuole diurne e serali che ne' locali mentovati si fanno lungo la settimana per que' giovanetti che per mancanza di mezzi, o perché male in arnese non possono frequentare le scuole della città. Presa poi la parola Oratorio in senso più esteso s'intende la casa di Valdocco in Torino nota sotto al nome di Oratorio di s. Francesco di Sales. I giovanetti possono essere ricevuti in questa casa o come artigiani o come studenti(...)» — Il pastorello, pp. 70-72, n. 1.

170-173 È la casa Pinardi, subaffittata dal Soave il 1° dicembre 1846; col 1° marzo 1847 don Bosco poté disporre dell'intero edificio.

173-174 Le prime redazioni del Piano di Regolamento per la casa annessa... rispecchiano questa situazione: «Scopo di questa. Fra i giovani che frequentano gli Oratorii della città ce ne sono di quelli che trovansi in condizion tale da render inutili tutti mezzi spirituali se non si porge loro soccorso nel temporale(...) né si può impedirne la rovina, se non si stende una mano benefica che li accolga, li avvii al lavoro, all'ordine, alla Religione. La casa annessa all'Oratorio di S. Francesco di Sales ha per iscopo di dare ricetto ai giovani di tal condizione(...). Capo 1. Accettazione. Perché un giovane possa essere accettato, si devono in lui avverare le seguenti condizioni: (...) 4. Che frequenti qualcuno degli Oratorii della città: perché questa casa è destinata a sollevare i figli degli Oratorii, e l'esperienza ha fatto conoscere essere di massima importanza il conoscere alquanto l'indole de' figli prima di riceverli» — ms allografo con correzioni di don Bosco, microschede FDB 1.958 C 9 — ASC 026 Regolamenti. — L'andare e venire quotidiano tra Oratorio e città riguardava non solo gli «artigiani», ma anche gli studenti: cfr, STELLA, Don Bosco nella storia economica..., pp. 177-178.

175 Ma il grave bisogno che da vari paesi di provincia si fece sentire ci determinò di estendere l'accettazione anche a quelli che non frequentavano gli oratorj di Torino.

Cosa chiamò cosa. I giovani abbandonati formicolavano da tutte le parti. Allora si stabilì una base con cui si accettavano soltanto 180 que' giovani che fossero fra gli anni diciotto e i dodici, orfani di padre e di madre, totalmente poveri ed abbandonati. Siccome poi il recarsi in città nelle pubbliche officine produceva cattive conseguenze, così ampliato il locale esistente, se ne costrusse del nuovo ed al presente (i ricoverati sommano a settecento) gli opifici o laboratorj sono tutti qui nella casa. Le arti in cui vengono applicati sono sarti, calzolai, 185 legatori, falegnami, legatori, tipografi e studio per quelli che colla morale condotta e colla singolare attitudine alle scienze se ne rendono degni.

181-183 Siccome...cosi om A add mrg sin A2 181 poi om AB add sl Bb 182 nelle...officine om A2 presso ai pubblici opifizi add sl A' presso ai pubblici opifizi B nelle pubbliche officine corr Bb presso ai pubblici opifizi CD

175-181 In redazioni successive del Regolamento della casa annessa, in fogli volanti e in giornali appaiono condizioni di accettazione semplificate e meno limitative: «Per gli artigiani 1° Siano orfani di Padre e di Madre 2° Abbiano dodici anni compiuti e non oltrepassino i diciotto 3° Poveri ed abbandonati. Per gli Studenti 1° Abbiano compiuto le classi elementari e vogliano fare il corso ginnasiale 2° Siano commendevoli per ingegno e per moralità» — ms autografo degli anni '60, ASC 132 Oratorio 11, 2; cfr. anche «La Buona Settimana» 2 (1857), N° 47, 15-21 nov., p. 392; «Affinché un giovane sia accettato nella casa detta: Oratorio di S. Francesco di Sales in Valdocco...». Torino, tip. dell'Orat. di S. Frane, di Sales 1862, 1 fol.

181 Following "abandoned" in doc. C the amanuensis adds: "(perhaps one could here overflow those conditions of acceptance printed)". Don Bosco does not intervene. Certainly the amanuensis refers to the sheet printed in the typology of the Oratory in 1862, quoted at the lines 175-181.

181-188 From 1853 to 1856 the internal shoemakers' laboratories (1853), the bookbinders (autumn of 1854), the tailors, the carpenters and the "minusieri" (stipettai) (1856) were placed in the building of the annexed house. , of the printers (1861-62) and of the blacksmiths febbrai (1862) and finally the bookshop (1864). Almost simultaneously the first three classes of the gymnasium (1855-1857) and then the fourth and fifth (1859-1860) are opened. 189-194 In the process of drawing up the text of the Constitutions of the Society of St. Francis de Sales in 1.1860-1861, in the previous text of 1858 Don Bosco added the following article: "Finally, of the grave dangers that runs the youth wishing to embrace the ecclesiastical state, this congregation will take care to cultivate in piety and vocation those who show special aptitude for study and eminent disposition to piety. Since it is a question of hospitalizing young people for study, the poorest will be welcomed, as they will lack the means to do their studies elsewhere "; in the years 1863/1864 the article is integrated in this way: «provided that they offer founded hope of success in the ecclesiastical state. In the Valdocco house there are about 555 and in Mirabello more than one hundred young people who go through the classical courses with this purpose "- Constitutions SDB, p. 76. «Provided that they offer a solid hope of success in the ecclesiastical state. In the Valdocco house there are about 555 and in Mirabello more than one hundred young people who go through the classical courses with this purpose "- Constitutions SDB, p. 76. «Provided that they offer a solid hope of success in the ecclesiastical state. In the Valdocco house there are about 555 and in Mirabello more than one hundred young people who go through the classical courses with this purpose "- Constitutions SDB, p. 76.

The ardent desire manifested in many to travel the regular scientific courses has made some exceptions on the conditions of acceptance. Therefore, young people who are not abandoned and not totally poor are accepted for study as long as they have such moral conduct and such an aptitude for study to leave no doubt about the honorable and successful Christian in a scientific career.

Administration . In this house we also have a regulation according to which everything is guided. There is a Rector from whom everyone depends; a prefect takes his place and is responsible for accounting and correspondence; a Director provides for the schools, he corresponds with the teachers, with the study assistants, with the catechists or spiritual directors; 200 a treasurer takes care of service personnel, repairs and in general of the entire domestic company.

184 the ... laboratorj] The arts to which A The factories or laboratories em A2 189-190 regular scientific] regular scientific AB scholarships sl Bb high school CDs 193-194 honorable and Christian om A add A2 scientific] of scientific study em A2 195 Administration om A add mrg sin A2 196-197 a Rector ... depends] a single director A a Rector from whom everyone depends em sl A2

195-196 The compilation of the Regulations for houses, which will be published in the definitive and official drafting at the end of 1877, began at the same time as the Regulations for the exteriors, published jointly with the first one. In the Central Salesian Archive there are several handwritten editorials, partly autographed by Don Bosco, often with corrections, dating back to the same years 1852/1853 with the title Regulation plan for the house annexed to the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales in Valdocco - ASC 026 Regulations.

196-202 «Head 2 Of the Rector 1 ° The Rector is head of the establishment; he waited for him to accept or dismiss the youth of the house; is responsible for the duties of each employee; of the morality and education of the youth of the house (.,.) Head 3 ° of the prefect 1 ° The prefect takes care of the whole company of the house and takes the place of the Rector in his absence in the administration, and in all those things of which he was expressly entrusted (...) 9th The treasurer, the Director of the schools, the spender of the kitchen are in direct relation with the prefect (...) Bursar 1st The administration of the treasurer is divided into three parts: house service; youth discipline; conservation and repair of household things (...) 4th He is in charge of everything related to the cleanliness of the people, the clothes of the young people and will ensure that especially the artisans are punctual to their duties (...) 9th Keep in direct relationship with the chiefs of art (...) Head Quarto Del Catechista 1 ° The catechist or spiritual director has for purpose 'to enfold and to provide for the spiritual needs of the children (...) 13 The artisan catechist will be held in direct relation with the chiefs of comrades, with the bursar, with the prefect, to give and receive information on the conduct of each one. students will be assisted by the assistants of the study, and will be held in direct relationship with the masters and with the director of the schools. Of the Director of the schools 1 ° The director of the schools is in charge of what concerns the students, the teachers, and the things that may occur to them (... ) »- ms autograph of Don Bosco of the regulation plan of the annexed house [NB. Only the 1st art. related to the Catechist is taken from a ms allographer] - ASC 026 Regolamenti, microschede 1.958 D 6-10.

The chiefs or masters of the arts of each laboratory also depend on the economer. I Non vi p. 6 are income or fixed income. Therefore the house is supported by charity only, mostly by private donors. The Town Hall usually makes an annual 205 extension of fr. 300 for lights and wood for evening schools in winter time. The precise expenditure of the whole house or of each individual cannot be calculated, but it can be established at around 60 cents on each day for each individual, all inclusive. The church, the building, site for the house and oratory of Valdocco are properties of the sac. Bosco. 210 Those of Porta Nuova and Vanchiglia are pigmented.

Results . To find out the results obtained by these schools, by

204-205 I1 municipio...300 om A add sl A2 205-206 pei...inverno om ABCD add mrg sin Db mrg i Cx 207 circa om A add sl A2 in ciascun] caduno al A in ciascun em sl A2 208 per...individuo om A add sl A2 tutto compreso om ABCD add sl Db Cx

208-210 Sui modi di proprietà di don Bosco mediante il modulo giuridico della «società tontinaria», cfr. lett. al can. Lorenzo Gastaldi del 24 novembre 1852, Em I 174175; STELLA, Don Bosco nella storia economica..., pp. 84-85, 157.

211-225 Sulla classificazione dei giovani in base a criteri morali e educativi secondo don Bosco, cfr. P. BRAIDO, Il «sistema preventivo» in un «decalogo» per educatori, in RSS 4 (1985) 143-148 (e in questo stesso volume, pp. 277-278, 280-283).

Oratories and from the house called the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales, the students must be divided into three classes: discoli, dissipati, and buoni. The good are preserved and progress in good in a wonderful way. The displaced, that is, those who are already accustomed to wandering about, little to work, also reduce themselves to success with art, assistance, education and employment. Discols then give much to do; if you can give them a little taste at work, they are mostly earned. With the aforementioned means some results could be obtained that can be expressed as follows: 1 ° that do not become worse; 2 ° many are reduced to making sense, therefore to earning their bread honestly; 3 ° the very ones who, under supervision, seemed insensitive, in time become, if not at least in some part, more yielding. It is left to the time to make profitable the good principles that they could know as they should practice. 225

For this reason in every year it has been possible to place several hundred youngsters at good masters from whom they learned a trade. Many returned to their families from which they had fled; and now they are more docile and obedient. Not a few were then placed to serve in honest families. 230

they later yield A they let the good principles acquired come to produce their corr effect later on A2 let the good principles acquired come later to produce their effect B give rise to the good principles acquired which come later to produce their effect corr Bb are made if not in all at least in some more yielding parts, and leaves itself at the time to make profitable the good principles that if they did not learn to practice they learned at least to know C is made, if not in all at least in some part, more submissive. Time is left to make profitable the good principles that if they did not learn to practice, they could at least know D are made, if not at least in some parts at least, more yielding.

213 urchin: a rebel against any discipline, even amoral; (with attenuated value) excessively lively, habitually unruly, intolerant of discipline; fluffy: lively boy, clever, shrewd, casual; rascal .. boy abandoned to himself, street boy; (with attenuated value) very lively, alert, restless; (pejorative) a misguided minor, corrupt.

The exit and then the entry of the young people from the hospice of this Oratory is about three hundred a year. Many of them are received in the music of the National Guard or in military music; others continue the trade learned in the establishment; some go to serve in honest families; a considerable number are also given to teaching. They have undergone their regular examinations or remain here at home or go as teachers in those countries where they are required. Some even go through civilian careers. p. 7

Many students pursue ecclesiastical careers. Co-240 storo, having completed the gymnasium course, they are mostly referred to the respective bishops who take the most loving care to assist them and make them continue in the career they aspire to. Among them is chosen that number which exercise the quality of teachers in this house, do catechisms in the Oratorj, assist the various laboratories and dormitories. On arriving at the priesthood 245 several continue to exercise the sacred ministry in favor of the young people gathered there or who attend the other oratories of the city. Others follow their inclination and go to cover those parts of the ministry to which they are judged suitable by the ecclesiastical superior. 250 A person very worthy of the oratorj and of this house is the sac.

231 hospice] house AB hospice em sl Bb house CD 232 per year om A add sl Az 234-235 some ... families om CD 247-249 Others ... fit om A add A2 250 252 A person ... charity om AB add mrg sin Bb om CD

231-232 On the acceptance movement in the house of the Oratory of Valdocco during each calendar year from 1847 to 1869, see STELLA, Don Bosco in economic history ..., pp. 175-178, 194-196, 439-470.

232-238 "For some years now, when the restricted workshops have been coming, and since the requests of young people to hospitalize are very frequent, I have destined a greater number of young people to study. Now I have a good number that earn the bread of life elsewhere, some as an approved teacher, some with music, and others who have followed the ecclesiastical career, work in different countries in the sacred ministry »- lett. to the minister of PI Terenzio Mamiani (1799-1885), 12 June 1860, Em I 409. - (...) these inpatients of ours (...) made a truly satisfying profit, a sign that many of them are now earning honest sustenance either as school teachers, or in the typography, other military graduates, and others in the ecclesiastical career, others are finally found at the banks of the various departments of the Government - lett.
251 Vittorio Alasonatti, first prefect of the Salesian Society, n. in Avigliana (Turin) on November 15th 1812, sac. in Turin on June 13, 1835, a teacher, he entered the Oratory on August 14, 1854, professed with the first group of Salesians on May 14, 1862, he was a precious collaborator of Don Bosco especially in the administrative field; he died in Lanzo (Turin) on 7 October 1865.
253-225 "No one is paid and all these teachers charitable use their labors" - lett. to the Provveditore alle Studi of Turin, Francesco Selmi (1817¬1881), 4 Dec. 1862, Em I 542. - "These masters for over seven years lend their work for free to the benefit of these inmates of ours" - to the Minister of PI Michele Amari, 7 March 1863, Em I 559. - Among the heads of the laboratories or even people and workers who performed their work there were, of course, various salaried workers: cf. STELLA, Don Bosco in economic history ..., pp. 243-246.

G. Bosco, Documents of narrative pedagogy 151

In all the staff of this house and of all the orators, including the servants, there is no one salaried, but each lends his work freely. 255

253 ante oratorj add others D 253-254 included ... service om AB add Bb 255 post sua add Among the ecclesiastics who made themselves worthy of the moral and mundial help given to the oratorial feasts were D. Pacchiotti Sebastiano; T. Giacinto Car¬pano, T. Vola Gioanni; D. Trivero Giuseppe, D. Ponte Pietro, T. Leonardo Murialdo, T. Cav. Roberto Murialdo, Sac. Rua Michele; Sac. Alasonatti Vittorio. But the Theologian Borrelli Gioanni was particularly, the promoter, the support lent itself with works in an effective way in all times and in all the ways A of A '




The brief documents presented at the end of this section represent the synthesis of the two fundamental dimensions, real and temporal, of the whole personality and action of Don Bosco: the "consecration" to the young as a priest of the Turin diocese, operating in what has become the his city, through the "oratory" (understood in the widest sense possible); and the transition to a further specific "consecration" as "religious" and founder of a society of "religious" totally devoted to youth "prevention", "Society or congregation of orators" .1

The first three documents belong to the first dimension, two of which are always fully in line with the primitive "Oratorian" tradition of Turin. It also connects the History of Italy, faithful to the aims and style of the ecclesiastical history of 1845 and of the sacred history of 1847. Although the soil on which it works is profane, the purpose is the same: "to illuminate the mind to make good the heart ", educating in a moral, religious and" civil "key, three adjectives that connect and cover one another. Above all, in the composition of the History of Italy, in all likelihood Don Bosco meets with formulas that approach or identify with the pedagogical program repeatedly repeated in his writings: "to be loved rather (or" before ") than to be feared ".2

As for the transition to a type of "narrative pedagogy" linked to the gradual advent, between the last years of the fifty years and the early sixties of the nineteenth century, as well as on factual elements one can count on an explicit testimony of Don Bosco himself. On Wednesday 2 February 1876, talking with the directors of his institutions, gathered in Turin-Valdocco, on the opportunity to take care of the history of each of them, as the basis of a history of the entire Salesian institution, he observed: «I then already have written summarily various things concerning the oratory from the beginning until now, and indeed up to 54 many things I have written in plain language; there in the fifty-four we enter to speak of the congregation and the things are expanded immensely and they take another aspect.

1 The term occurs in the drafting of the first jet of a "memorial" attached to the request for approval of his incipient Salesian association sent to Rome on 12 February 1864: see ASC Autographs-Salesian Society, microsch. FdB 1.924 D 9-10.

2 A more widespread analysis will be found in the introduction to the text of the General Articles of the House Rules (further on pp. 273-276).

However I thought that it is something that will then serve much to those to come and to give greater glory to God, therefore I will try to write ». Indeed, even if Don Bosco does not write anything similar to the Memoirs of the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales for the congregation, he will nevertheless compose several "brief news" on it, albeit with a different purpose and that is to arrive at obtaining the approval.' The first testimony will be published here, with many forcing, even chronological, due to the purposes for which it was compiled: in fact, he intended to obtain the most rapid approval of an institution which, for this reason, had to appear for many years already begun and happily proven.

To encourage Don Bosco towards the organization in the religious congregation of those who wanted to share with him the same youth mission could also push him to the fact that, despite the removal of the "legal existence" or "civil personality" from religious corporations, it was left - according to the explicit parliamentary declarations of the presenter of the bill, Urbano Rattazzi - "full and free power for members of religious communities to gather and give themselves that kind of life that they return to grade" .4

The text presented is the one contained at the beginning of the first draft (ms A) known of the Salesian Constitutions, which had as its title Regulation of the Congregation of St. Francis of Sales, based on the critical edition prepared by Francesco Motto, as will be indicated in its place . It dates back to a period from 1858 to the beginning of 1859.5 There will be indicated some few variations contained in the text of the Constitutions sent to Lyon to the Archbishop of Turin, Luigi Fransoni on 11 June 1860 (ms D) .6

3A list of "informative" documents of this type can be found in the essay by P. BRAIDO, The Idea of ​​the Salesian Society in the "Cenno istorico" of Don Bosco of 1873/1874, in "Salesian Historical Researches" 6 (1987), pp. . 255-256. The last one, more extended, is represented precisely by the Hymnian Annunciation, of which the annotated text is reproduced in the essay (pp. 276-310).
4 U. RATTAZZI, Parliamentary speeches. Collected and published for the care of the lawyer. comm. Giovanni Scovazzi, vol. III Rome. For the Heirs Botta 1877, pp. 218-219. "The freedom of the cloister (...) will remain sacred and intact, notwithstanding the adoption of this law, because the effect of the same, as I mentioned, is not to prevent those who want to live with others, to live together; those who want to depend on superiors depend on it, leaving each person full and absolute freedom "(p. 234). "While we argue that civilian personalities should be taken away from those religious corporations, on the other hand we admit that it is permissible for anyone to dedicate himself to that life which he values, and also to give himself to ascetic and contemplative life" (p. 397) .
5 See G. Bosco, Constitutions of the Society of St. Francis de Sales [1858] -1859. Critical texts by Francesco Motto. Rome, LAS 1982, pp. 22-26.
6 G. Bosco, Epistolario. Introduction, critical texts and notes by Francesco Motto, vol. I (1835-1863). Rome, LAS 1991, p. 406.

From the "History of Italy" (1855) +


He is a universally admitted fact that books must be adapted to the intelligence of those to whom one speaks, in that way that food must be arranged according to the complexion of individuals. Depending on this principle, I decided to tell the History of Italy to the youth, following in the subject, in the wording and in the volume of the volumes, the same rules that I already applied to other books for the same purpose intended.

Therefore, by sticking to the certain and most fruitful facts of morality and useful teachings, I omit the uncertain things, the frivolous conjectures, the too frequent quotations of authors, as well as the too high political discussions, which return useless and sometimes harmful to youth. I can therefore not ascertain the reader, that I did not write a period without comparing it with the most accredited authors, and as far as I could, even contemporaries, or at least closer to the time to which the events refer. Nor did I spare myself the trouble of reading the modern writers of things in Italy, getting from each what it seemed to agree with my intent.

+ «The history of Italy told to the youth by its first inhabitants up to our days (1855) takes up the title (and some parts) of a History of Italy from its first inhabitants after the flood up to our days of a manual published by Giacinto Marietti (1834) which is apparently a rehash by the Jesuit Paolo Beorchia (1795-1859). But Don Bosco's operetta does not draw from Denina or Botta or Cesare Balbo and perhaps not even Muratori; and it must be approached to the feelings and ideas of the neo-Guelphs and neo-Ghibellines of the mid-nineteenth century, not because they are inspired by the great historians who represent such currents, but rather because they breathe the same atmosphere, the same climate is affected, while placing itself in the more modest greenhouse of the popularizations for the people and for the youth next to the compendiums of the same nature of the Sforzosi, of the Ricotti, of the Zini; indeed in the even more humble sphere of the books to which it draws most: the Moral Tales drawn from the history of Italy, which constitute a section of Giannetto, a very successful reading manual for elementary schools compiled by the pedagogist Luigi Alessandro Parravicini (1799-1880) and the History Course told to the children of Jules Raymond Lamé-Fleury (1797-1878) "(P. STELLA, Don Bosco in the history of Catholic religiosity, vol. I, p. 231).

This story is divided into four particular eras; the first begins with the first inhabitants of Italy and extends to the beginning of the Common Era, when the whole Roman Empire came under the domination of Augustus. This era can be called ancient or pagan Italy.

The second from the beginning of the Roman Empire until the fall of the same in the West in 476, and we will call it Christian Italy, because precisely in this space of time Christianity was propagated and established throughout Italy.
The third since the fall of the Roman empire in the West until the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus in the year 1492, and is the history of the Middle Ages.

The fourth includes the rest of history up to our times, commonly called Modern History.
I did what I could because my work would be useful to that portion of the human society that forms the hope of a happy future, youth. Exposing the historical truth, insinuating love to virtue, the escape of vice, with respect to religion, was the final goal of every page.

The good reception made by the public to some of my operettas, once published, also make me hope for this work anyway. If someone will gain some advantage, he will give glory to the Dator of all goods, to which I intend to consecrate these tenuous labors of mine.

Reviews of "History of Italy" +

told to the youth, from its first inhabitants up to our days, from the Sac. Giovanni Bosco. Turin, tip. Paravia 1856. A vol. in 16th of 558 pages.

The name of the egregious Sac. Don Bosco is now more than enough an indicator of the goodness of his writings, all marked by zeal, and directed at the culture of youth for the good he has worked with for so many years with laudable effort. This history of Italy in particular deserves praise for the rare discretion with which it was written, so that in the narrow space of 558 pages in 16th, all the major events of our homeland are diligently collected.

+ «La Civiltà Cattolica» 8 (1857), vol. I, 482.

The assertion that there is no flaw in such arduous work would be unjust. In any case we make vows, because given the ban on so many stories of Italy written with lightness or even with perverse purpose, this of the Bosco runs through the hands of the young people who begin the study of the events of the most noble Peninsula.

Tribute to Niccolò Tommaseo 'review

My dear sir, I
disturb VS Chiarissima to ask you for two favors. If you want to accept a copy of the History of Italy you just printed, with a prayer of wanting to mention the Institut in the newspaper with those words that in your wisdom will best judge.
My purpose was to tell the young people of these events of our history that seem to be more appropriate for the youthful age. I also accommodated her in the magisterium program, for elementary school teachers and technical schools.
However you do, I am very happy about this occasion in which I can wish you from Heaven health and grace, while with full esteem I
profess myself respectfully I profess Of VS servitor Sac. Bosco Gio.

From home, September 23, 1859.
[Em I 178]

'In 1865 Niccolò Tommaseo dedicated his volume New Studies on Dante to three priests of Turin: the pedagogist GA Rayneri, the professor of ecclesiastical history in the Theological Faculty Francesco Barone, the director of the magazine L'Istitutore Giovanni Lanza. In it he emphasized the "moral merits" of Piedmont, among which he signaled "the exercise of religious faith maximally in works of charity"; and a few lines later it listed among the Turin "charitable monuments" the College of the ab. Bosco, which takes its well-deserved name from Francis de Sales, where better than giving bread to more than a hundred poor people, I am taught to know how to earn it for life ". The sympathy for the subalpine world had been growing since 1854 when he arrived in the capital and had taken lodgings in the village of Vanchiglia, where Don Bosco managed the oratory of the Guardian Angel (1849-1866). It was natural that Tommaseo welcomed the homage of the second edition of the History of Italy in 1859 and made a benevolent review of it in the Bibliographical Review of the Institute, of which he was a diligent collaborator. The brief note of the following December 17 was directed to those who had found his evaluation too generous and uncritical.

The history of Italy +
told to the youth by the Priest G. Bosco - Turin.

If the books are judged by the usefulness they really carry, they would have a more just measure than the ones that the literati usually use; and correcting, or at least tempering, many of their sinful judgments of servile admiration or tyrant contempt. Here is a modest book, which the scholars of trade and the historical rhetoricians would perhaps deign of a glance, but which in schools can fulfill the offices of history much better than certain celebrated works. To make books in the use of youth, certainly the experience of the teacher is not enough, but it is a great help, and fulfills the other qualities to this difficult ministry required. Difficult in particular where these are compendiums, which must be entire works in their genus, not dismantling the concepts, nor offering the arid skeleton. The Ab. Bosco in a non-serious volume presents the history of Italy in its most memorable facts; he knows how to choose them, he knows how to surround them with vivid light. His Piedmontese do not fail to put forward those memories that concern Piedmont in particular, and teach doing similar to the other masters, that is, the lesser known and more distant things to illustrate with the most famous and close. It is therefore understood that each teacher owes his students and his disciples his own know how to at least partially remake school books, however well they may be; he owes the narratives, vivid as they may be in the book, to know how to animate noydlli colors in the school, and to apply the history and every other instruction to each of his students, as far as is possible. he knows how to surround them with very bright light. His Piedmontese do not fail to put forward those memories that concern Piedmont in particular, and teach doing similar to the other masters, that is, the lesser known and more distant things to illustrate with the most famous and close. It is therefore understood that each teacher owes his students and his disciples his own know how to at least partially remake school books, however well they may be; he owes the narratives, vivid as they may be in the book, to know how to animate noydlli colors in the school, and to apply the history and every other instruction to each of his students, as far as is possible. he knows how to surround them with very bright light. His Piedmontese do not fail to put forward those memories that concern Piedmont in particular, and teach doing similar to the other masters, that is, the lesser known and more distant things to illustrate with the most famous and close. It is therefore understood that each teacher owes his students and his disciples his own know how to at least partially remake school books, however well they may be; he owes the narratives, vivid as they may be in the book, to know how to animate noydlli colors in the school, and to apply the history and every other instruction to each of his students, as far as is possible. that is, the lesser known and more distant things to illustrate with the most famous and closest. It is therefore understood that each teacher owes his students and his disciples his own know how to at least partially remake school books, however well they may be; he owes the narratives, vivid as they may be in the book, to know how to animate noydlli colors in the school, and to apply the history and every other instruction to each of his students, as far as is possible. that is, the lesser known and more distant things to illustrate with the most famous and closest. It is therefore understood that each teacher owes his students and his disciples his own know how to at least partially remake school books, however well they may be; he owes the narratives, vivid as they may be in the book, to know how to animate noydlli colors in the school, and to apply the history and every other instruction to each of his students, as far as is possible.

In so many things to say, the Ab. Bosco holds order and clarity, which, spreading from a serene mind, insinuate serenity into youthful hearts. It is clear to me, in my opinion, even to gather in a separate chapter the general considerations on religion and the institutions of peoples, customs and customs. This was taken up in some historians of the century gone; and it was necessary that such news be in place to place in the narration itself, and give it movement and fullness of life. I do not say that every general observation devasi from the exposition of the facts to divide, that it would be a surrender and the one and the other imperfect part: but I say that the ancients historians, masters imitable in this, or premedit or inframate the commemoration summary of the costumes;

+ «The Institute. Foglio derdomadario d'Instruction and the official documents of being »7 (1859) No. 48, Saturday November 26, pp. 764-765.

Nor with regard to such or such a case is it possible to indicate with due evidence all that is due to the constant nature of the peoples, without the tedious need to repeat the same references at every point.

I will not say that the author could not sometimes take greater advantage of the historical information that modern science has ascertained by studying the sources better; I will not say that all the judgments of him over the facts seem to me unquestionable, nor the facts all exactly narrated; but I am obliged to add that not a few of the too much exalted discoveries of modern criticism remain doubtful, too, and often pour over circumstances that are not essential to the intimate truth of history; and to add that the most judgments of the author seem to me to be in conformity together with true civilization and sure morality. In the almost familiar conversation that he tells with his youngsters, he wisely regards public matters on the side of private morality, more accessible to all and more directly profitable. The desire to make children as many statesmen, and to teach them to rule over the fortunes of the empires, and the causes that won such a captain a certain battle, is not always innocent pedantry. Because the inexperienced minds are accustomed to judge things that they cannot understand behind the word of others; because in this way it gives them a false consciousness; because it does not train them to modestly apply the documents of history to the practice of common life. We see at the meeting the great historians and the great ancient poets to be pleased to portray the private man under the insignia, and almost under the mask; to judge in the citizen and in the prince the father, the son, the brother. So, together with wisdom and utility, the greater beauty of the historical and poetic works of the ancients. Not a few of the moderns, in that place, in history and in poetry themselves propose to themselves an assumption to be shown, and that they pursue from the beginning to the end; and to that they bend and twist facts and affections; always giving the opportunity to see oneself and one's own fixation, in the most different aspects of their argument, always trying to make the same side appear, and under different forms repeating the same thing to satiety; not narrators nor painters, but annoying declaimers. And they do not realize that history, and all nature, is almost a great parable to men proposed by God; of which wanting to make a unique application sterilizes the inexhaustible fruitfulness of the truth, it condemns the divine concept. in history and in poetry itself they propose an assumption to be shown, and that they pursue from beginning to end; and to that they bend and twist facts and affections; always giving the opportunity to see oneself and one's own fixation, in the most different aspects of their argument, always trying to make the same side appear, and under different forms repeating the same thing to satiety; not narrators nor painters, but annoying declaimers. And they do not realize that history, and all nature, is almost a great parable to men proposed by God; of which wanting to make a unique application sterilizes the inexhaustible fruitfulness of the truth, it condones the divine concept. in history and in poetry itself they propose an assumption to be shown, and that they pursue from beginning to end; and to that they bend and twist facts and affections; always giving the opportunity to see oneself and one's own fixation, in the most different aspects of their argument, always trying to make the same side appear, and under different forms repeating the same thing to satiety; not narrators nor painters, but annoying declaimers. And they do not realize that history, and all nature, is almost a great parable to men proposed by God; of which wanting to make a unique application sterilizes the inexhaustible fruitfulness of the truth, it condemns the divine concept. and to that they bend and twist facts and affections; always giving the opportunity to see oneself and one's own fixation, in the most different aspects of their argument, always trying to make the same side appear, and under different forms repeating the same thing to satiety; not narrators nor painters, but annoying declaimers. And they do not realize that history, and all nature, is almost a great parable to men proposed by God; of which wanting to make a unique application sterilizes the inexhaustible fruitfulness of the truth, it condemns the divine concept. and to that they bend and twist facts and affections; always giving the opportunity to see oneself and one's own fixation, in the most different aspects of their argument, always trying to make the same side appear, and under different forms repeating the same thing to satiety; not narrators nor painters, but annoying declaimers. And they do not realize that history, and all nature, is almost a great parable to men proposed by God; of which wanting to make a unique application sterilizes the inexhaustible fruitfulness of the truth, it condemns the divine concept. they realize that history, and all nature, is almost a great parable to men proposed by God; of which wanting to make a unique application sterilizes the inexhaustible fruitfulness of the truth, it condemns the divine concept. they realize that history, and all nature, is almost a great parable to men proposed by God; of which wanting to make a unique application sterilizes the inexhaustible fruitfulness of the truth, it condones the divine concept.


Still of the History of Italy written by the Ab. Bosco +

In the words I wrote about the History of the Ab. Bosco, warning that not all of his judgments about facts seem to me unquestionable, nor the facts all exactly narrated, and noting that each teacher owes it to his own and his disciples' know how to remake school books at least in part, I thought having said a lot. My opinions and those of the Ab. Forest on certain points being quite distinct, and not requiring a new profession, it seemed to me, in the midst of the examples of that barking criticism that makes life free and dignified and gentle, it seemed less ungenerous to stop at the laudable parts of the work, whose reading I have carefully listened to, among my painful treatments. I don't like to excommunicate those who think otherwise from me.


+ «The Institut ...» 7 (1859) N ° 51, Saturday 17 December, pp. 810-811,
'Writer, philologist, lexicographer, pedagogist, n. in Šibenik in Dalmatia in 1802, m. in Florence in 1874. Friend of A. Rosmini, A. Manzoni, R. Lambruschini, G. Capponi, he collaborated in Florence at the "Antologia" and composed the Dictionary of synonyms (1830). He had a troubled life: he was in France (1834-1839), in Venice (1840-1849), in Corfù (1849-1854), in Turin (from May 1854 to October 1859), in Florence (1859-1874). He wrote a great deal about literary, moral, political, historical and pedagogical themes.

Circular for a lottery +

Turin, [21] February 1857

The charity of the Gospel that inspires in man the most beautiful charitable works although he refuses to recall the looks of others above him, yet where the glory of God and the advantage of his neighbor require it, he does not hesitate to overcome his reluctance and draw the helping charities, and sometimes telling the good deed to serve others as an invitation and excitement to come to the aid of the needy. This reflection made the Commission constituted for this Lottery deliberate to give a hint of the main works that are made in these Oratories, and thus make everyone know that the proceeds that it was intended to derive are destined. We believe what is publicly known as the sac.

+ G. Bosco, Epistolario. Introduction, critical texts and notes by Francesco Motto, vol. I (1835-1863) 1991, pp. 317-320; cfr. Invitation to a lottery of objects in favor of the oratories of S. Luigi in Porta Nuova, of S. Francesco in Valdocco, of the S. Angelo Custode in Vanchiglia, in the brochure Catalog of objects placed in the lottery in favor of the youth of the three oratories of St. Francis de Sales in Valdocco, of St. Louis at Porta Nuova, of the Holy Guardian Angel in Vanchiglia. Turin, Tip. by GB Paravia and Comp. 1857, OE IX 3-6.
Very similar is the circular of January 30, 1862 in favor of the largest lottery organized by Don Bosco, when the oratory of St. Francis de Sales was considerably enlarged and the number of guests tripled. It adds: "These young people are partly from the capital, but the greatest number come from the cities and from the provincial towns by going to the capital in search of work or to attend to the study: for example those who are gathered and currently reside in the house annexed to the Oratory of San Francesco di Sales in Valdocco they ascend to about 570, and of these only 50 are from Turin; the others come from cities and provincial towns.
This is why, while we recommend this lottery to our deserving fellow citizens, we also invite charitable people living outside Turin to come to the aid of a work which, besides being aimed at generally promoting the good of the most needy class in society, it still extends in favor of anyone who wants to take advantage of it, whatever town, country or province he belongs to ": G. Bosco, Epistolario. Introduction, critical texts and notes, edited by Francesco Motto, vol. I (1835-1863). Rome, LAS 1991, p. 479; cfr. Invitation to a lottery of objects in Turin in favor of the oratories of St. Francis de Sales in Valdocco, of St. Louis a P "New and of the Guardian Angel in Vanchiglia, in the pamphlet List of objects graciously donated for the benefit of oratories of St. Francis de Sales in Valdocco, of St. Louis at Porta Nuova and of the Guardian Angel in Vanchiglia. Turin, Tip. by Giulio Speirani and children 1862, pp. 3-4, OE XIV 199-200.

In these Oratorios there is a chapel for religious services, some rooms for the school and a garden for recreation. There they are enticed with rewards, and held back with some gymnastics or other honest recreation, after they have witnessed the sacred functions. The number of those who intervene sometimes exceeds three thousand. When the seasons of the year involve it, there is a school of reading, writing, singing and sound. A considerable number of pious gentlemen are urged to lend their work by doing catechism; by making sure that the unemployed young people are put to work with an honest master, continuing that loving assistance that is best paid to a good father.
In the Oratory then of Valdocco there are also the working schools during the day and in the evening, especially for those boys who, owing to the humility of the ragged clothes, or for their indiscipline cannot be accepted in public schools.
Evening schools are very popular. There is likewise taught reading, writing, vocal and instrumental music, and all this to keep them away from bad companies, where they would certainly run the risk of losing the scarce gain of work, morality and religion.
Among these young people, whether they are from the city, they are from the provincial countries, some (mostly orphans) are encountered, who are so poor and abandoned, that they could not start an art or trade without giving them lodging, food and dress; and to this end a house annexed to the Oratory of Valdocco was provided, where over one hundred and fifty are welcomed: they are given what is necessary to make good Christians and honest artisans.
Thus mentioned, the status of these Oratories can easily be known where the Lottery's income is directed: the expenses of the rents of the respective locales, the maintenance of the schools, and of the churches, giving bread to the 150 patients admitted are objects of serious disputes.
In addition, three years ago, in the fatal invasion of cholera, a special room had to be restored, where in that situation were numbered forty orphans, many of whom are still in the house. In this year, a section of the building that had been built for some years had to be completed. All these works, although carried out with the most studied economy, made the expenditure of over forty thousand francs indispensable. This sum, with the help of charitable persons, was already paid for most, but a debt of twelve thousand francs remains.
To satisfy these expenses, to provide for the possibility of continuing in the good begun, we could not find any other means than a Lottery of objects, such as the one that opens the way to any condition of people to compete in that way and measure that the means and the charity of each suggest.
To this end, due authorization was requested from the Royal Government, which welcomed the request, and with the decree of the 2nd of February, granted all the faculties which seem appropriate for the success of the Lottery.
We are intimately convinced that our fellow citizens and the charitable people of the provinces, to which the benefit of the Oratorios and of the house also extends, will want to associate with us and take no small part, sending objects destined to serve as a reward, and making the purchase of tickets. A select number of well-deserving people were courteous to agree to be promoters and promoters, committing to collect items and sell tickets according to the regulation plan therein.
We have only set out the purpose of the Oratorios and the principal means that are put in place to achieve it. The work seems to us quite commendable, without which we add word. We only note that taking part in this charity work provides for public and private utility; and you will be blessed by God and by men. From God with whom the reward will not fail; from the men you will then have the most heartfelt gratitude, while a crowd of young people will bless every moment the beneficial hand that has taken them away from the dangers of the roads, starting them to the good path, to work, to the salvation of the soul.
The Commission

A day of celebration at the oratory of St. Francis de Sales +

FEAST AT THE ORATORY OF S. FRANCESCO DI SALES. - It was last Sunday a day of solemn and happy celebration for the good youngsters of the Oratory of St. Francis of Sales. Orazio, who had taught, that omne tulit punctum qui miscuit Useful dulci, one would not have thought, that Christianity would have aroused such men, who by secret and sweet impulse of the divine grace, or, as others would say, for the happiness of nature, they would have in every act widely applied its maxim, not to earn the applause, but to start up crowds of people on the road to heaven. And one of these men is precisely the distinguished and worthy priest Don Bosco. Of those who were able to have proof of this yesterday that they were at the oratory. The feast of the titular Saint of that church was celebrated and the whole day was so wisely distributed and alternated in pleasant and holy things, that it passed as whole as a moment to that multitude of young men. In the morning there was a general communion, to which more than four hundred children radiant in the face for holy joy came. There was then a solemn mass, sung by Professor Ramello, who with love and joy for about a year helped D. Bosco in the holy work entrusted to him by Divine Providence. The music of the orchestra consisted entirely of those young men, part students, part artists, good in general, some excellent. Anyone who knows the restless and very mobile character of children would have easily done the wonders, that so much recollection and devotion reigned in that crowded church, that is, without a large number of assistants. Yet it is so, enough to contain the virtual presence of the dear Director in the duty. The after-lunch was cheered by beautiful and varied symphonies of that band, and made enchanting by the joyful and honest amusements of all that lively crowd. After vespers the baptism of an adult Moor took place, solemnly administered by the Ill. And Rev. Mgr. Balma, according to patrini, the count and the countess of Clavesana, to whom the aforementioned Moor is indebted for his double temporal and spiritual redemption. When the holy rite was completed, Monsignor, having risen to the altar, pronounced not but instinct, but moving words on the subject, which were fruitfully and religiously heard by the crowded audience. The after-lunch was cheered by beautiful and varied symphonies of that band, and made enchanting by the joyful and honest amusements of all that lively crowd. After vespers the baptism of an adult Moor took place, solemnly administered by the Ill. And Rev. Mgr. Balma, according to patrini, the count and the countess of Clavesana, to whom the aforementioned Moor is indebted for his double temporal and spiritual redemption. When the holy rite was completed, Monsignor, having risen to the altar, pronounced not but instinct, but moving words on the subject, which were fruitfully and religiously heard by the crowded audience. The after-lunch was cheered by beautiful and varied symphonies of that band, and made enchanting by the joyful and honest amusements of all that lively crowd. After vespers the baptism of an adult Moor took place, solemnly administered by the Ill. And Rev. Mgr. Balma, according to patrini, the count and the countess of Clavesana, to whom the aforementioned Moor is indebted for his double temporal and spiritual redemption. When the holy rite was completed, Monsignor, having risen to the altar, pronounced not but instinct, but moving words on the subject, which were fruitfully and religiously heard by the crowded audience. mo Monsig. Balma, according to patrini, the count and the countess of Clavesana, to whom the aforementioned Moor is indebted for his double temporal and spiritual redemption. When the holy rite was completed, Monsignor, having risen to the altar, pronounced not but instinct, but moving words on the subject, which were fruitfully and religiously heard by the crowded audience. mo Monsig. Balma, according to patrini, the count and the countess of Clavesana, to whom the aforementioned Moor is indebted for his double temporal and spiritual redemption. When the holy rite was completed, Monsignor, having risen to the altar, pronounced not but instinct, but moving words on the subject, which were fruitfully and religiously heard by the crowded audience.

+ «L'Armonia della religione con la civiltà» 11 (1858) giovedì 4 febbraio, pp. 107-108.

Terminate così le funzioni religiose colla benedizione del SS. Sacramento, si passò alla distribuzione dei premii, presieduta pur essa dall'esimio Prelato. I premiandi erano parte studenti e parte artisti, né furono i superiori, che quelli aggiudicarono, ma il libero e coscienzioso voto dei compagni. La solita banda rallegrava gli intermezzi. — Fu chiusa la distribuzione con un canto popolare intitolato: Pianto dei Romani per la partenza di Pio VII, egregiamente eseguito dal giovane Tomatis Carlo con un coro di più di venti voci.
Dovette allora Monsignore privare di sua presenza quella cara gioventù da lui benedetta, ma certo porterà con sé lungamente tenera ricordanza di sì devota e lieta funzione, come resteranno incancellabili nel cuore di que' giovani e le savie sue parole e i paterni suoi modi.
Restava ancora la rappresentazione d'un dramma intitolato: Baldini, bellissimo soggetto morale ed educativo. Si tratta d'un nobile cuore, che, trascinato dai cattivi consigli d'un compagno sulla via del delitto, giunge fino al segno di farsi capobanda di briganti. Ma la memoria di sua madre opportunamente rinverditagli, lo richiama all'onore ed alla virtù. La capace e lunga sala, che serve di studio, illuminata a gasse, fu prestamente convertita in teatro. I giovani attori si fecero tutti onore, ma sovratutti si guadagnò la simpatia e gli applausi il signor Fu-mero, stato allievo della casa. Finito il dramma, e rialzato di nuovo il sipario, si vide sulla scena un'urna e un giovane, che andava a depositarvi sopra una ghirlanda di fiori. Quando a poco a poco esce dietro dell'urna un'ombra biancovestita e con in mano una fiaccola, che con bellissimo e funereo canto prese a rimproverare al giovane suo figlio la vanità de' suoi giacinti, e la sterilità delle sue lagrime. Era l'ombra di Vinciguerra, e l'esecutore il già lodato Tomatis, pittore.
In such a way as to be useful to the dulci, with great wisdom and with paternal love the distinguished and reverend Don Bosco knew in one day only to sanctify and rejoice so much youth, whom he loves as his children, and whom they love as their father.

Regulations of the Congregation of St. Francis of Sales +

At all times it was the special concern of the ministers of the church to work according to their strength to promote the spiritual good of youth. A good or a sad future depends on the good or bad education of society. The same Divine Savior gave us the evident proof of this truth when he performed his divine mission on earth, inviting the children to approach him with partial affection. Sinite parvulos come to me. The Supreme Pontiffs [Bishops and especially the Supreme Pontiffs D] following the vestiges of the eternal Pontiff, the Divine Savior, of which they take their place on the earth, promoted in every age and with the voice and with the writings the good education of the youth, and they favored in a special way those institutions that devote their care to this part of the sacred ministry.
Today, however, the need is far more sensitive. The neglect of many parents, the abuse of the press, the efforts of heretics to become followers, show the need to unite together to fight the cause of the Lord under the banner of faith [of the Vicar of Jesus Christ D], and thus preserve the faith and morality [add especially D] in that class of young people who, to be poor, are exposed to greater dangers than their eternal health. This is the purpose of the congregation of s. Francesco di Sales started in Turin in 1841.
The times becoming very difficult and calamitous for religion, the ecclesiastical superior with tract of great goodness approved the regulation of these oratorios and constituted the chief priest Bosco, granting him all those faculties that could return necessary or opportune for this purpose.
Many bishops adopted the same settlement plan and worked to introduce these festive oratories into their dioceses. But a serious need appeared in the care of these oratories. Many young people, already at an advanced age, could not be sufficiently instructed with only festive catechism and it was a profession to open day and evening schools and catechisms.

+ G. Bosco, Constitutions of the Society of St. Francis de Sales [1858] -1859. Critical texts by Francesco Motto. Rome, LAS 1982, pp. 58-70.

Indeed many of them, finding themselves at all poor and abandoned, were welcomed into a house to be removed from danger, involved in religion and sent to work.
This is still done especially in Turin in the house annexed to the Oratory of s. Francesco di Sales where the patients are about two hundred in number. In Genoa it is also mentioned in the work known as degli Artigianelli, where the Sac. Montebruno Francesco: there are forty patients in hospital. It is also done in the city of Alessandria where for the time being the care is entrusted to the Chierico Savio Angelo: there are 50 patients there.


From the year 1841 the sac. Bosco Gioanni joined other ecclesiastics to welcome the most abandoned young people of the city of Turin into special rooms in order to keep them with toys and at the same time give them the bread of the divine word. Everything agreed with the ecclesiastical authority. Blessing the Lord these tenuous principles, the competition of the young was very great and in the year 1844 HE Monsignor Fransoni conceded to reduce a church-shaped edifice with the power to make there those sacred functions that are necessary for the sanctification of holidays. for instruction of the young people who every day more numerous intervened.
There the Archbishop came several times to administer the Sacrament of Confirmation and in 1846 he granted that all those who intervened at this institution could be admitted to Holy Communion there and fulfill the Easter precept; allowing to sing the Holy Mass, to do triduums and novenas, should this be deemed appropriate. These things took place until the year 1847 in the Oratory called di s. Francesco di Sales. In that year growing the number of young people, and so the present church became restricted, with the always consent of the ecclesiastical authority a second oratory opened under the title of s. Luigi Gonzaga with the same purpose as the antecedent.
These two rooms also became inadequate, and in 1850 another one was opened on the other side of the city under the title of the Holy Guardian Angel.
For the gatherings of young people used to make themselves in festive oratories, for day and evening schools, and for the ever increasing number of those who were hospitalized, the harvest of the Lord became very abundant. So to preserve the unity of spirit and discipline, on which the success of the oratories depends, since the year 1844 some ecclesiastics gathered to form a kind of congregation helping each other and with example and education.
They made no vow properly so called; everything was limited to making a simple promise not to concern oneself except in those things that their superior judged as greater glory of God and advantage of his own soul. They recognized their superior in the person of the sac. Bosco Gioanni. Although there were no vows, however, in practice the rules that are set forth therein were observed. There are fifteen individuals who presently profess these rules, namely: priests N. 5, clerics 8, lay people 2.