CONFIDENTIAL MEMORIES TO DIRECTORS (1863, 1871, 1886)
edited by Francesco Motto 173
I. INTRODUCTION 173
II. TEXT 179
THE DIALOGUE BETWEEN DON BOSCO
AND THE MASTER FRANCESCO BODRATO (1864)
by Antonio Ferreira da Silva 187
I. INTRODUCTION 187
1. Don Bosco at Mornese 187
2. Francesco Bodrato: from Mornese to Buenos Aires 187
3. A biography in three redactions 189
4. The draft presses 191
5. The «Vade-mecum» 191
6. «Profiles of Salesian capitulars» 192
7. The «Biographical Memoirs» f 192
8. Content of the dialogue 193
9. A possible source and the author 194
II. TEXT 196
FROM THE PEDAGOGY OF THE ORATORY TO THE MISSIONARY PASTORAL CARE. 199
I. INTRODUCTION 199
Il. TEXTS 202 Introduction
to the Memories of the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales 202
Memories to the Missionaries (1875) 203
THE PREVENTIVE SYSTEM IN THE EDUCATION OF THE YOUTH (1877) 205
I. INTRODUCTION 205
1. Genesis of the text 205
2. Composition of the text of the "Inauguration of the Patronage of St. Peter". 210
3. Description of the documents 212
4. Succession of documents and coat of arms 220
5. Historical-literary context 222
II. TEXTS 235
1. Doc. H - Printed text of the separate Italian edition 235
2. Doc. R - Printed text prefixed to the Regulations for houses 258
THE "GENERAL ARTICLES" OF THE "RULES FOR HOUSES" (1877). 267
I. INTRODUCTION 267
1. Two different locations 268
2. Substantial autonomy of contents 272
3. Love and fear in the educational process 273
4. Assistance: affective love and effective love 276
5. The «indoles», the «characters» of young people 277
6. The manuscripts 278
II. TEXTS 280
THE PREVENTIVE SYSTEM APPLIED BETWEEN THE DANGEROUS YOUTH (1878) 284
I. INTRODUCTION 284
1. The origin 284
2. Description of the documents 289
II. TEXT 291
It is the period of maximum development of Don Bosco's ideas about the "preventive system", which finds at the top the surprising statement of the formula, which will deliver it to the history of pedagogy.
Evolution and elaboration have two fundamental characteristics: 1) experience and reflection are no longer Don Bosco's as a diocesan priest committed to carrying out his "oratories" with personal responsibility, but become the task of a "religious founder », Which continues its primitive initiative in harmony, collaboration, solidarity with the members of the« Society of Saint Francis of Sales », to be reduced to a unity of spirit and operating method; 2) the progressive evolution of the work, which next to the "oratories" gives more and more space to the boarding schools (anticipated with the "house annexed" to the Oratory of Valdocco), it also influences to give a new physiognomy to its "system", which will take on clearly «collegial» traits in the pages of 1877. '
As superior of the newly established Salesian society, but not yet approved (the same so-called «decretum laudis» is missing), Don Bosco, at the end of October 1863, addressed Fr Rua, the first director of a Salesian religious and educational community located outside Turin, in Mirabello Monferrato, an orientation letter that will become an important document of spirituality and pedagogy for the congregation since 1871, confidential reminders to directors
A splendid document of "Oratorian pedagogy" is the Memoirs of the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales, which evidently belong to the narrative-typological genre. They are at the same time an evocation, an apologetic demonstration, a theological interpretation, a paradigmatic and programmatic proposal: in the author's original intentions strictly reserved for the members of his religious society. It is the first of those syntheses of spirituality and pedagogy addressed to the Salesian congregation that emerge from Don Bosco's pen in years of intense structuring and stabilization of his religious society, represented by the Memories to Missionaries (1875), the pages on the preventive system (1877 ), quickly inserted (towards November) in the Regulations for houses, the celebration of the First General Chapter (1877), the publication of the dual Regulations, for exteriors and interiors. Is it symptomatic that a few months after writing the pages on the preventive system and a few weeks after their printed edition, during the General Chapter Don Bosco recommends "our preventive system"?
On the process of "collegialization" of Don Bosco's institutions, see P. STELLA, Don Bosco in the history of Catholic religiosity, vol. I, pp. 121-127; ID., Don Bosco in economic and social history (1815-1870), pp. 123-157.
The profession of the first group of members dates back to May 14, 1862.
Verbal quad. 3 55.
As for the educational and social emphasis it can be noted that at least two documents are placed on the two distinct positions. The dialogue between Don Bosco and the elementary teacher Francesco Bodrato of 1864 is decidedly educational. It is interesting to note that compared to the conversation with Urbano Rattazzi, published in October-November 1877, the first part of the dialogue, composed between 1880 and 1881, represents a more archaic version: there is no mention of the preventive system and only two of its principles are proclaimed which later became classics, reason and religion. On the social front, instead, the memo to Francesco Crispi of February 1878 is mainly located.
edited by Francesco Motto
Don Bosco in his life did not have the possibility of always remaining materially in contact with his immediate collaborators, the Salesians. The frequent trips, the continuous visits to the works and to the benefactors, but above all their departure from Turin-Valdocco to work in other places of Italy, of France, of Spain and of Latin America kept him separated from his "sons" for months and years. To communicate with them, therefore, he had to necessarily resort to correspondence.
Among the hundreds of letters addressed to Salesians, one of the most valuable and significant is undoubtedly the one sent to Don Rua (1837-1910) at the end of October 1863. In it paternal tenderness is marvelously combined with the wisdom of the "master »Of spiritual life and pedagogy.
Raised at the school of Don Bosco, Fr Rua had been one of his most valuable collaborators since the beginning of the Oratory of Turin-Valdocco. From the age of eight (1845) he had attended Don Bosco's house; he had received the cassock from Don Bosco (1852); with Don Bosco he had participated in those meetings that would give rise to the Salesian congregation, of which he would be, still a deacon, the first spiritual director; next to Don Bosco he presented himself to Pius IX in 1858: in short, in Don Bosco's house he had grown up, he had studied and worked.
The eight-year-old schoolboy, now a professor and priest, left Turin in the autumn of 1863 to go and found the first Salesian house outside Valdocco: the small seminary of St. Charles in Mirabello Monferrato. He moves away from Don Bosco and Don Bosco, moved by the desire to always stand by his "beloved son" and by the need to support the young age in the difficult task of director of a community of confreres, of young people, of collaborators, the he transmits those spiritual orientations and those pedagogical experiences which, matured by him at Valdocco, should have shaped the apostolic and educational service of the house of Mirabello.
Precious document, dictated by immediate urgencies, but which under the cover of practical advice, concrete examples, quick notes and intuitions, bears the mark of Don Bosco's deep certainties and lively concerns. He himself is convinced of it, so much so that what in 1863 constitutes a simple letter, of a strictly private nature, to Don Rua, later - from 1871 - with retouching and additions dictated by subsequent experiences and reflections, will be presented as "Memories confidential to the Directors of the particular houses of the Salesian society "or even" Testament that addresses to the Directors of the particular houses. "
In this "circular" to the directors the 26 original points of the personal letter to Fr Rua are enriched with content and almost double in number, passing to 47. In them Don Bosco traverses, as in filigree, the whole life and the action of a director of a Salesian house. The same titles of the chapters are the immediate testimony: With yourself - With the masters - With assistants and dormitory leaders - With the assistants and the people of service - With the young students - Outside lessons - With those of the society - In commanding.
Knowing that he is addressing those with whom he shares the "Salesian" youth mission, Don Bosco without inhibiting any exposes the deepest ideals of his and consequently of their life: the absolute salvation of his own soul and that of others, the sincere fraternal charity that must reign in the relations of the confreres among themselves and with the young, the exact and diligent fulfillment of their duty as entrusted by the Superior and guaranteed by the Constitutions, the elimination of any occasion of evil through the implementation of all those expedients educational and assistance that the custom of the era and the experience of Valdocco have shown effective for the purpose.
1 To the young people of his houses, especially on certain occasions, such as eg. the departure for the annual holidays, the day of their name-day, the first communion, Don Bosco used to leave, in writing or in a voice, the "memories" or warnings: MB III 607-608; IV 439; VI 446-449; VII 292-293; XII 673-674. But there is also abundant documentation preserved about Don Bosco's "memories" of groups of Salesian confreres, Daughters of Mary Help of Christians, individual Salesians, directors or not: MB VI 40-41; VIII 445-446; IX 384; X 647-652, 1018-1023, 1047-1052; XIII 209-210, 792, 880; XIV 257, 293; XVII 376, 628-631, 640-641; XVIII 266, 537. Famous in the Salesian tradition - and with various points of contact with the "Confidential Memories" - they are the "Memories to the missionaries" presented in this same volume. Finally, we note that the aforementioned Testament we have mentioned is not to be confused with the "spiritual Testament" or, better, "Memoirs from 1841 to 1884-5-6 for the sac. Gio. Bosco to 'his Salesian sons' compiled in an even more intimate and heartfelt tone than that of the 'Confidential Memories'. See the text at the end of this anthological collection.
But Don Bosco's affection goes beyond the reference to the virtues and the educational method that must reign in the houses of Mirabello, Borgo S. Martino, Lanzo, Sampierdarena, etc. His paternal heart and - why not? - her maternal solicitude reaches the point of worrying about the physical health of the director and his confreres, of their hours of sleep ("In each night you will do seven hours of rest"; "Never command things that are harmful to health or prevent the necessary rest "), of their treatment at the table (" Avoid food austerities. Your mortifications are in the diligence to 'your duties and in enduring the harassment of others "), of the risk of excessive work (" Power of attorney to set things right that no one is too burdened with tasks "). Delicacy, affection, sharing of ideals,
And so was the persuasion of those who succeeded him in the general responsibility of the Salesian congregation. The various Major Rectors have promoted the diffusion through continuous editions and comments. "
During the Rectorate of Fr Rua, at the beginning of the general chapters VI and VII, it was read by partes3 and Fr Rua himself made it stand out, to say of Fr Ricaldone, «the beauty, the preciousness, as if they were words inspired and of heavenly advice. "4 The Regulations of the Salesian society then, uninterruptedly, from 1924 to 1966, read:" [The Director] frequently re-read on his behalf the Confidential Memories of Don Bosco (San Giovanni Bosco) to the Directors ".5 Pleonastic to add that he found space and comments both in the MB and in the Letters and in the Annals. '
2 In addition to the Turin edition of 1902 and the various printed texts of reduced size (70 / 80x110 / 120 mm) and lacking the slightest typographical note, the "Confidential confidential" have been reproduced on p. 177 of the Director's Manual, edited by P. ALBERA, published in S. Benigno Canavese in 1915 and re-edited several times with variations, on p. 625 of the vol. II of P. RICALDONE, Don Bosco Educator (Colle D. Bosco 1952), and on p. 22 of The Salesian Director. A ministry for animation and government of the local community, by the Directorate General for Works Don Bosco, Rome 1982. Also the ACS 5 (1924) n. 23, pp. 244-248 report them as expressly mentioned in the previous pages, in Article 158 of the Regulations of the Salesian society. Unfortunately, sometimes the manuscript or lithograph document that was published was not indicated; at other times, despite the explicit contrary assertion, the text reproduced is not a true copy of the original, on the contrary it reproduces among other things an error of omoteleutia of the homotypic specimen of 1886; at other times, with the original dating of Don Bosco's time, printed texts have been put into circulation modified following subsequent events. (The pontifical decree of 24 April 1901 which explicitly forbade all Salesian superiors to hear the confessions of any person dependent on them had forced them to dismiss Article 4 of the title "With Young Students" because in clear contradiction with the request of the S . Location). the text reproduced is not a true copy of the original, indeed it reproduces, among other things, an error of omoteleutia of the homotypic specimen of 1886; at other times, with the original dating of Don Bosco's time, printed texts have been put into circulation modified following subsequent events. (The pontifical decree of 24 April 1901 which explicitly forbade all Salesian superiors to hear the confessions of any person dependent on them had forced them to dismiss Article 4 of the title "With Young Students" because in clear contradiction with the request of the S . Location). the text reproduced is not a true copy of the original, indeed it reproduces, among other things, an error of omoteleutia of the homotypic specimen of 1886; at other times, with the original dating of Don Bosco's time, printed texts have been put into circulation modified following subsequent events. (The pontifical decree of 24 April 1901 which explicitly forbade all Salesian superiors to hear the confessions of any person dependent on them had forced them to dismiss Article 4 of the title "With Young Students" because in clear contradiction with the request of the S . Location). at other times, with the original dating of Don Bosco's time, printed texts have been put into circulation modified following subsequent events. (The pontifical decree of 24 April 1901 which explicitly forbade all Salesian superiors to hear the confessions of any person dependent on them had forced them to dismiss Article 4 of the title "With Young Students" because in clear contradiction with the request of the S . Location). at other times, with the original dating of Don Bosco's time, printed texts have been put into circulation modified following subsequent events. (The pontifical decree of 24 April 1901 which explicitly forbade all Salesian superiors to hear the confessions of any person dependent on them had forced them to dismiss Article 4 of the title "With Young Students" because in clear contradiction with the request of the S . Location).
ASC 046 General Chapter VI. Meeting minutes; ASC 046 General Chapter VII. Verbal.
4 ACS 17 (1936) n. 74, p. 87.
Regulations of the Salesian society 1924, 1942, 1954 art. 158; 1966 art. 152.
MB VII 524-526; X 1041-1046; EI 288-290; Annals I 50-53.
Thus becoming a by now classic text of the Salesian tradition, defined as "short Gospel" of the office of director, "with" value almost of code and testament ", 8 mirror on which every Superior and every Salesian will make an excellent examination of conscience" to good law entered the anthological collections of pedagogical or spiritual writings of Don Bosco
The final and final redaction of the "Confidential Memories" bears the date of 8 December 1886, just over a year before Don Bosco's death. But this redaction is preceded by others (1863, 1871, 1875, 1876), in turn fruit, as we have said, of successive and documentable corrections and additions. The network of variants - all or almost «author variants» as they date back to different editorial offices and transcripts supervised and corrected by Don Bosco, and therefore equally authentic - documents the process of formation of the text from Don Bosco's first draft or sketch in 1863 up to the lithographed copy of 1886. Every detail, every variation, once detected, allow the attentive reader to know precisely the development and development of Don Bosco's thought, of his fundamental concerns,
Thought, concerns, guidelines that are more authentic as Don Bosco is inspired, rather than by determined editorial sources, to his own reflected experiences as a zealous priest, a shrewd educator, the founder of a congregation eager to pass on to his "children" the his spirit and
his ideals. The principles of spiritual pedagogy that Don Bosco sets out are rooted in his daily educational practice. Materials and suggestions are immediately offered to him by the Regulations of the Oratory "and the annexed house; 12 and secondarily by the religious and pedagogical tradition with which he could come into contact.
P. ALBERA, Manuale del Director ..., p. 177.
8 P. STELLA, Don Bosco in the history of Catholic religiosity, vol. II, p. 447.
ACS 34 (1953) n. 175, p. 11.
1 "See P. BRAIDO, The Preventive System of Don Bosco. Turin, PAS 1955, pp. 453-458; G. Bosco, Writings on the Preventive System in Youth Education, by P. Braido. Brescia, La 1965 School, pp. 282-290, G. Bosco, Spiritual Writings II, edited by J. Aubry, Rome, New Publishing City 1976, pp. 210-215, SAN JUAN Bosco, Obras fundamentales, por J. Canals Pujol y A. Martinez Azcona, Madrid, Biblioteca de autores cristianos 1979, pp. 548-556.
"ASC 026 (1 ...) For example, compare the text of" Confidential Memories "with the following affirmations of the Regulations of the Oratory:" [The Rector] must [...] constantly be a friend, companion, brother of all, therefore always encourage [sic] each one to fulfill his [duties] in a way of prayer, never of command [...] Once a month he will gather all the employees of the Oratory to hear and propose how much he can be necessary for the good of the young [corr ex confratelli] [...] He must be ready to accept with kindness those employees who are directed to him and give them the suggestions that can be useful for maintaining order, to promote the glory of God and the spiritual advantage of souls [corr ex of the confreres] ».
12 ASC 026 (20 ...) In the "Confidential Memories" we find expressions similar to these of the Regulations for the houses of the society of St. Francis de Sales: "[The catechist] procures that the heads of the dormitories be diligent in their duties and their good conduct [...] When a sick person comes along, take care that nothing is lacking either for the spiritual or for the temporal [...] [The Director of the school] then has frequent relations with his employees to hear their reflexes about the morality of the young and also to give them the advice that he saw as useful for the glory of God and for the good of souls ". We recall here that the Regulations themselves were nothing more than "a collection of observations, precepts and maxims that several years of study and experience (1841-1855) suggested": Catholic Bibliophile or Monthly Salesian Bulletin, year I, n. 2, October 1877.
So for example the formula around which the entire program of the letter rotates. "Study to be loved before (rather than; if you want) to make you fear" is of distant Augustinian ancestry 13 but was taken up by St. Benedict, m by the constitutions of the Society of Jesus, 's as well as by the Orders or Congregations that had adopted the Rule of St. Augustine. "So also with regard to the method that must be at the basis of the director's action - a method inspired by gentleness, charity - it is enough to recall, among many, the writings of Binet," of de La Salle, "by Rollin and Monfat, 19 by Brother Agatone, 20 all published, reprinted, or otherwise known, in those years.
13 PL 965 33 Letter, ICCXI 15. La formula has its origin piu lontani, in the world classic Roman: Cf. K. Gross, more loved than feared. Fine antihe politische worst der Benediktinerregel the "sentinels Christian» 27 (1973) 218-229.
"Rule of St. Benedict, chap. LXIV.
15 Part 8: mezzo by uniting its capo e con tra loro i soggetti scattering dappertutto. Il gesuita X. Lancicius, its net volume of the conditions necessary for the good of the superior as well as from subjects to be loved, and to be ready to execute his orders; also in order to rob him of his conscience, the timing will open the door, et alia all things; and a religion or community, with the joy and spiritual progress will continue to live (1 ed. 1640; second ed. 1901) citava più volte la suddetta the formula (p. 18, p. 74, p. 295).
16 Eg. Rule of St. Augustine for the nuns extracted from the CCXI Gun with the union of Ugone by S. Vittore. Turin, Giacinto Marietti 1836, p. 13; Rule or Constitution of the Sisters of St. Domenico, Rome-Turin [sd], p. 17.
"E. BINET, Of the art of governing. Which is the best government, the strict or the sweet? (Translation of P. Antonio Bresciani). Modena 1839, Turin 1843, Naples 1852. The first edition, in French, dated to 1638.
18 In his writings, de La Salle often referred to sweetness, to love as an indispensable element for educational work. See, for example, the meditations for the second Sunday after Pentecost, for the feast of s. Anselmo and of s. Francesco di Sales.
19 See JM PRELLEZO, Literary Sources of the Circular "Of the Punishments to be Inflicted in Salesian Houses", in "Pedagogical Orientations" 27 (1980) 625-642; ID., Of punishments to be inflicted on Salesian houses. A circular letter attributed to Don Bosco, in RSS 5 (1986) 263-308.
20 The last virtue of a good master accennate dall'ab. De La Salle, institute of the Brothers of the Christian schools spiegate of the PE Agatone Superiore general of the institutional suddetto. Torino, Marietti 1835. If he sees his head. VIII: «Sweetness». I remember what other volumes of time did you dedicate to the page "douceur" in the context of religious congregations: Du Gouvernement des Communautés religieuses par RPB Valuy, T ed. Paris, JB Pélaugaud 1866; Le bon Supérieur or the qualities of a good direct director of the spirit of the venerable Champagnat fondateur of the Institut des Petits-Frères-de-Marie. Lyon-Paris 1924. According to the educators of the church of Alessandro Teppa Barnabetta (Rome, Polyglot 1868) Moral and physical education of the clergy in accordance with religious and civil needs for Guglielmo Audisio (Turin, royal printing house 1845; Naples at G. Dura 1854), the aforementioned De conditionibus boni Superioris ... of Lancicius. Even pages from the Aporti, Lambruschini, Dupanloup, or French educational literature (Fénelon, Lancelot, Fleury, etc.) contained particular elements that Don Bosco could have assimilated and incorporated into his own educational and religious conception. See also G. Bosco: The preventive system in youth education. Introduction and critical texts, edited by P. Braido, in RSS 4 (1985) 197-208. of Dupanloup, or of the French educational literature (Fénelon, Lancelot, Fleury, etc.) contained particular elements that Don Bosco could have assimilated and incorporated into his own educational and religious conception. See also G. Bosco: The preventive system in youth education. Introduction and critical texts, edited by P. Braido, in RSS 4 (1985) 197-208. of Dupanloup, or of the French educational literature (Fénelon, Lancelot, Fleury, etc.) contained particular elements that Don Bosco could have assimilated and incorporated into his own educational and religious conception. See also G. Bosco: The preventive system in youth education. Introduction and critical texts, edited by P. Braido, in RSS 4 (1985) 197-208.
Obviously these are only points of contact, ad sensum quotations, partial affinities of thought and method that Don Bosco rewrites in new and personal forms, while non-coinciding ideas or positions remain. Moreover, the humble advice of Don Bosco to Fr Rua and the other Salesian directors are far from the systematic treatment or even from the partial theorizing of the aforementioned authors.
The text of the "Confidential Memories to Directors" was transmitted to us by a series of manuscripts and homotypic copies still preserved in the ASC.2 'For their meticulous description we refer to what we have already had the opportunity to do in RSS 4, year III, N. 1, 1984, pp. 129-143.
The printed copy of December 8, 1886 is published here. The critical apparatus records only the most extensive and significant variations occurring between the beautiful copy from Don Bosco sent to Don Rua in the autumn of 1863 [. A] with respect to the final text. As regards the entire process of document formation, from the first holographic editorial to the lithographed copy, see the critical notes in the aforementioned edition of RSS pp. 145-160. One exception: that of line 14 in which a corrective intervention by Don Bosco appears on a copy from 1875-1876 [= Eb].
21 Recently, another apographer of the "Ricordi" has come to the ASC, donated by the leaders of the General Archive of the Daughters of Mary Help of Christians. This is a copy probably written by Don Berto on two protocol double sheets, to which Don Bosco added the date (27 October 1873) and the signature. The document is addressed to the Director of the house of Valsalice, which in that year was Don Francesco Dalmazzo.
A = Don Bosco's first handwritten draft of the letter sent to Fr Rua in October, Nov. 1863
E = copy of the "Ricordi", presumably transcribed by Don Berto at the end of 1875
Eb = intervention of Don Bosco in the manuscript copy of Don Berto
1st Nothing upsets you.
2nd Avoid food austerities. Your mortifications are in diligence to your duties and to bear the harassment of others. You will have seven hours of rest each night. An hour of latitude more or less is established for you and for others, when there will be some reasonable cause. This is useful for your health and that of your employees.
3rd Celebrates Holy Mass and recites the Breviary pie, attentive ac de- 10 vote. This is for you and your employees.
4th Never omit meditation every morning and a visit to the Blessed Sacrament during the day. Sacrament. The balance as set forth in the Company Rules.
5th Study to make yourself loved rather than fear you. Charity and patience constantly accompany you in commanding, in correcting, and ensure that everyone from your deeds and words knows that you seek the good of souls. It tolerates anything when it is a question of preventing sin. Your concerns should be directed to the spiritual, health and scientific good of the young men of Divine Providence entrusted to you.
1 Remember ... of ...] To his beloved son, Fr Rua Michele the Sac. Bosco Gio 'health in the Lord. // Since divine providence has arranged for us to be able to open a house destined to promote the good of youth in Mirabello, I thought that it could return to the glory of God and for the benefit of souls, entrusting you with the direction. But since I cannot always find myself at your side to suggest to you those things that you have heard or heard from us many times and that I would often repeat to you; so I hope you will be grateful by writing here some notices that will normally be useful for you. I speak to you with the voice of a tender father who opens his heart to one of his dearest children. I want to write them by my hand so that you always have a token of the great affection I bring you, and let you be of permanent memory of the lively desire that I have that you earn many souls for the Lord. TO
4-5 Your ... others om A
6 you will make seven] do not do less than six
6-8 It is established ... cause om A
15 rather than] before A If you want to run Eb
15-18 Charity ... know] When commanding and correcting, always see A
6th In the things of greatest importance he always makes a brief elevation of heart from God before deliberating. When some relationship is made to you, listen to everything, but try to enlighten the facts well and listen to both sides before judging. Often certain things seem to be beams at first announcement and they are nothing more than straws. p. 2
1st attorney who lacks nothing from the Masters as much as they need for food and clothing. Consider their labors, and being 30 sick or simply uncomfortable, send an alternate to their class soon.
2nd Speak often with them separately or simultaneously; observe if they do not have too many jobs; if they lack clothes, books; if they have any physical or moral pain; or if in their class they have 35 pupils in need of correction or special consideration in the discipline, in the way and in the degree of teaching. Known any need, do as much as you can to provide for it.
3 ° In special Conferences, it recommends that all students of the class should be questioned without distinction; they read by turn the work of every 40. They flee from particular friendships and biases, nor never introduce pupils or others into their room.
4 ° Having to give duties or notices to the students, they use a room or room established for this purpose.
5 ° When Solemnity, Novenas or Feasts occur in honor of Ma-45 Ria SS, of some Patron Saint of the town, of the College, or some Mystery of Our Holy Religion, they announce it with short words, but never omit.
35 in the regulation A
40-41 né more ... loro man A
42-43 Dovendo ... uopo om A
46-47 announcement ... never] nod with a simple announcement A
6 ° Let us watch that the Masters never send pupils away from school and if they were absolutely compelled to let them accompany them to the Superior. Neither do they ever bite the glaciers or delinquents for any reason. If serious things happen, the Director of Studies or the Superior of the House should be advised immediately.
7 ° Masters outside school do not exercise any authority over their pupils, and are limited to advice, warnings or at most corrections which allows and suggests well understood charity. 55
1 ° What has been said of the Masters can be largely applied to the Assistants and Dormitory Heads.
2nd Prosecutor's Office to distribute the occupations so that both they and the Masters have time and comfort to attend to their 60 studies.
3 ° Please keep with them to hear their opinion about the conduct of the young people entrusted to them. The most important part of their duties is to be punctual to the place where young people gather for rest, school, work, recreation and the like. 65
4 ° Realizing that some of them contract particular friendships with some pupil, or that the office entrusted to them, or his morality, is in danger, with all prudence you will change his job; if the danger continues, you will give a warning to your superior.
5th Gather sometimes the Masters, Assistants, Dormitory Heads 70 and to everyone you will say that they strive to prevent bad speeches, remove any book, writing, images, paintings (hic scientia est) and anything that puts into danger to the queen of virtues, purity. Give good advice, use charity with everyone.
6 ° Let the students find out that they were dangerous; discover them inculcates that they are revealed to you.
48-55 6 ° If vegli ... intesa om A
56 Dormitory Heads] with the heads of comrade A
59-61 to distribute ... studies] that have the time and the convenience of going to school,
to study, always for another in a way compatible with their duties A
63-65 The part ... similar] Be punctual to their duty; do recreation with young people A
74 with all] with young people A
75-76 Let it be object ... revealed] Knowing some dangerous pupil to his companions inculcates that he has been revealed to you, and if he is the object of the common concerns A
1 ° Make sure that every morning they can listen to the Holy Mass and approach the Saints Sacraments according to the rules of the Society. Service personnel are encouraged to confess every fortnight or once a month.
2. Use great charity in commanding, making known with words and deeds that you desire the good of their souls: especially watch that they do not become familiar with young people or with external people.
3 ° Never allow women to enter dormitories or the kitchen, or deal with anyone in the house except for things of charity or absolute necessity. This article is of the utmost importance.
4th As dissidents or disputes arise between service people, among the 90 assistants, among the youth or others, listen to each one with kindness, but by ordinary means you will tell your opinion separately so that one does not hear what is said of the other.
5) To persons of service is established by chief a coadjutor of known probity, who watches over their works and their morality, so that no theft or bad talk will occur. But constant care is taken to prevent anyone from taking on commissions, p. 4 business concerning relatives, or other outsiders, whoever they are.
1 ° You will never accept students expelled from other Colleges, or of whom I am aware you are of bad habits. If in spite of due caution, it will happen to accept any of this kind, immediately fix him a sure companion that assists him and never loses sight of him. If he lacks lofty things, just notice him once, and if he falls, he is immediately sent to his home.
77 Coi Coadiutori is a man
78-79 Do so ... Sacraments] Do not be familiar with the young, and do so
may they hear the holy mass every morning and come to meet every fortnight
or once a month to the holy sacraments A
82-83 with words and facts om A
83-85 vigil ... external om A
Absolute 87-88 om
93-97 To the people ... are] Let a leader be established to persons of service of known probity. He especially invites them to the work and morality of the subordinates, and he works with zeal so that thefts and fools do not happen.
102 assist him ... view] do not abandon him anymore A
2nd Prosecutor's Office to let you know by the students and to get to know them by spending as much time with them as possible, trying to tell their ears some affectionate words, which you well know, from hand to hand you will see their need. This is the great secret that will make you master of their heart.
3rd You will ask: - What are these words? Those same times that were mostly unspoken to you. PE: How are you? - Well. And of soul? - So and so. - You should help me in a big business; You will help me? - Yes, but in what? - To make you good. Or: To save your soul; or: To make you the best of our young people. With the most dissipated: - When do you want to start? - What? - To be 115 my consolation; to keep the conduct of St. Louis. To those who are a little reluctant to the holy sacraments: - When do you want us to break the devil's horns? - In what way? - With a good confession. - When he wants [?]. - As soon as possible. At other times: - When will we do a good laundry? Or: Do you feel like helping me break the devil's horns? Do you want us to be friends for soul affairs? Haec aut similia.
4 ° In our Houses the Director is the Ordinary Confessor, so let him see that he willingly listens to each one in Confession, but gives them ample freedom of confession from others if they wish. Let it be known 125 that in voting on moral conduct you do not take part in it and plan to remove even the shadow of suspicion that you have to serve yourself, or even remember what was said in Confession. Nor does the slightest sign of partiality appear to those who confess from one to the preference of another. 130
5 ° The little clergy, the Company of S. Luigi, of the SS. Sacramento, of the Immaculate Conception are recommended and promoted. Show benevolence and satisfaction to those who are ascribed to it; but you will be only a promoter and not a Director; he considers such things as the work of young people whose leadership is entrusted to Fr. .5 Catechist.
105-106 Power of attorney ... working with you] Do what you can to pass among the young people all the time of the recreation, and get A
110-128 You will ask ... Confession] Show that you willingly listen to them in confession, but give them the freedom to confess to others if they wish. Try to remove even the shadow of suspicion, that you remember what was said in confession A
131-136 5 ° The little ... Catechist] 4 ° The society of the Immaculate Conception begins; but you will be only a promoter and not a director; considers this as the work of the young A
6th When you manage to discover some serious deficiency, have the guilty or suspected person called in your room and in the way the most charitable power to make him declare the fault and the wrong in having her committed to it; and then correct it and invite him to fix things of his own conscience. By this means and by continuing to the student a benevolent assistance, marvelous effects and amendments were obtained which seemed impossible.
145 1 We willingly lend our work to religious service, to preaching, to celebrate Masses at the convenience of the public and to hear confessions whenever the charity and duties of one's state permit, especially in favor of the parish in whose limits find our home. But never take jobs or anything else that amounts to absence from the factory or can prevent the offices assigned to each.
2nd Courtesy external priests are sometimes invited for preaching, or else on the occasion of Solemnity, musical entertainment and the like. The same invitation is made to the Authorities and to all persons well-155 flights or meritorious for favors used or who are able to use them.
3 ° Charity and courtesy are the characteristic features of a Director towards both internal and external parties.
4 ° In the event of questions concerning material things, comply in all that you can, even with some damage as long as you keep away every 160 grip of quarrels, or anything else that can make you lose your charity.
5. If these are spiritual things, the questions always resolve as they can return to greater glory of God. Commitments, stakes, spirit of revenge, self-respect, reasons, pretensions and even honor, everything must be sacrificed to avoid sin.
6th In the 165 things of grave importance it is good to ask for time to pray and ask for advice from some pious and prudent person.
145-155 We lend ... to use om A
159-160 let us hold ... charity] let charity be preserved A
164 to avoid sin] in this case A
1 ° The exact observance of the Rules and especially of obedience are the basis of everything. But if you want others to obey you, be obedient to your superiors. No one is fit to command, if it is not a peace to obey.
2 ° power of attorney to share things so that no one is too burdened with duties, but let each one faithfully fulfill those entrusted to him.
3rd Nobody of the Congregation makes contracts, receives money, makes loans or loans to relatives, friends or others. Neither does anyone keep money or the administration of temporal things without being directly authorized by the Superior. Compliance with this article will keep the most fatal plague away from religious congregations.
4th Dismantle the modifications of the Rules as poison. The exact observance of them is better than any variation. The best is the enemy of good.
5 ° Study, time, experience have made me known and touched with my throat, interest and vainglory were the ruin of flourishing Congregations and respectable Religious Orders. The 185 years will also let you know the truths that maybe now will seem incredible to you.
6th Maximum solicitude in promoting common life with words and facts.
1) Never command things that you consider superior to the forces of subordinates, or expect not to be obeyed. Make sure to avoid the repugnant commands; on the contrary, take the greatest care to uphold the inclinations of each one, preferably entrusting those offices which are known to be most pleasing to some. 195
2 ° Never command things that are harmful to health or that hinder the necessary rest or come into conflict with other duties or orders from another superior.
3 ° When commanding, always use ways and words of charity and 200 meekness. I threaten them, the anger, much less the violence, are always far from your words and your actions.
167-222 With those ... of the Oratory om A
4th In case of having to command difficult or repugnant things I to the su. 7 balterno si PE: - Could you do this or that? Or: I have something important, that I don't want to put on you, because it's difficult, but I don't have anyone like you to do it. You would have time, health; won't you be hindered by other jobs, etc. Experience has shown that similar methods, used on time, are very effective.
5. Economics is done in everything, but absolutely so that the sick are not lacking. Let everyone else notice that we have taken a vow of poverty, so we must not seek, not even wish for comfort in anything. We must love poverty and the companions of poverty. So avoid any expense that is not absolutely necessary in clothes, books, furniture, travel, etc.
This is like Testament that I address to the Directors of the Houses 215 Details. If these notices are put into practice, I die in peace because I am sure that our Society will be ever more flourishing in the face of men and blessed by the Lord, and will achieve its purpose which is the greater glory of God and the salvation of souls.
Aff.mo in G.C.
220 Sac. Gio. Bosco
Turin, 1886, feast of the Immaculate Conception of Mary,
45th anniversary of the foundation of the Oratory
to cure of Antonio Ferreira da Silva
Among Don Bosco's autumn walks, the one that in 1864 brought him and his boys to Mornese is famous. Coming from Genoa, where they had been staying from 3 to 6 October, hikers stopped in the Monferrato village from day seven to eleven. It was the first time that Maria Mazzarello and her companions saw the saint, confirming their intention to let themselves be guided by him in that undertaking which led to the foundation of the Institute of the Daughters of Mary Help of Christians. "
Given the ecclesial importance of this Institute, it is not by chance that most of the documents that recall the aforementioned excursion concentrate attention on this meeting, neglecting a secondary but significant event: the interview, on the evening of October 8th, between Bosco and the master Bodrato.
Born in Mornese on 18 October 1823, Francesco Bodrato did his studies while helping his father in the grocer's shop. Soon, however, he had to leave the studio to be a shoemaker. When he was 17 his father died. To the winds he married Brigida Pizzarino, who gave him two children. Left a widower, he opened his own shop, where he served coffee and liquor.
' Cfr. Copia publica transumpti Processus Apostolica auctoritate constructi in Curia ecclesiastica Aquensi super virtutibus et miraculis in specie Servae Dei Mariae Dominicae Mazzarello primae Superiorissae Instituti Filiarum Mariae Auxiliatricis, art. 41, pp. 54 e 439.
Ferdinando MACCONO, Suor Maria Mazzarello prima Superiora delle Figlie di Maria Ausiliatrice fondate dal Venerabile Giovanni Bosco. Torino, Libreria Editrice Internazionale , p. 108.
Ferdinando MACCONO, L'apostolo di Mornese Sac. Domenico Pestarino. Torino, SEI , p. 106.
He was esteemed by everyone for honesty and resourcefulness. Don Pestarino, 2 who was vice-parish priest and admired his skills and zeal, sent him to Chiavari to attend the school of method. ' Bodrato concluded the course on October 6, 1858 with a positive result, obtaining on November 12 of that year the license of lower elementary teacher. He was then entrusted with the municipal school of Mornese. He also devoted himself to the catechesis of children and to the Society of the Children of Mary Immaculate, in a vocational orientation.
That Saturday, October 8, 1864, he had to give his existence a totally new address. Attracted by the kindness of Don Bosco and eager to devote himself to the practice of the educational method, the effects of which he had personally been able to ascertain in the joyful line-up of the youth of the Oratory who had passed to Mornese, he resolved to go to Turin, entrusted Don Bosco with education of his two sons and dressed the clerical habit on October 29, 1864.
Don Bosco immediately sent him to Lanzo as a third and fourth grade teacher. The college had started operations in that autumn, also taking over the management of municipal schools. Until then, such indiscipline had reigned in them that the previous masters had all left the field.
2 Sac. Domenico PESTARINO, born in Mornese (Alessandria-Italy) on 5 January 1817, completed his studies at the Genoa Seminary; ordained a priest in 1839, he remained in the Seminary until 1846, going then to Mornese, where he was vice-parish priest. In 1862 he met Don Bosco in Turin. Salesian in 1963, he remained in Mornese until his death, collaborating with Don Bosco in the foundation of the Institute of the Daughters of Mary Help of Christians. He died on May 15, 1874.
3 Method schools were mandatory for all masters in operation, who were less than 50 years old. Even those who were not masters could be admitted, upon examination. The Chiavari school was established in 1848. The course lasted three months, from 1 August to 20 October. The teachings were given by a professor, an assistant and a calligraphy teacher. The program included both a part of pedagogy and the content of the subjects taught in elementary school and their specific methods. At the end of the course the students were required to take a written and oral exam, which was also valid for obtaining an elementary school driver's license. Destined to form primary school teachers and to spread the knowledge and practice of the best doctrines universally (see Royal Patents of 1 August 1845, No. 515) The provincial method schools were the first nucleus from which the normal schools developed first established by the Lanza law (1858) and then by the Casati law (13 November 1859). But the general requirements and programs often suffered considerable reductions both because of the financial difficulties of the State and because of the need to adapt to the cultural conditions of the aspirants, who were in fact required in increasing numbers by an expanding school. Thus there were various types and methods of qualification for elementary teaching, lower or higher. "The examinations were open to all aspirants" wherever and however they had completed their studies, provided they were at least 18 years old if men, 17 if women, for the lowest grade; to the 19 and 18 respectively, for the higher grade "(I. ZAMBALDI, Storia della Scuola Elementare in Italia. Rome, LAS 1975, p. 229; Cfr. the chief interest VII. Language for teachers, pp. 221-239).
With the experience gained in Mornese, the new teacher set the work in such a way that the government inspector, carefully visited the schools, welcomed the transformation that had taken place, paying great praise to the teacher.
On 2 December 1865, in Novara, Bodrato passed the exams for obtaining the license of upper elementary master, which was granted to him on the 14th of that month.
Don Bosco received his perpetual profession on December 29th of that same year. He then entrusted him with the post of prefect (administrator) of the college, an office he was one of that of a teacher. Practical of youth, inspired by Christian affection for boarders, Bodrato knew how to make himself master of hearts, living in Lanzo an exceptionally fertile sexennium.
The priestly consecration, received on December 29, 1869, added new possibilities to his educational commitment.
In 1871 he moved to Alassio and, after two years, to Borgo San Martino, still as prefect. Of his office, which put him in contact with every person in the house, he used himself to prevent evil and to promote good so effectively that in the college he was nicknamed the doctor of the incurable.
In 1875 Don Bosco called him to the Oratory as prefect of the sacristy of the shrine of Mary Help of Christians. Soon, however, he had to assume the office of general treasurer of the Salesian Society, but he remained there only a year.
Setting up the second missionary expedition in 1876, Don Bosco saw Don Bodrato as the mature and wise man who could guide her.
On 7 November he traveled from Turin with a troop of 22 missionaries, starting first in Rome and then he went to Genoa, where he sailed on the 14th of the same month. He arrived in Buenos Aires on December 22nd. In Argentina he was parish priest at Boca, a popular neighborhood in Buenos Aires. In 1878 he was already inspector of the American Province, which included the Salesian houses and missions of Argentina and Uruguay. He died in Buenos Aires on 4 August 1880.
When Bodrato died, count Cays 4 was commissioned to draw up a biographical profile. In his work he could first of all use the testimonies of Don Bosco and of many who, like himself, had known the protagonist personally. Moreover, he had at his disposal the letters written by the Bodrato and a brief biographical summary - especially attentive to his missionary activity - already published in the "Salesian Bulletin" .5
4 Sac. Carlo CAYS, count, born in Turin on November 24, 1813, from a noble and ancient family, graduated in law from the University of Turin. A widower at 32, he dedicated the rest of his life to the education of his only son and to good works; member and then president of the Conferences of St. Vincent de Paul in Turin. The youth of the orators of St. Francis de Sales, of St. Louis and of the Guardian Angel often had him as a catechist, prior, benefactor. From 1957 to 1960 he was a deputy to the Subalpine Parliament. The ancient desire to embrace religious life awoke in him in 1877. On 26 May of that year he entered Valdocco. In September 1878 he was ordained a priest in Turin. First made director of Challonges (Savoy) he was then recalled to Turin as director of the Catholic Readings. He died on 4 October 1882.
The Cays, however, failed to finish his work. On 27 March 1881 he sent a letter to Fr Rua, accompanying it with the letters of Fr Bodrato and other informative material, together with what he had managed to write so far.
We can assign to the work of Cays a space of time that goes from September 1880 to March 1881. It is contained in a manuscript notebook, format 20.9x13.3 cm, without lines, with the sheets numbered only in the verse from 1 to 119 The paper is yellowed, with many stains, but in good condition. It is the text that we will indicate with the initials A.
This outline of biography does not include the dialogue between Don Bosco and the master Francesco Bodrato. The narration of the Mornese meeting is, in fact, exclusively aimed at showing the way in which the Bodrato arrives at the decision to become a Salesian.
The Cays left three editions of the meeting; all three ignore the pedagogical dialogue. The first is contained in the pp. 28-31 of the text A. The other two, texts B and C, are found at the bottom of the notebook, in unnumbered pages. The first of the two, the text B, is rejected by Cays himself who erases it with a pen stroke from top to bottom. It is the only one that refers to the expression "and becomes more intimate acquaintance after particular interviews with him": it can lead to suppose the existence of a dialogue on educational problems which was then handed down.
There is, however, more. Between sheets 31 and 32 of copybook A are inserted by the same Cays two sheets without numbering, with the same characteristics as those of the manuscript notebook. They contain two different versions of the first part of the dialogue. We have indicated them with the letters D and E. As can be seen from our edition, the editorial offices substantially coincide and the differences are rather of a formal nature.
The manuscript texts lack the drafting of the second part of the dialogue.
5 Cfr. BS 4 (1880), n. 9, set, pp. 1-3; n. 10, oct., Pp. 1-4.
This is not to be attributed to Cays, who, as we have said, has given back to Don Rua his still unfinished work, which was apparently also reviewed by Cagliero.
The proofs of the biography of Bodrato were printed, which we call the text E It is a book only bound, of pages 152, with the gray cover, yellowed paper, but in good state of conservation, dimensions 18.8x13.4 cm.
Between them and the manuscript of the Cays there should have been an intermediate manuscript which could justify the considerable differences existing between the two texts F and A. The main one is that the print drafts report the second part of the dialogue, which does not exist in the text of the Cays. The entire "dialogue" is shown from page 35 to page 38. From page 33 to page 35 there is a description of Mornese's lunch. On page 35, line 12, there is a characteristic sign of reference in pencil, before the words "Don Bosco took care of it ..." and on page 39 a similar sign of reference to line three, after "Bodrato". The content delimited by the two signs from page 35 to page 39 is integrally and faithfully reported in volume VII of the Biographical Memoirs (1909) on pp. 761-763.
We do not have secure data about the date of the print drafts, but with great probability they date back to the years 1881-1882.
Only in 1901, with the publication of the Vademecum of Salesian ascribed by d. Giulio Barberis, some biographical notes of the Bodrato saw the light. Printed in S. Benigno Canavese, by the Salesian Printing School, the Vademecum comes out in this first edition in two volumes of a total of 1188 pages, in 13.8x9 cm format.
As is known, the Vademecum contains teachings and councils presented to the members of the Pious Society of St. Francis de Sales by Fr Barberis, who then celebrated the twenty-fifth of his work as novice master. At the end of each chapter the author adds a reading that contains an example that clarifies what is theoretically explained. With this aim, facts are reported regarding the life of Don Bosco and of Salesians whom Barberis has personally known.
The biographical notes of Don Francesco Bodrato occupy two «readings», located in the second volume of the work, and precisely from page 975 to page 985, where the life of Bodrato is recalled from Mornese to Buenos Aires and from page 1001 to page 1015, with the description of the circumstances of death and the solemn funeral.
Little is said of his life in Mornese. The meeting with Don Bosco is presented in just eleven lines on page 977, and the dialogue is reduced to the expression: "Those two souls understood each other perfectly". Evidently at Barberis he was showing how the Bodrato had become a Salesian and nothing else.
In 1951, Eugenio Celia published at the Library of the Christian Doctrine (Colle Don Bosco) 24 Salesian profiles, who died from 1865 to 1950, who had held some office of the Chapter (= Council) Superior of the Salesian Society. The volume also contained a historical summary of the Salesian Society and some historical notes on the development of the Constitutions. The result was a volume of 507 pages, 15.5x11 cm format, in which, Celia states, "panegyrics are not recited, but profiles are presented, where individuals are outlined in the reality of their personality and their specific activities". It is a book intended for a Salesian public. In fact, as the author says, the profiles "will also serve to enrich our experience and will benefit the general construction".
The profile of the Bodrato occupies pages 98-107. There are several inaccuracies. The news is taken from the Biographical Memoirs and mainly from the "readings" of Barberis. The author adheres to what was said in the premise of the book: he talks about the work carried out by Bodrato in the various positions and highlights his personality. Therefore, the entire period of Mornese is silent, mentioning only the encounter with Don Bosco and the dialogue that took place then. Everything, however, is condensed in just 17 lines, following only the track of the Biographical Memoirs.
In the Biographical Memoirs Lemoyne and Celia abound in news on the life of the Bodrato after the meeting of 1864. In the dialogue, Lemoyne assumes the version present in the print drafts (text F), reporting on pp. 761-763 of the seventh volume the identical content of the pp. 35-39 of the drafts. Therefore, the text of the Biographical Memoirs will not be taken into account in the edition.
6 E. CERTA, Profiles of Salesian Capitulars who died from 1865 to 1950 with a historical summary of the Salesian Society and historical notes on the Rules. Colle Don Bosco (Asti), LDC 1951, p. VII.
It should be noted that in the Documents to write the story of Fr. Giovanni Bosco, preparers of the Memories, dialogue is not found. It will appear only 25 years later in the seventh volume of the Memoirs.
We were not able to identify the sources used for the Biographical Memoirs for the story of the lunch that precedes the dialogue. It does not correspond either to the texts of the Cays, nor to those of the print drafts nor to the documents used by the Maccono to write the biographies of Mother Maria Mazzarello and of Don Pestarino, nor to the testimonies of the Apostolic Process of the Saint.
However, since we have to deal directly with establishing the text of the dialogue and not reconstructing Don Bosco's visit to Mornese, we will not deal with the various reports on the presence of Don Bosco in Mornese in 1864. For our purpose we will refer exclusively to the text of the print drafts (F) and of the two editorial offices contained in the sheet without numbering above (D and E).
It can be observed that the contents of the dialogue correspond to what is repeated in so many "good nights" and other teachings of Don Bosco. Suffice it to mention, for example, MB VII 507 and 824; MB XI 221 and 253; MB XII 133.
For the first part of the dialogue the three texts essentially agree. In principle, this first part deals with the interior conversion of the young person. To reach it, the educator uses religion and reason. God is love, and as love must be known and understood by young people. The consideration of the benefits that the love of God has bestowed, causes gratitude to be born in the heart of the young; not a merely emotional and sterile acknowledgment, but reasonable and effective, which leads the young man to sincerely decide to follow the path of the commandments and to fulfill his duties. The educational work is then well underway.
The vision presented by the second part of the dialogue is different. The Bodrato makes a reference to the use of the whip - which had even been a must in the school regulations prior to the Casati law - and states that a third element, namely the threat of punishment, is indispensable for education.
Don Bosco, in his reply, remembers that religion already carries with it even severe and terrible complaints that affect the life of the young person in the most secret actions and in the most hidden thoughts. The practices of religion, lived
with sincerity, the frequency of the sacraments and the insistent work of the educator tend, with the help of the Lord, to ensure that the young person becomes convinced of this and change conduct, without having to resort to external punishments.
A glimmer of light concludes this discourse, referring in some way to the first part: once the young people come to persuade themselves that those who direct them sincerely love their true good, it will not be necessary for the educator to resort to another punishment than to keep a more reserved demeanor that makes visible the displeasure of seeing oneself unrequited in his paternal care.
Among the material in Cays' possession and preserved together with his manuscript and the print drafts are two interesting indications in the Salesian Bulletin of 1880. The first speaks of the death of Bodrato in Argentina and traces a brief profile of his life with particular regard to his missionary activity. The other, on the other hand, touches on a topic that at first sight seems to have little to do with the Bodrato. It is an episode of the History of the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales by Don Giovanni Bonetti, 7 in which some original reflections of the Author are reported concerning the lifestyle of the primeval Oratory (see BS 4 (1880) n. 10, Oct., p. 7). Bonetti attempts an analysis of the «signs of the times», obtaining the need for an authentic «educational innovation».
The conceptual scheme is quite similar to that of the second part of the dialogue. The Bodrato refers to severe and strong measures to govern the youth (the whip). Don Bosco, on the other hand, replies that the external punishment becomes almost completely superfluous, once the conscience has present the eternal punishments and the young man understands that the educator has nothing else to aim at than to free him from such terrible damages. The more one strives to make the young grow in the holy fear of God, the easier and more constructive it will be to transform the image of the absolute ruling educator into a more affectionate and paternal figure, corresponding to the new expectations of young people in changed times.
We know that the author of the first part of the dialogue is the Cays. We also know that the author of the second part is not Lemoyne (see p. 174).
His gift Giovanni Bonetti, cfr. p. 99, n. 9
The similarity between the 'episode' of the BS and the second part of the dialogue led us at first to look for the author of the latter in Bonetti. But Bonetti's periodical has a structure that, starting from an idea, is increasingly expressed in new explanations and indications that complete the thought; while the style of dialogue has a more sober architecture. Lacking any document that acts as a bridge between the manuscripts of the Cays and the print drafts, we do not have in hand elements that allow us to say with certainty who is the author of the text of the print drafts and therefore of the second part of the dialogue.
If you compare the number of books and publications that reproduce the text of the dialogue, with those of those who report the pages on Don Bosco's Preventive System, we see that the dialogue has had little diffusion both in the Salesian environment and outside it.
A = original manuscript of Don Carlo Cays
D = unnumbered sheets inserted between sheets 31 and 32 of copybook A with the report, drawn up by Cays, of the first part of the dialogue between Bodrato and Don Bosco
E = unnumbered sheets inserted between sheets 31 and 32 of copybook A with another report, written by Cays, of the first part of the dialogue between Bodrato and Don Bosco
F = print drafts of the biography of Don Bodrato coming with considerable variations from the original manuscript of Don Carlo Cays
II. TEXT - Doc. F
[P. 35] I do not pay for simple admiration the Bodrato wanted to know something more, and for this purpose D. Bosco was asked for a particular audience, and having obtained it on the same evening, he asked him for the secret that he had to dominate just such a great youth from 5 make it so obedient, respectful and docile that you cannot wish for more.
Don Bosco hurried it with two words: Religion and Reason are the springs of my whole system of education.
The educator has to persuade himself that all, or almost all of these dear young people, have a natural intelligence to know the good that is done to them personally, and together they are endowed with a sensitive heart easily open to gratitude.
When he arrived with the help of the Lord to make the principal mysteries of our Holy Religion penetrate into their souls, that all love reminds us of the immense love that God brought to man; 15 when you get to vibrate [p. 36] in their hearts the rope of gratitude that is due to them in exchange for the benefits that have largely made us; when, finally, with the springs of reason, we have been convinced that true gratitude to the Lord must be expressed by carrying out its will, by respecting its precepts, especially those which inculcate the observance of our reciprocal duties; believe also that much of the educational work is already done.
1-3 Not ... evening] In the course of that day he asked for a special audience with Rev. D. Bosco, and he received it on the same evening. What the confidences of that conversation were only God knows D om E
3-6 i ... more] What we can assert is that one of the first topics of the conversation was the protests of admiration for the behavior of dependence and affection, and of sincere cordiality that had so struck Bodrato, in that large number of boys, then came the questions about the system held by the Sac. ' Don Bosco in order to obtain such an extraordinary effect D what we can say is that the Bodrato, astonished by the conduct of those children so docile, obedient and affectionate towards Don Bosco, felt the need and ardently desired to know the secret of such extraordinary success of such education E
7-8 D. Bosco ... education] Don Bosco took care of it with only two words: Religion and Reason. See Mr. Bodrato. These are the two springs of my very simple system D Interrogavane D. Bosco, which was done with just two words. Do you see, Signor Bodrato wants you to know the two powerful springs that support me in the exercise of my system? These are precisely those that have to adapt to rational beings, to beings made to know God, to love him, to serve him and then be able to go and enjoy him in Paradise. These two very powerful springs are Religion and Reason E 9-12 The educator ... recomentor om D The educator must persuade himself that everyone, or almost all of these dear young people have a natural intelligence to know the good that they are done, and a sensitive heart easily open to gratitude E
he must listen to the precepts, observe the commandments and practice what we propose to keep us in the right path; in short, when we have obtained from them the practice of good works with the frequency of the Sacraments, we also persuade ourselves that it is almost in the middle of the work E
Religion in this system makes the office of the brake put in the mouth of the ardent steed that dominates and dominates it; the reason then is that of the bridle which by pressing on the bite produces the effect that 25 is desired to obtain. Religion true, sincere religion that dominates the actions of youth, reason that rightly apply those saints dictates to the rule of all his actions, here they are in two words summarized the system I applied, of which she wishes to know the great secret. 30
At the end of this talk, Bodrato resumed his turn: Rev. Lord, with the similarity of the sage [p. 37] tamer of the young poledri she talked to me about the restraint of religion, and the good use of reason to direct all actions. This is fine; but it seems to me that he has kept quiet about a third vehicle that always accompanies Office 35 of the horse trainer, I mean the inseparable whip, which is like the third element of his success.
To this sortie of Bodrato, Don Bosco added: Eh dear sir, allow me to observe you that in my system the whip, which she says is indispensable, that is, the healthy threat of the coming punishments is absolutely not excluded; want to reflect that many and terrible are the punishments that religion threatens to those who, not taking into account the precepts of the Lord, will dare to despise their commands, severe and terrible threats that you often remember, will not fail to produce their effect all the more right in how much is not limited to the external actions, but it also affects the most secret and the most occult thoughts. To make the persuasion of this truth penetrate more deeply [p. 38] add the sincere practices of religion, the frequency of the sacraments and the insistence of the educator, and it is certain that with the
22 post done add Then when these holy principles of the Christian Catholic Religion have taken root in these tender hearts, it is very easy to reinvigorate them and make them fit to produce excellent fruits, with applying them to the daily actions of life through appropriate continuous reasoning, which insensibly make their way in those souls who almost without realizing it will get involved in escaping evil and doing good E
23-67 Religion ... satisfaction O DE
After all, when the young come to be convinced that the one who directs them sincerely loves their true good, it will often be enough to effectively punish the recalcitrant, a more reserved behavior, which may adduce the internal regret of seeing themselves unrequited in their paternal care.
Believe me, dear Lord, that this system is perhaps the easiest and certainly the most effective because with the practice of religion it will also be the most blessed by God. To give it a palpable proof, I dare to invite him for a few days to see the practical application in our homes. I do it free to come and spend a few days with us, and I hope that at the end of the experiment I can assure myself that what I told you is experimentally the most practical and safest system. [P. 39] This invitation is a facetious part, a part also of the self. It made an impression on our Bodrato. Thanking Don Bosco, he reserved a more explicit answer, bearing in his heart the thought that he would perhaps later take advantage of it with satisfaction.
More than "history" of the past, the Memoirs of the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales could be considered as the most mature and significant document of "Oratorian narrative pedagogy". Both dimensions, social and educational, flow into it, even though this is prevalent, reinforced by strong pastoral and catechetical connotations. As can be seen from the preface, the text presented here only, this is the perspective suggested by the author himself. It seems, therefore, that beyond the limited historical use, which they can allow, this is the most conspicuous fruit that can be obtained from their reading.
Drafted almost entirely between 1873 and 1875, it is logical that they reflect the way in which Don Bosco sees and assesses the events of the past in light of the unpredictable results achieved and according to future prospects, which he indicates to the members of his Society religious, at the time of final approval (April 1874). It is inevitable that in the meditated re-enactment different chronological and psychological levels interfere and overlap: the winds and the intuitions of the past and the mature awareness of their meaning in a present that sees them specified, enlarged and enriched through the difficult, clearer and more complete developments and in a future to be guaranteed and organized. "
It does not seem historically irrelevant that the beginning of the drafting of the Memoirs, immediately known only to the secretary Don Gioachino Berto, coincides with the composition in 1873 of the Historic Cenno on the congregation of St. Francis of Sales, which Don Bosco will then use behind the approval of the constitutions in February-March 1874. The Memoirs thus come to constitute the prehistory, intended not as an aseptic re-enactment, but as a prelude, foretaste, the initial phase of a history partly realized or in progress and entrusted for further development, in the same line, to the collaborators.
'See SG Bosco, Writings on the Preventive System in Youth Education. Introduction, presentation and indexes alphabetically and systematically by Pietro Braido. Brescia, The 1965 Publishing School, p. 4.
The discourse expands and deepens in the most recent essay: P. BRAIDO, "Memories" of the future, in "Salesian Historical Researches" 11 (1992) 97-127.
It should be noted that the three decades announced, 1825-1835, 1835-1845, 1845-1855, are preceded by the decade 1815-1825, a proem of a few pages on the years of childhood, where the «dream is narrated for the first time »For nine / ten years, which cannot be read without the same criteria as the entire book.
The text is taken from the last critical edition: G. Bosco, Memories of the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales from 1815 to 1855. Introduction, notes and critical text by Antonio da Silva Ferreira. Rome, LAS 1991: followed by another one dependent on it, and more edited in the text, without apparatus of variants, with introduction and notes of the same A. da Silva Ferreira. Rome, LAS 1992.
Referred to a totally different world, but ideally homogeneous, the so-called «Memories to the missionaries» of 1875, chronologically contiguous to the Memoirs of the Oratory, can be considered.
Don Bosco's first agreements with the archbishop of Buenos Aires and the parish priest Fr Pietro Ceccarelli foresaw the commitment of the Salesians in pastoral and youth activities, in Argentina, in the capital and in San Nicolas de los Arroyos. But in Don Bosco's profound intentions the primacy in perspective belonged to the "missions" in Patagonia; and to them exclusively referred to Don Bosco when he announced the acceptance of the American enterprise to the Salesian directors gathered at Valdocco on January 29, 1875. And centered primarily on the missions is the farewell address he gave to Salesians leaving on Thursday 11 November of the same year, although there is no explicit reference to a wider priestly ministry, including the one reserved for Italian emigrants. "
Towards the end of the farewell greeting, addressing in particular the departing ones, Don Bosco also announced the existence of the "Ricordi", which he handed to each one in a small sheet printed at the end of the rite. " «To everyone in particular I have already spoken out loud what my heart was inspiring or that I thought was most useful; I then leave written to him some special memories which are my testament to those who go to those distant countries and who perhaps will no longer have the consolation of seeing on this earth ".4
2 See the text of the speech in MB XI 383-387.
E II 516-517.
4 MB XI 386.
The original manuscript, datable between the beginning of September and the first fortnight of October 1875, bore the title "Special memories for those who go to distant countries". In the following passages the 14 "councils" grow to 20 "memories" .5
The text is reproduced in Don Bosco's original drafting, which he himself corrected and integrated into the same manuscript. It is the one established by Jesús Borrego in the reported edition.5
5 For the history of the text, the possible sources, the analysis of the contents, the presence in the subsequent Salesian tradition, the research of Jesús BORREGO, Recuerdos de San Juan Bosco in los primeros misioneros, in «Salesian Historical Researches» 3 ( 1984) 167-208.
J. BORREGO, Memories of San Juan Bosco ..., pp. 206-207.
MEMORIES FOR THE ORATORY
AND FOR THE SALESIAN CONGREGATION
Several times I was urged to send to the writings the memoirs concerning the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales, and although I could not refuse to the authority of those who advised me, nevertheless I could never resolve to deal with it especially because it had too often to speak of me same. Now he added the command of a person of supreme authority, who is not allowed to delay anything, so I am here to expose the minute confidential things that can serve as light or return to utility to that institution which divine Providence deigned to entrust to the Society of St. Francis de Sales.
Indeed, I must first of all state that I write to my dear Salesian sons with the prohibition of publicizing these things both before and after my death.
What then will this work serve? It will normally serve to overcome future difficulties, taking lessons from the past; it will serve to make known how God himself has guided everything in every age; it will serve my children in pleasant detention, when they can read the things in which their father took part, and they will read them much more willingly when, called by God to account for my actions, I will no longer be among them.
When we meet facts exposed perhaps with too much complacency and perhaps with the appearance of vainglory, give me pity. It is a father who enjoys talking about his affairs to his beloved children, who also enjoy knowing the little adventures of those who have loved them so much, and who in small and great things have always sought to work to their spiritual advantage and thunderstorm.
I present these memoirs divided into decades, that is to say, in periods of ten years, because in every such space a notable and sensitive development of our institution took place.
When then, my children, you will read these memories after my death, remember that you have had an affectionate father; which before leaving the world has left these memories as a pledge of paternal affection; and remembering you pray to God for the eternal rest of my soul.
Memories given to the Salesian religious
on November 11 
in the act that they left from the church of Maria A.
to undertake the journey to the Argentine Republic
1. Seek souls, but not money, honors or dignity.
2. Use charity and courtesy to all, but flee conversation and familiarity with people of another sex or suspicious conduct.
3. Do not make visits except for reasons of charity and necessity.
4. Never accept lunch invitations except for very serious reasons. In these cases you try to be two. THE
5. Take special care of the sick, the children, the old and the poor, and you will gain God's blessing and the benevolence of men.
6. Pay attention to all civil, religious, municipal and governmental authorities.
7. Meeting with an authoritative person on the way, take care to greet him obsequiously.
8. Do the same for ecclesiastical or aggregate persons in religious institutes.
9. Escape idleness and questions. Great sobriety in food, drink and rest.
10. Love, fear, respect other religious orders and always speak well of them. This is the means of making everyone esteem and promote the good of the congregation.
11. Take care of your health - Work, but only as your own strength does.
12. Let the world know that you are poor in clothes, food and dwellings, and you will be rich in the face of God and you will become masters of the hearts of men.
13. Love among yourselves, advise yourselves, correct yourselves, but never bring either envy or rancor, rather the good of one, be the good of all; the pains and sufferings of one are considered as pains and sufferings of all, and each one studies to remove them or at least to mitigate them.
14. Keep your Rules, and never forget the monthly exercise of the good death.
15. Every morning recommend the day's occupations to God, denominations such as confessions, schools, catechisms, and sermons.
16. Constantly recommend devotion I to MA and to Jesus the Sacrament.
17. To the youngsters recommended the frequent conf. and how.
18. To cultivate the eccic vocation, you introduce 1st love to chastity, 2nd horror to the opposite vice, 3rd separation from the devils, 4th frequent communion, 5th charity with signs of loving kindness and special benevolence.
19. In contentious matters, before judging, both parties listen.
20. In labors and sufferings, do not forget that we have a grand prize prepared in heaven - Amen -
At certain points in Don Bosco's pages on the "preventive system" his reputation as an educator-pedagogist remained largely anchored, within the religious institutes he founded and in larger circles of connoisseurs and imitators.
The interest in the text and the modest editorial events can constitute an initial contribution to a more extensive investigation, already enriched by numerous substantial expositions of the overall educational-pastoral experience of the industrious "friend of the youth".
From the strictly literary and editorial point of view the "hint" on the preventive system, "index of an operetta" never realized, that Don Bosco unexpectedly offers in the summer of 1877, presents the characters of absolute novelty and is only reflected in very short notes (in particular in the General Articles of the RegOlarnento for the houses) drawn up in the same weeks.
However, the security and lucidity of the dictation, the usual outcome of its difficult process of composition, do not allow us to hypothesize an "improvisation". ' It presupposes experiences and ideas that have slowly matured and finally blossomed almost spontaneously on a terrain that has long been cultivated in unity of purpose and methods with the disciples-collaborators.
Referring to a time very close to the preparation of the pages on the preventive system, d. Barberis notes in his Chronicle on April 21, 1877: "Walking for a long time together last night, having already given me a lot of work, as can be said that he gives me every day and I have the good fortune to have them corrected by his own hand before he stencil; he made me observe this - "You first look for thoughts then you order them and adapt the order to the thoughts you have; instead first you have to order the thing and coordinate it with your thoughts (...). It happens many times in various forms and several words do nothing but repeat a thought: it is a habit of the small writers, expressing a thought, quickly moving on to another "" Chronograph 12 [pp. XII-XIII].
The Salesian priest Don Giulio Barberis (1847-1927) is a particularly precious witness in this phase of Don Bosco's life. He lived the first five years as novice master alongside Don Bosco (1874-1879), at certain times, in daily conversation with him. The dozens of chronicles and notebooks left by him contain very rich information and first-hand assessments.
In fact, there are established precedents, even if the contents, the meaning, the interpretation remain problematic for some of them. '
The preparations for the publication of the Regulations, for which there is a marked interest in the very weeks that see the birth of the pedagogical brochure, may have contributed to the crystallization of the ideas expressed in the "preventive system". In this context the General Articles, stylistically and chronologically close to the pamphlet, published in this same collection, acquire particular significance.
Of the circumstances that led to the rise of the text of the Inauguration and of the important appendix there are essential and valuable documentation, which allow us to establish the main lines of the genesis and development of the three "sections", which constitute the text as a whole: the chronicle , the speech-exposé of Don Bosco, the pages on the preventive system.
Direct sources, in addition to the written documents reviewed in the following paragraph, can be considered: the invitation-program issued on the occasion of the inaugural ceremony, various letters almost all published in the Epistolario di S. Giovanni Bosco, interesting hints of the unpublished Chronograph of Don Barberis .
Indirect sources, generally reconstructed on the data indicated, are constituted by what Eugenio Ceria writes in the Biographical Memoirs 4 and in the Annals 5 and from what is derived from the monograph by Francis Desramaut Don-Bosco à Nice.
2 The main documentation is contained in this collection. Many of the published texts, illustrated by the relative introductions and historical-critical notations, can be considered preparation and complement of the famous pages of 1877.
3 Writing to Fr Rua from Sampierdarena on 24 March 1877 Don Bosco asks: "8th Arriving in Turin, give me the House Rules and I will read it carefully. D. Barberis fulfilled his part? "And III 160. And a month later Barberis notes in his Cronichetta (April 21st):" It has been a while since D. Bosco is all set to have the regulation of the Oratory and colleges. I hope that this is a real and great utility to come from. He let it be studied.
One could read everything concerning the superiors, among the directors gathered for St. Francis de Sales. Then he insisted on d. Rua who would soon see the rest; he gave me the disciplinary part to retouch it and add many things that I had already spoken to him many times. Now it is around itself very much. It is just like the one who has great things to do and to consolidate but who fears he will have to die soon, therefore he takes care of the most important things, cutting off all the less useful business; but all done with true and perfect calm without any agitation »Cronichetta 12, p. XII.
4 Cfr. MB XI 421-428 and XII 113-124; but especially MB XIII 106-126.
5 Cfr. Annali I 280-284.
F. DESRAMAUT, Don Bosco at Nice. The life of a Catholic vocational school between 1875 and 1919. Paris, Apostolate of Editions 1980, pp. 41-55.
After several negotiations in November 1875 two priests, a cleric and a Salesian coadjutor began a modest youth activity in Nice: oratory and boarding school for artisans and students. In Nice, Don Bosco is punctual in various manifestations aimed at arousing charity; called telegraphically, he becomes present at the sermon de charité held by Msgr. Mermillod February 23, 1876. '
Monday. 12 March 1877 there is the solemn inauguration of the new larger headquarters (ex-villa Gautier, Place d'Armes). The program invitation, issued by a group of signatories led by the elderly bishop, Msgr. Sola, was of the following tenor:
M [ionsieur, adame]
Monday, 12th, at half-past two in the afternoon Monseigneur the EvEquE will inaugurate the PATRONAGE OF SAINT-PIERRE, Placed'Armes, an old villa Gautier, newly opened to withdraw abandoned children and teach them a trade. Persuaded that this eminently popular and moralizing work can only meet the sympathy of all those who are interested in the welfare of the working class, the Committee asks you, M, to honor your presence with this ceremony.
Abbot Bosco, Director and Founder.
The Committee: Count of BETHUNE.
Count MICHAUD DE BEAURETOUR.
Count DE LA FERTÉ-MEUN.
Nice, March 1877.
ORDER OF THE FESTIVAL:
Religious music by the children of the House;
Presentation of the purpose of the Work, by Father Bosco, followed by the salutation
given by Monsignor;
Dialogue and choir by the children;
Visit the rooms and workshops.
Typ. SC Cauvin and C. '
'See MB XII 112-113, 116-118; F. DESRAMAUT, 0.C., p. 39. Mons. Gaspard Mermillod (1824-1892) was at that time Vicar Apostolic of Geneva, but exiled to France because he was expelled from the Canton. A well-known preacher and lecturer (he was one of the men who "prepared" the encyclical Rerum novarum of 1891) was appointed bishop of Lausanne and Geneva in 1883 and raised to the cardinalate in 1890.
The ticket is pasted on page 110 of vol. XVIII of the Documents, ASC.
In the first part of the program there was therefore an exposé of Don Bosco on the purpose of the work of Nice. In what language he spoke he gave testimony in the Informational Process in view of the canonization of Don Francesco Cerruti, then director at Alassio: «I always remember the story he made himself of his first conference in Maritime Nice, when the first Oratory was inaugurated in that city, that is the patronage of St. Peter. - "I started in French, then I fell into Italian, but I went on jokingly, I cunningly continued and finished alternating Italian and French. And thinking, he added, that I have my good French vocabulary in my pocket" ". it is known whether Don Bosco followed a written text - in one language or another - or at least a previously prepared outline. It's not easy, yet, to establish how much of what will be published has actually been said. They are more than likely additions, adjustments, reworkings; in any case, some episodes could not be told, referring to facts credited to subsequent days (13 and 14 March).
Don Bosco left for Turin the following day, Tuesday 13 March, stopping at Vallecrosia (13-17 March), Alassio and Varazze (17-23 March), at Sampierdarena (23-26 / 28 March), and arriving at destination between Monday and Wednesday of Holy Week (26 or 28 March) .` ° °
But from various letters it appears that he feels committed to drawing up already on the return journey and sending the text of his speech, the exposé, to the director of the Patronage of Nice. On March 23, probably about to start from Va-razze for Sampierdarena, he writes among other things to Don Ronchail: «... We come to us. My exposé is finished; I give it to copy and before leaving from S. Pierdarena I will send it to you (...). In sending you the exposé I will also join other things of which we were understood ».11
9 Fol 1354rv. Referring to a meeting with can. C. Guiol in the first decade of March of 1877, E. Celia writes: "Don Bosco came from the abbot, it took the interpreter's assistance, because the one had a hard time expressing himself in a French that was as intelligible as he required it the importance of things to be treated, and the other did not understand a bit of Italian »MB XIII 98.
A few days later the «Semaine de Nice-Revue Catholique» attributes to the speaker «une éloquence apostolique».
10 See E III 155 and 156; MB XIII 117 and 120 n. 2. The first letter you have, written by the Oratory after your return is March 28 and begins like this: "Having just arrived from the visit made to the houses of Liguria ..." And III 161. From Sampierdarena on March 24 he had communicated to Don Rua: «18th I will let you know if I will arrive on Tuesday or Wednesday. Here we have to do a lot "E III 160. And in a letter sent to the secretary of the bishop of Casale, d. Giuseppe Manzini, dated Turin 26-3-77, writes: "I have come at this moment from a tour made up to Marseilles" E III 160.
11 In a letter to Don Bosco from Nice, dated March 22, the director d. Giuseppe Ronchail adds, writing from top to bottom in the left margin of the first page by way of a postscript: "We eagerly await the inauguration speech in order to be able to translate it and put the notes, and print it before the foreigners leave". ASC 275 Ronchail Giuseppe.
Finally, on a day that should be held between 3 and 10 April, he announces to Don Ronchail: «1st I am sending you the Exposé de quo. I was very busy, I delayed my return to Turin; I was somewhat uncomfortable; that's the reason I wasn't diligent. Now search or better pray the lawyer. Michel and B. Héraud who procured the translation with all the necessary notes. For the press, tell us whether we should print it here or in Nice. The notebook does not need to be returned, as we have a copy. 2 ° Dolorosissima the unexpected death of the meritorious Mr. Avv. Ferrant. Add what will be appropriate in the note of the exposition ... ". 12
For itself, the reference always remains to the inaugural speech, the exposé envisaged by the program. Nothing is gained as regards the writing on the preventive system. Fr Barberis's Chronicle sheds sufficient light on this.
On April 6, the reporter noted: «April 6 - I was called about 7 am to walk with D. Bosco in the library. They spoke especially of Marseilles. Don Bosco was in the college of brothers of the Christian schools. The young people had already heard it talking. He stayed with them a little and the effect he got was wonderful: he was immediately surrounded by young people, who were competing to hear him; and immediately his amorous words, his hilarious and cheerful air, his family making, his sweetness, attracted their heart (...). The directors called me as I do wherever I go to immediately attract the benevolence and sympathy of all; that with a few glances that I give, one cannot resist and one remains as if attracted by force ... I explained to them a little about our preventive system, kindness, etc.
On April 21st the French experience and the consequent drafting of the pages on the preventive system are then recalled more distally: «Being in Nice, the Patronage was opened, the speech was very solemn and it was a matter of having it printed so that it did learn more about the work of the Patronato in France.
12 E III 163. The avv. Ferrant to what he holds and actually the avv. Faraut or Faraud.
13 Chronograph 11, pp. 68-69. The clarity of the juxtaposition of the two systems and the delineation of the preventive system lead us to think that Don Bosco, while speaking with Fr Barberis, is well aware of the content of the pages that were probably already written. Eugenio Celia thinks that the undated letter to Don Ronchail of early April refers to the complete text in its entirety: "The exposé is the report on the Nice party with the annexes and connected we know" MB XIII 119.
Thus he described the whole festival and discourse and followed it all up with a summary of what it held about the education system we kept as a preventive. This work cost him several continuous days; he did it and did it again 3 times and almost complained about himself so as not to find his writings to his taste. Once he threw things down and enough; now after I did it, sometimes I do it again and I still don't like it and even cheered for the 3rd time and more ... But I believe this work is good enough to do for France: there are not as positive as here; but they speak more immediately, bring enthusiasm; they willingly accept new things ... then we now need them to know us more closely. - The preventive system especially will be received, repeated by the newspapers, will make noise ".14
The chronicler, however, writes about things recalled, which suppose the work ended some time before; which suggests that all the essential elements of the text in question were found in the notebook sent to Nice, with the exception of the notes to which Don Bosco refers and the news page added by someone, perhaps Don Ronchail himself, in the current document D.
As mentioned, the text did not arise and immediately grew as a compact and supportive unit. It presents three types of content. Some short initial pages contain a summary chronicle of the inauguration of the Patronage Saint-Pierre. Later, and precisely in connection with document D, the last before the press, the report is supplemented by an addition that informs about what happened at the end of the speech-exposé.
It is not known who originally composed the elements of the chronicle. But they are made up of documents of various origins: news on the inauguration, invitation-program, letter of Fr Ronchail to Don Bosco the following 1st April, notes. Of these it is difficult to say whether they were already introduced in Turin or what Don Bosco asked Don Ronchail in the undated letter of early April: "Add what will be appropriate in the note of the exposition". 15
14 Chronograph 12, p. XI. It is singular that no traces of Don Bosco's original elaboration (or elaboration) of the preventive system can be found, when already for a long time there was a tendency to preserve with special care what came out of his pen. The transcription of Don Berto, in fact, supposes at least a previous draft or autograph or copy made by some temporary secretary, possibly used by Don Bosco in one of the stages of his return journey from Nice to Turin (March 13 to 26/28) . There can be no doubt, however, about the Donboschian authorship of the writing: beyond the clear testimony of Don Barberis it is more than sufficient an accurate lexical, syntactic and stylistic analysis of the text, related to parallel writings of Don Bosco such as the Memoirs of the Oratory, letters, general articles.
15 E III 163.
Autonomous origin, as document A shows, draws a second "section", perhaps the oldest one; it reconstructs and expands the discourse given by Don Bosco on the occasion of the inauguration, articulated around three themes: history, purpose, reward. It is obvious to think that this was Don Bosco's first occupation on the return journey, while the chronicle was probably written by someone in Nice.
Instead, it is difficult to establish the time and the circumstances of the composition of the "appendix", which contains the text of the "preventive system". Some of Don Bosco's autograph editions do not exist, not even in draft.
Strictly speaking, it cannot be excluded that Don Bosco might have some notes on hand, perhaps prepared in connection with the Nice exposé. But it is also possible that the pages on the preventive system have been drawn up for sudden inspiration at the same time or in immediate succession to the exposé. It can be hypothesized that sketched during the trip and made a copy, may have been completed after returning to Turin, where he arrives tired, with a weak voice and spends a few days "somewhat uncomfortable" and mostly retired to his room. This would explain the non-existence of a handwritten copy, left elsewhere and gone missing. The trusted Don Berto, of whom he is the complete calligraphic copy of the entire text, would certainly not have destroyed a document of such importance as a diligent archivist; anyway,
The manuscript B should be after April 1, since it also contains the letter sent to Don Bosco by the director of Nice on April 1 with the announcement of the death of cooperator Auguste Faraut. Instead, an indefinable, even long, space of time may have elapsed between the Berto copy and the subsequent one dependent on it, transcribed by another, the manuscript D. In fact, between the redaction B and the one immediately following D, a interesting change of an extremely significant detail.
16 In the Chronicle on April 1, Don Barberis records: «Don Bosco returned from his trip to France. He returned on Holy Week Wednesday 28 March (...) Regarding his return he did not tell us if not from Sampierdarena (because he cannot speak taken as he is in the throat) »Cronichetta 11, pp. 54-55.
In the exposé which is handed down by ms A and B, explicit mention was made of the concession of premises of the Patronage to the workers of the Catholic Circle. In a letter from Nice dated 22 March 1877, Fr Ronchail wrote to Don Bosco about it: "Amatmo Padre, 1 ° The affair of the Catholic Circle has aroused noises in the City and has awakened different opinions about us. The Clergy in general with a part of the Canons do not look kindly upon them and so they speak of the priests of Don Bosco saying that they are of the party of Chambord who want to intrude on politics. I believed well with those who told me about it to show that we had nothing to do with anything and that if they now occupied our restaurant it was temporary. It also made a bad impression to see the names of Gignoux, Béthune, Michaud, La Ferté on the letter of invitation.
Indeed, the Catholic Workers' Club was inaugurated by the bishop, Msgr. Alone, March 19th. However, due to incompatibility between the two works, in good agreement with the Salesians, after six months the headquarters was transferred to Villa Pauliani.18
In the ms D no place appears more assigned to the Club and the premises previously occupied by it are clearly destined to the youthful aims of the whole work. Did the change between B and D take place under the indications contained in the letter of 22 March or, as would seem more likely, following the subsequent development of the work? 3. Description of documents
Of the entire text, including the three "sections" mentioned above, there are two translations in French, both related to the MS D, the last Italian manuscript before printing: the first, unpublished (doc. E), ignores the subsequent minor interventions by Don Bosco, which are instead kept in mind by the second (doc. G), printed in the bilingual edition. It was not possible to ascertain who the translators were and when and where the translations were made.
17 ASC 275 Ronchail Giuseppe.
18 Cfr. Historical note of the Conferences and works of Saint Vincent de Paul in Nice since the foundation in 1844 to 1883 year of the golden notes of the society. Nice, Imprimerie-Librairie du Patronage St-Pierre 1883, p. 57.
The ms E (unpublished) highlights the presence of a single translator for the three distinct "sections". It is undoubtedly an Italian, which shows a diligent, scholastic, knowledge of the French language. The version adheres to the text, faithful and generally slavish, paratactic. On the whole it appears to be clearly inferior to the translation of the printed text (doc. G), as regards sections B and C (speech and pages on the preventive system), superior to the translation of the chronicle, which contains some showy errors.
Instead, the first printed French text (doc. G, identical to doc. I except for the most numerous errors of composition) reveals three different translators.
The worst part, surely an Italian, if he occupies the chronicle, it results in a linguistic failure, impuntance, erroneous reading (different couleurs, civilisatrice art, narrow boundaries ...).
The translation of the speech seems relatively better, in any case the work of an Italian or Italianist. It is less incorrect than the parallel one that remained manuscript. However, a Frenchman will appear self-conscious, often unpleasant, sometimes unacceptable.
The version of the pages on the preventive system presents a completely different breath, secure, fluent, grammatically corrected, syntactically, stylistically. It is probably a Frenchman or someone who has French language safely. He does not always seem to be familiar with the daily Salesian reality and therefore, assuming a concept, he sometimes re-elaborates it freely, amplifying it and, almost, explaining it, also by virtue of a more than probable personal pedagogical culture.
Some interpretative licenses may also be issued. Don Bosco saw the text and the corrections that introduce you appear irrelevant.
This translation must inevitably prevail over the other, which, however, must have been particularly present to the translator of the text on the preventive system, which contains significant propositions and formulas and almost entirely the concluding page Un mot sur les punitions.
In the ASC, over one ms A, torn in half from top to bottom and, therefore, halved, with ample corrections of Don Bosco, there are two manuscripts with the complete texts (B and DE) and one with only text on the system preventive (ms C), on which Don Bosco intervenes.
1. - Ms B - Inauguration / of the Patronato S. Pietro in Nizza to sea / purpose of the same exposed / from / Sac. Gio. Bosco / with appendix on the preventive system / in youth education - microfiche 447 A 11-D 4.
The manuscript is in the ASC 133 "Inauguration" [micro-joining 447 A 11 ...]. In the upper margin it bears in pencil a previous archival signature S. 13: 301 N ° 4.
It is a dossier format protocol, precisely 310x212 mm, of 16 sheets sewn together, which give 32 pages. These were numbered in pencil
then from 1 to 30; the title page, which contains the title and subtitle indicated, and the verse of the title page are not numbered: this has remained white as the last page (32, numbered 30). The subtitle «with appendix ... youth» is added by Don Bosco, who wraps it up and underlines the last line with a tracing pattern in purple pastel.
The paper is for hand printing, without both horizontal and vertical lines. No empty space is left in the border on the right; the left edge (60 mm approximately) is relevant.
The writing is airy and calligraphic, smaller in the notes; it is by Don Gioachino Berto, "who uses brown ink. Don Bosco intervenes with slightly lighter ink.
The manuscript is generally in good condition; the outer edge of some sheets appears somewhat black due to humidity and has sometimes been rin
forced with glued and gummed paper (pp. 27-28). Some transparency of writing is noted. On page 3 an article is rewritten in pencil, perhaps by Don Berto or by an anonymous archivist.
The manuscript contains the substantially complete text in its three sections:
pp. 1-4 Chronicle of the Inauguration
pp. 5-21 Words of Don Bosco: History, pp. 5-11; Purpose of this Institute, pp. 11-17; Mercede, pp. 17-21
19 The Salesian priest Gioachino Berto (1847-1914) was already as student secretary of Don Bosco and for twenty years he was beside him helping him in the dispatch of correspondence, transcribing in certain characters clear letters, documents, memos, personal writings of various genus, "I will entrust everything to my factotum Berto who will put everything in order and clean so that it may be sent back to you for reading etc." (it is the outline of a profile contained in a letter from Don Bosco to Giovanni Bonetti, of January 1871 - E II 143). His diligent work as archivist was also precious, allowing the collection, preservation and ordering of important documents for the history of Don Bosco and Salesian.
pp. 22-29 the preventive system, pp. 22-29. A copy of this manuscript should have been sent to Nice, including the corrections made by Don Bosco.
2. - Ms C - The preventive system in education / youth - microschede 1.968 B 1-7.
The manuscript presents the signature ASC 026 Regulations 42 [microschedule 1.968 B 1 ...]. It consists of two double protocol format sheets, inserted one into the other, with a total of 8 pages; sheet size 302x205 mm. The first, divided into two simple sheets, has the left edges deteriorated and reinforced with glued squared paper; similar reinforcements also have the upper and lower edges of the first and right of the second (pp. 3-4). The creases are also due to the fact that the file was folded in half horizontally. The pages are numbered in pencil from 1 to 7 with spelling different from that of the amanuensis; page 8 is white. The writing is rather elegant, regular, diligent: a beautiful copy to submit to Don Bosco for review. Indeed, on the left side of the sheets a substantial margin has been left reserved for corrections and, above all, additions of Don Bosco, which are of a certain consistency - as emerges from the critical edition of the text of the "preventive system" that precedes the Regulation - in the margin of p. 1 and 3 and in the lower half remained white of p. 7. Sepia is the ink used by the amanuensis; black is the one used by Don Bosco.
Based on the destlination, the manuscript contains only the pages on the preventive system with the following distribution of the matter: I ° What does the system consist of? - And why should it be preferred, pp. 3-5; Usefulness of the preventive system, pp. 5-6; A word about chastisements, pp. 6-7.
Even if the title page shows only the Italian title, the file contains, arranged on opposite pages, the Italian (D) and French (E) editorial staff.
The signature is ASC 133 «Inauguration» [microstep 448 B i ...]. On the frontispiece we can see numerous ballpoint and pencil archive signatures with a red stamp; among them S. 38/44 / Nice 1877 12th copy MS.
The file consists of 25 double sheets, protocol format, 302x198
mm, sewn with wire in the shape of a notebook. The pages are numbered from 1 to 47; pages 48, 49, 50 are blank and are not numbered; from 1 to 29 the numbering is done by the amanuensis of the Italian text, from 30 to 47 in blue pastel by Don Bosco. On the first page the title is transcribed with elegant, calligraphic characters, followed by a frieze in the lower part. In the lower margin is written in pencil in a barely legible way: Turin 1877 / Tipografia and Salesiana bookshop / Sampierdarena - Turin - Nizza Marittima. The sheet is rather jagged on the edges and has ink spots. With the same blue crayon used in the numbering of the pages Don Bosco indicates - evidently for the typography - with the usual sign of the head [as the elements of the title should be arranged: Inauguration / of the Patronato di S. Pietro / in Nizza a mare / Purpose of the same / Exposed by the Priest / Gioa. Bosco / With appendix on the preventive system / in the education of youth.
The two texts, Italian and French, are found in the two opposite pages, respectively even and odd (the title page, page 1, has only the Italian title).
The paper is rather resistant, with light blue stripes. On the left of the sheets a margin of about 40 mm is marked vertically in pencil. The ink is black; a little more diluted appears to be the one used in the transcription of Don Bosco's speech in French. Here and there you can see spots.
Altogether three different spellings are noted (including that of 28bis and 29bis): the one used for the Italian text is unique for the entire text, calligraphic; in the French text there are two different ones, one for the pages dedicated to the news and the pages on the preventive system (the odd pages from 3 to 7 and from 31 to 47), another for the pages that reproduce Don Bosco's speech ( odd from 7 to 29). The latter is flourishing, but equally clear, even if a more diluted ink is used than that used by the other two amanuensis. In both texts Don Bosco intervenes with slight corrections.
On page 9 there is a pencil reference to the brief note on page 8 (of the Italian text opposite): in fact it will also appear in Italian in the first bilingual edition of the French text.
Between page 28 and pag. 29 a double letter is inserted with the heading: Oratorio di s. Frane. of Sales / Via Cottolengo, n. 32 / Torino. The two internal pages of the sheet show the story of the quest at the end of the speech in Italian and in French. The spelling is identical to that of the amanuensis who transcribed the chronicle and the text of the speech. We note slight corrections by Don Bosco, who in the upper margin of the two pages had indicated almost as a title, on the left: After the speech, and on the right: Près du sermon, words he himself erased in pencil and pen with ink
black. In the first small page under the heading Don Bosco writes with blue crayon 28bis with a reference to the following page, where he rewrites the same reference sign and the amanuensis numbers 28bis; identical reference with the indication 29bis don Bosco trace in the fourth small page, repeated in the previous page numbered 29bis by the amanuensis.
On pages 26, 27, 28, 29 there are conventional signs for typography drawn by Don Bosco with the same blue crayon with which he numbered pages 30 to 47.
On page 30 is the title The Preventive System ... preceded by a curved red pastel line, which closes it to the left. On page 34 there is a red spot and scattered fingerprints. The pp. 46/47 contain only five lines of text; the rest is white as are the pp. 48, 49, 50, not numbered.
The manuscript contains the three complete sections: 1) news items: pp. 2 / 3-6 / 7, 28bis / 29bis; 2) Don Bosco's speech (pp. 6 / 7-28 / 29): History - Historique, pp. 8 / 9-14 / 15; Purpose of this Institute - But de l'Institut, pp. 14 / 15-22 / 23; Mercede - Récompense, pp. 22 / 23-28 / 29; 3) the preventive system, pp. 30 / 31-46 / 47.
The translation E has been used to a large extent by the translator of the text then published in print (G and 1), although this reveals a considerable detachment from E in the part that reproduces Don Bosco's speech and presents significant variations in the pages on the preventive system . Instead, it becomes almost a transcription of E in the opening chronicle and in the paragraph on chastisements.
4. - Doc. FG - gurazione / del / Patronato di S. Pietro / in Nizza a Mare / 1877 / Typography. e Salesiana Library / San Pier d'Arena - Torino - Nice - Inauguration / du / Patronage of S. Pierre / Nice Maritime 1877 / Imprimerie et Librairie Salésienne / San Pier d'Arena - Torino - Nice Maritime.
The two titles respectively occupy the upper and lower half of the cover of a printed booklet of 68 p., 17.8x11.5 mm. A copy is found in the ASC 133 "Inauguration". The Italian text and the French text of the overall composition follow on alternate pages; the layout is not very accurate and therefore there is not always a strict parallelism between the two texts. The title pages are two, p. 2 for Italian, p. 3 for French, with identical indications to those shown on the cover, completed by the respective subtitle: Purpose of the same / set forth by the Priest / John Bosco / with appendix on the preventive system / in the education of youth - But de l'oeuvre / exposé par Mr the abbé / Jean Bosco / with the appendix sur le système préventif / pour l'éducation de la Jeunesse.
The various «sections» are distributed as follows: 1) elementos de cronaca, pp. 4 / 5-10 / 11 and 42/43; 2) brief story or exposé by don Bosco (pp. 10/1168/69): Storia - Historique, pp. 12 / 13-22 / 23; Scope of this Istituto - But de l'oeuvre, pp. 24 / 25-32 / 33; Mercede - Recompense, pp. 34 / 35-40 / 41; 3) The preventive system - Le système préventif, pp. 44 / 45-68 / 69.
The composition of the French text reveals haste and embarrassment, with errors of accents; the characters are clear and perfectly legible.
On page 68 the diocesan authorization for the press is reported: V. nihil obstat./Taurini, 3 Augusti 1877./Joseph Zappata Vic. January
In the middle of the fourth page of the cover there is an engraving, of about 50x60 mm, depicting Christ who on the shores of Lake Tiberias in the presence of two apostles gives Peter the keys of power. "
5. - Doc. H - Inauguration / of / Patronato di S. Pietro / in Nizza a Mare / - / Purpose of the same / exposed by the Priest / Giovanni Bosco / with appendix on the Preventive System / in the education of the youth / Turin / Typography and San Pier d'Arena Salesian Library - Nizza Marittima 1877.
The 36-page printed booklet is of the same format as the previous bilingual. The title is reproduced with identical composition and layout on the cover and in the title page. The placement in ASC is 133 "Inauguration" 6. It contains the text of the separate Italian edition.
The matter is distributed as follows: 1) news items, pp. 3-6, 21-22; 2) Don Bosco's speech (pp. 6-21): History, pp. 7-12; Purpose of this institute, pp. 13-17; Mercede, pp. 18-21; 3) The Preventive System, pp. 23-33.
A p. 35 there is the Subject Index; on p. 36 the authorization of the Turin Curia, identical to that of the bilingual edition; on p. 4 of the cover shows the already known incision.
6. - Doc. I - Inauguration / of the / Patronage of S. Pierre / A Nice Maritime / - / Purpose of the work / exposed by the abbot / Jean Bosco / with appendix on the System Prevenepor the education of the youth / Turin / Printing and Salesian Bookshop / San Pier d'Arena - Nice Maritime / 1877.
The 36-page printed booklet is of the same format as the previous one
20 The bilingual edition is found in anastatic reprint in the collection of the published works of Don Bosco, vol. XXVIII. Rome, LAS 1977, pp. 380-446.
bilingual tooth. The title appears with different composition and identical layout on the cover and in the title page. A copy also exists in ASC 133 "Inauguration" 7. It contains the text of the French version of the three "sections" already known with this distribution of matter: 1) chronicle elements, pp. 3-6, 23; 2) Don Bosco's speech (pp. 6-23); Historique, pp. 7-13; But de l'oeuvre, pp. 14-18; Récompense, pp. 19-23; 3) Le système préventif, pp. 2435. Accents are better treated.
In the lower half of p. 35 there is the usual clearing from the Turin Curia; and on p. 4 on the cover the engraving mentioned.
7. - Ms L - Manuscript additions of Don Gioachino Berto to a file of the separate printed edition of 1877 - microschede 447 E 7 - 448 A 12 [additions by don Berto A 11-12].
It is a file with the format already known and is kept in the ASC 133 "Inauguration" 3.
In the upper margin of the cover, Don Berto writes: For a new edition. From p. 3 on p. 32 no intervention by Don Berto is noted. Instead, Don Berto introduces corrections and additions on p. 33 after the number III of A word on chastisements, in the lower margin of the same page (part of the new num. IV) and on p. 34, not numbered and previously white, which is entirely occupied by the new numbers VI and VII.
The new material will flow into the text reproduced in the "Salesian Bulletin" of September 3,880, reprinted in the Five decades (1892) and in MB 4, 546-552 (1904). It will be highlighted in parallel with the critical edition of the text prepared for the Regulation.
8. - Doc. R - Regulations / for the houses / of the Society of St. Francis de Sales / Turin / Salesian Typography / 1877. - [pp. 3-13:] The preventive system / in the education of youth; [Pp. 15-17:] General articles.
The text on the "preventive system" is contained in a large printed file of 100 p., Format 18.5x12 cm. The text, which bears the name of the author Sac. Gio. Bosco, is followed for the first time by the General Articles, which in a certain sense act as a bridge between it and the strictly regulatory norms. They, in the Index on p. 99, appear as being one with the different subdivisions of the text of the preventive system. "
21 In the anastatic reprint of Don Bosco's published works, the text of the "preventive system" and of the "general articles" is contained in vol. XXIX (Rome, LAS 1978) respectively on pp. 99-109 and 111-113.
9. - Doc. M - History of the Oratory of St. Francis of Sales, chap. XXI. ... Preventive system - Your application - Your advantages - A word on the chastisements BS 4 (1880) n. 9, Sept., pp. 6-9.
The almost complete text of the "preventive system" is contained: the introduction and the conclusion are omitted; the titles are replaced by short introductory notes by the editor, Don Bonetti. The text is identical to the one published in the Regulation, with the general use of the initial capital for the terms System and Director. The compiler of History also introduces the variations and additions made by Don Gioachino Berto in the printed text, separated in 1877, which he qualified with the inscription For a new edition (Doc. L).
This text will be referred to for timely comparisons in the edition of the "preventive system" in the editorial staff that appeared in the Regulation booklet.
From the analysis of the texts and variants, the succession and interdependence of documents can be easily reconstructed.
It does not take into account a very damaged manuscript document, which contains only parts of the first draft of Don Bosco's speech at Nice (see ASC 133 "Inauguration"). 22
The first one that interests, because complete with all three sections, is the doc. B, which derives its materials partially from A and from other texts not found. From Bb derive two manuscripts, C and D.
MS C, which contains only the text of the preventive system, transcribes B with Don Bosco's corrections. Some slight divergences can be explained by assuming in the copyist the intention to improve the text with regard to punctuation, to some "at the head", to certain underlining; others betray difficulties in reading the even diligent writing of Don Berto: one finds "On this System", because the letter I of B is also interpretable in this sense; "Take advantage of it" instead of "taking advantage of it".
D certainly assumes B Bb and mostly transcribes it. But in the section relating to the chronicle and in the section that contains the words of Don Bosco we can see variants that suppose some partial intermediate document.
22 For precise information on the doc. A, not significant for the purposes of this collection, see GIOVANNI (s.) Bosco, The Preventive System in Youth Education. Introduction and critical texts by P. Braido. Rome, LAS 1985, pp. 18-19.
A closer dependence of D from Bb is revealed above all in the pages on the preventive system, a text that logically had to undergo minor revisions with respect to the original, decidedly schematic and practical redaction. There are few lessons that deviate from B (and from C: apart from those in which C moves away from B and D).
The ms E, unpublished French translation, clearly depends on a redaction corresponding to that offered by the ms D; most of the corrections introduced there (Db) are not taken into account by the translator.
Instead, the French printed text corresponds to document D, including the corrections introduced there by Don Bosco (Db).
Db also corresponds to the Italian text of the first two editions, bilingual and separate, doc. F and H.
Safe clues suggest that the bilingual edition, doc. F and G, precedes the separate one, H and I. The composition remains identical, but in the passage from F to H and from G to I, it is somewhat improved, especially in the French text.
The doc. R, that is the text of the preventive system published jointly with the Regulations for houses towards the end of 1877, clearly derives from the ms C Cb.
Numerous peculiarities in punctuation and in the use of small letters lead us to think that another more accurate manuscript has arrived in the typography, rewritten on the basis of the ms D Db. The conviction is strengthened, if we consider the most significant variants of R with respect to C Cb.
The text H (separate Italian edition) becomes the starting point for further editions of the pamphlet on the preventive system dissociated immediately from the Inauguration.
The additions of Don Gioachino Berto appear supplementary to H, thus contributing to enriching the text coming from the Regulations for houses and will be found in the one published in the Italian "Salesian Bulletin" in September 1880 and in editions in other languages.
It is an irradiation that goes hand in hand with the dissemination through loose pamphlets, the insertion in Salesian pedagogy books, the link with the Regulation.
C Cb D
Db E Eb
Some immediate source of the pages on the preventive system has not been identified with certainty. The closest, as we will say, seems to be a pamphlet by the Barnabite p. Teppa. More than with well-defined texts used in editorial work, we can refer with a certain approximation to writings that Don Bosco could have between different moments of his life, which could help create or confirm a specific mentality or accentuate particular experiences and insights. "
23 A Salesian scholar of pedagogy wrote, not without emphasis: "The study of the educators and writers of educational questions of the time, various of whom (besides the mentioned ones, Boncompagni, Lanza, Berti, Rosmini, Tommaseo, Silvio Pellico, Manzoni, etc.) were in reports of cordial oral and written relations with him, and that all directly or indirectly favored his work "(V. OmPern, Don Bosco educator. Contribution to the history of thought and pedagogical institutions: Turin, SEI 1939, p. 105, n, 2; I ed. 1925). Another, instead, affirms: «Don Bosco, despite having the opportunity to be in contact with people who in terms of school and pedagogy were true authorities, such as eg. the Aporti, the Rayneri, the Rosmini and most of all the Student, with whom he had a more continuous and close relationship, he did not find (...) that with them he would initiate discourses and much less discussions of scholastic or pedagogical subjects "(B. FASCIE, Del educativo di Don Bosco, Turin, SEI 1927, pp. 20-21). Further on, an anonymous SALESIANUS will assert: "Having lived in the age of the most flourishing flourishing of the Italian pedagogical school, he not only knew what was being done and how it was written by illustrious men like Boncompagni, Lambruschini, Aporti, Rosmini, Rayneri, Tommaseo, Parato, Pupil, but to some of them he was also united with bonds of affectionate friendship "(Blessed Don Bosco and the Christian educator, in" Catechesis "3 (1934), No. 5, January, pp. 332- 333). On Don Bosco and the pedagogy of his time, M. CASOTTI also advanced some hypotheses in the successful anthology on The preventive method (Brescia, The 1937 School, pp. 7-18). With greater caution in the remarkable essay on The pedagogy of Giovanni Bosco (supplement to the V fascination of the review "Literary Aspects" 1934) G. ZITAROSA established a comparison between the central inspirations of Don Bosco's pedagogy with more elaborate theoretical modern arrangements starting from Locke (pp. 32-80). In search of generic and specific "preventive" motifs in times and contexts not far from those of Don Bosco, various investigations by E. VALENTINI are addressed, almost variations of the basic theme explicitly stated in an article of 1969: Don Bosco restorer of the system quote, in "Magazine of Pedagogy and Religious Sciences" 7 (1969) pp. 285-301. ZITAROSA established a comparison between the central inspirations of Don Bosco's pedagogy with more elaborate modern theoretical arrangements starting from Locke (pp. 32-80). In search of generic and specific "preventive" motifs in times and contexts not far from those of Don Bosco, various investigations by E. VALENTINI are addressed, almost variations of the basic theme explicitly stated in an article of 1969: Don Bosco restorer of the system quote, in "Magazine of Pedagogy and Religious Sciences" 7 (1969) pp. 285-301. ZITAROSA established a comparison between the central inspirations of Don Bosco's pedagogy with more elaborate modern theoretical arrangements starting from Locke (pp. 32-80). In search of generic and specific "preventive" motifs in times and contexts not far from those of Don Bosco, various investigations by E. VALENTINI are addressed, almost variations of the basic theme explicitly stated in an article of 1969: Don Bosco restorer of the system quote, in "Magazine of Pedagogy and Religious Sciences" 7 (1969) pp. 285-301. almost variations of the underlying theme, explicitly stated in a 1969 article: Don Bosco, restorer of the preventive system, in "Rivista di Pedagogie e Religiose Scienze" 7 (1969) pp. 285-301. almost variations of the underlying theme, explicitly stated in a 1969 article: Don Bosco, restorer of the preventive system, in "Rivista di Pedagogie e Religiose Scienze" 7 (1969) pp. 285-301.
It is not difficult to find documents, ancient and recent, that show clear coincidences or analogies with Don Bosco's preventive system. In the millennial pedagogical, pastoral and Christian ascetic tradition can be found. Some may have directly or indirectly influenced significant aspects of his educational style.24 Instead, attempts are made to identify any near or remote sources that Don Bosco may have had present and used in the drafting of the pages of 1877 on the "preventive system" . Little, perhaps, it can be ascertained with rigorous historical security. However, in its operational itinerary it is possible to detect encounters with other experiences, such as not to exclude contact with precise literary sources, which may have favored the reception of concepts common to the system such as the
24 Hypotheses of convergences and dependencies are formulated among others by P. BRAIDO, The preventive system of Don Bosco (Turin, PAS 1955), pp. 81-131 and Experiences of Christian pedagogy in history, vol. II (Rome, LAS 1981), pp. 302-321; and P. STELLA, Don Bosco in the history of Catholic religiosity, vol. II, pp. 450-459.
In particular, it is possible to identify the pre-existing Lombard-type regulations and the statutes of the works founded by Ludovico Pavoni (see P. BRAIDO, Il sistema ..., pp. 87-100).
More in-depth research on the years 1844-1845 could perhaps shed more light on a possible specific knowledge of the educational orientations of Ferrante Aporti (see P. BRAIDO, 0.C., pp. 118-122) and of the magazine «L "Primary Educator" (1845-1846) and "The Educator" (1847-1848) (P. BRAIDO, 0.C., pp. 115-117).
In France the "Moniteur" of 13 April 1844 reported on an intervention by the liberal Catholic de Broglie in the Chamber of Peers on "rather repressive public education" (ie rigid, austere) and on "essentially preventive home education" (sweet, comprehensive ). Instead, in another perspective, M. Thiers spoke in the French Chamber of Deputies on 13 July 1844, referring to the principle of freedom of education to be introduced in secondary education, in the "système préventif" and "système répressif". In this case the terminology takes on a censorial-police significance and derives from the affirmed legitimacy of the surveillance of the state on private educational institutions, which was granted the freedom of teaching:
Eighty years earlier the concept of prevention had been explicitly used in the criminal-education field by C. Beccaria in his book Dei crimes e delle pene (1764), where he wrote: «Finally, the surest means of preventing crimes is to improve education, an object that is too vast and that goes beyond the boundaries that I have prescribed for myself, object, I also dare to say, that holds too intrinsically the nature of the government so that it is not always until the most remote centuries of public happiness a sterile field, and only cultivated here and there by a few essays ».26
It is not improbable that echoes of the opposition between the preventive system and the repressive system in a more precise educational angle have come to Don Bosco through implementation and discussion in an environment known to him, even attended by him: the "House of correctional education" (is the technical term that occurs in the official documents), "said the Generala" of Turin.
25 See Rapport de M. Thiers sur la loi d'instruction secondaire de la nom de la Commission de la Chambre des Députés dans la séance du 13 juillet 1844 (Paris, Paulin Editeur 1844), pp. 39-40. Apart from the formulas, later Thiers contrasts the inflexible discipline of public institutions with the surrender of private institutions. In the former the idea of rule and equality, frankness and loyalty of relationships dominate; in others it would yield to compromise, to the pressures of families, establishing a more flexible and indulgent regime, but less appropriate for forming mature and responsible men and citizens (see pp. 57-58, 60-61).
Art. 17 della Costituzione belga del 1831 recitava: "Education is free, all preventive measures are forbidden; the repression of the offenses is only regulated by the law ".
26 C. BECCARLA, Crimes and penalties, edited by Franco Venturi (Turin, Einaudi 1973, p. 102, n. 45).
It may be recalled, as is clarified elsewhere in this volume (p. 75, n. 1), that in the 1950s the Minister of Justice and the Interior, Urbano Rattazzi, admirer of Don Bosco and with he familiarized.
It had been opened with the Royal Patent of 12 April 1845 and entrusted to the Brothers of the French Congregation of S. Pietro in Vincoli, founded by can. Charles Fissiaux (1806-1867) for the apostolate among corrigendi, to apply the system of correctional education. This formula takes on a very precise meaning in the practical action and formulations of the Brothers and their director, Fissiaux himself, as can be seen from the 1st and 2nd Rapport of 1846 and 1847. It finds a place of great importance above all in the first. It is the task of the "Maison Centrale d'Éducation correctionnelle" with respect to the "jeunes délinquants" "leur préparer un meilleur avenir, les sauver du milieu du naufrage, les punir sans doute, maize surtout les corriger" .27 After the very difficult beginnings, nei quali - confess he canonico - "in spite of us we had to deploy the greatest severity, and leave for a time the ways of gentleness then taken for weakness", "we can finally apply to our children the system of education correctional system employed by our Society in the other penitentiary houses entrusted to its care ".28 Dando" an overview of our system ", egli si sofferma tra altro sulla disciplina, che non è lontana slab connotazioni attributed da don Bosco al sistema educativo repressivo . "The discipline of establishment is severe, it must be, it must be remembered that it is a place of penance and correction (...). Starting from this principle we leave no fault without punishment, but also no act of virtue is left without reward. " "Finally, we can apply to our children the system of correctional education employed by our Society in the other penitentiary establishments entrusted to its care." 28 Dando "an overview of our system", egli si sofferma tra altro sulla disciplina, che no è lontana slab connotazioni attributed don Bosco al sistema educativo repressivo. "The discipline of establishment is severe, it must be, it must be remembered that it is a place of penance and correction (...). Starting from this principle we leave no fault without punishment, but also no act of virtue is left without reward. " "Finally, we can apply to our children the system of correctional education employed by our Society in the other penitentiary establishments entrusted to its care." 28 Dando "an overview of our system", egli si sofferma tra altro sulla disciplina, che no è lontana slab connotazioni attributed don Bosco al sistema educativo repressivo. "The discipline of establishment is severe, it must be, it must be remembered that it is a place of penance and correction (...). Starting from this principle we leave no fault without punishment, but also no act of virtue is left without reward. " If he is suffering from the other disciplines, no lontana grants connotations attributed by Don Bosco to the repressive educational system. "The discipline of Establishment is in a state of affairs, the same is true, but I am sorry to hear that there is a place of penitence and correction (...). Starting with the new princes ne laissons aucune faute sans punition, but also there is an act of vertu n'est laissé sans récompensci ».29 If he is suffering from the other disciplines, no lontana grants connotations attributed by Don Bosco to the repressive educational system. "The discipline of Establishment is in a state of affairs, the same is true, but I am sorry to hear that there is a place of penitence and correction (...). Starting with the new princes ne laissons aucune faute sans punition, but also there is an act of vertu n'est laissé sans récompensci ».29
Naturally, the positive factors are also highlighted: emulation, work, school, music, religious and moral potential. "Abundant tones of moderation and understanding towards youth fragility abound together.
27 Report on the first results obtained in the House of correctional education for young prisoners of the Kingdom of Sardinia presented at the meeting held on June 7, 1846 for the distribution of the prizes by Fr. Fissiaux ... Turin, Print Royal 1846, pp. 6-7.
28 Report ..., pp. 10, 13-14.
29 Rapport ..., p. 21. In a Rendiconto on 1854 written by the Teol chaplain. Giuseppe Giuliano, the "Establishment" is still presented as "Institute destined to punish and improve them at the same time" (General Calendar of the Kingdom for 1855, year XXXII. Turin, Printing House of the Typographic Union-Publishing, p. 137).
30 Report ..., pp. 14-21, 27-30.
I say goodwill if he talks about "poorer and worse offenders than coupons, of ordinary people who are habitually habituated to regard commons of incorrigible criminals, you who came to grips with unjust prejudices, a merits worthy of merit », Say« strong victims of the weakness of their first sovereignty ».31 In the Second Report, there are also elements that show how much the repressive system is adjacent to the preventive quel. The director, in fact, was trying to prove "that he was giving a correct education to the public, that he had enough money to pay, and to punish him with something else, not a Société déjà réalisé, partly due to the good results you had 'ètes in droit d'attendre de son zèle dévoué' and insists in it will tell you «the couple of jeunes détenus»,
Elsewhere, the problems of priestly ministry and friendship of Don Bosco with the Brothers of the Christian Schools, who ran the elementary schools of St. Pelagia in Turin, were problematically mentioned.33 There are undoubtedly many pedagogical and spiritual elements that ideally relate the Don Bosco's preventive system with the educational practice of Lasallians, albeit with some significant differences, due to the diversity of times, origins, socio-cultural contexts, of theological inspiration. This can be confirmed by the reading of an important essay on pedagogical spirituality, such as the dense Méditations pour le tems de la Retraite (ca. 1730) and some of the Méditations pour tous les dimanches de l'année (1730?), By J .-B. de La Salle, which only make explicit what was lived in the daily educational experience: "employez selon la grace qui vous a été donnée, the gift of instruction in teaching, exhorting you, by excusing who is trusting you, leading you with attention and vigilance; Refined to replenish the main devoir des Pères et des Mères à l'égard de leurs enfans ".34 Apart from the paternal and educational concept of paternity and educational maternity, the vigilance, vigilance guides, watchers, directed to prevent, preserve, prevent evil And I promuovere il bene: "If you insist on love, peace, sweetness and visibility charity; 36 if you invite us to have a tale of natural mobility fanciullesca and congenita riflessione," if you choose the reasonableness and wisdom of the interventions. " instruct you by teaching, exhorting yourself, by encouraging those who are trusting you, leading you to attention and vigilance; Refined to replenish the main devoir des Pères et des Mères à l'égard de leurs enfans ".34 Apart from the paternal and educational concept of paternity and educational maternity, the vigilance, vigilance guides, watchers, directed to prevent, preserve, prevent evil And I promuovere il bene: "If you insist on love, peace, sweetness and visibility charity; 36 if you invite us to have a tale of natural mobility fanciullesca and congenita riflessione," if you choose the reasonableness and wisdom of the interventions. " instruct you by teaching, exhorting yourself, by encouraging those who are trusting you, leading you to attention and vigilance; Refined to replenish the main devoir des Pères et des Mères à l'égard de leurs enfans ".34 Apart from the paternal and educational concept of paternity and educational maternity, the vigilance, vigilance guides, watchers, directed to prevent, preserve, prevent evil And I promuovere il bene: "If you insist on love, peace, sweetness and visibility charity; 36 if you invite us to have a tale of natural mobility fanciullesca and congenita riflessione," if you choose the reasonableness and wisdom of the interventions. " on the sweetness and the charity shown; 36 is invited to take into account the natural childlike mobility and congenital reflection; "we urge the reasonableness and wisdom of the interventions." on the sweetness and the charity shown; 36 is invited to take into account the natural childlike mobility and congenital reflection; "we urge the reasonableness and wisdom of the interventions."
31 Report ..., p. 31.
32 Second Report on the results obtained in the House of correctional education for young prisoners of the Kingdom of Sardinia present at the meeting which took place on September 26, 1847 for the distribution of the prizes by the abbot Fissiaux ... Turin, Printing Royal 1847, p. 13.
33 See P. BRAIDO, Don Bosco's Preventive System. Turin, PAS 1955, pp. 106-115.
34 Meditations for the times of the Retreat, I Med., Punto 2.
35 See below per esempio, Meditations for the time of the Retreat, II med., punto 2; V med., Punto 3; VI med., Punto 2; IX med., Punto 2; X med., Punto 1 e 2 ("You must not be content to prevent the children who are entrusted to your care, to do evil, you must also commit them to do good and good deeds they are able "); XI med., Punto 3; XIV med., Punto 2.
36 Cfr. IX med., Point 2; XI med., Point 2; XII med., Point 3.
Much closer to Don Bosco's real possibilities of reading, two pamphlets are familiar to the Lasallian Piedmontese environment: the classical work of Br. Agathon (1731-1798), superior general of the Brothers of the Christian Schools at the end of the century. XVIII, Les douze vertus d'un bon maître, that Don Bosco could find in the Turin edition of Marietti in 1835 and the little book, based on the previous text, by brother Théoger.39
In the interweaving of the twelve virtues (gravity, silence, humility, prudence, wisdom, patience, restraint, sweetness, zeal, vigilance, piety, generosity; Théoger will add constancy, firmness, a good example), numerous elements appear perfectly congruent with those of Don Bosco although some are differently emphasized (for example, the themes of gravity, silence, humility ...). The master "procures with his lovely qualities to reconcile the affection of the pupils", "" he inspires affection, esteem and respect towards him ". 41" Prudence makes it a duty for the master to take all the necessary precautions to prevent the evil , in whatever form it presents itself, and with it repentance, always so bitter, or ordinarily too late. "42" Love is acquired with love. A master therefore before d ' everything and above all must take on the feelings of a father for them, and never always consider themselves as taking the place of those who have entrusted them to it: that is, to have for them those bowels of goodness and tenderness that the fathers themselves have. Now these will be inspired by sweetness; this will give to them this affection, that sensitivity and benevolence, those obligatory and persuasive ways; this removes from command what he has of too hard and painful and smoothes out the difficulty ».43 that sensitivity and benevolence, those obligatory and persuasive ways; this removes from command what he has of too hard and painful and smoothes out the difficulty ».43 that sensitivity and benevolence, those obligatory and persuasive ways; this removes from command what he has of too hard and painful and smoothes out the difficulty ».43
37 See XI med., Points 1 and 2.
38 Cf. XII mcd., Point 1; XIV med., Point 3.
39 Virtues and duties of a good teacher. Operetta published by Brother Vittorio Théoger of the Christian Schools. Turin, at GB Paravia and at the Unione Tipografica Editrice 1863, 64 p.
40 The twelve virtues ..., p. 5.
41 The twelve virtues ..., p. 6.
42 The twelve virtues ..., p. 21.
43 The twelve virtues ..., pp. 38-39.
"His [firmness] main effect being that of drawing schoolchildren to abstain from evil for fear, he cannot come back really useful except in so far as he has as a companion the sweetness which alone makes that we want good for love (.. .). So it is that a good teacher has merit and praise not only of firmness, but also and especially of sweetness (...). Sweetness is the external form of charity, of goodness (...). It is therefore extremely important that the master loves his disciples, and loves them for a supernatural reason; that his every course, his every word, his vigilance, in a word, his every action is inspired by this love; otherwise he could not capture their affection and establish his authority; and therefore it would be impossible for him to work with fruit to educate them "." Within this framework, vigilance-presence takes on characteristic features and the problem of punishment is moderated. "Vigilance is the master's persevering attention to what the pupils do. This quality produces very happy effects, not only because it represses the disorder that soon manifests itself, and thus prevents it from becoming serious, but again and especially because the antiviene (...). The teacher will therefore be very attentive to everything that is currently done in the school; furthermore, since it is much better to prevent an evil than to punish him committed, it will be studied, as far as he will be able, to remove from school any means and opportunity to fall into some fault or failure to the rule; I will see to it that they are well persuaded that they are continuously monitored. " 45 "Sweetness prescribes to the master especially: 1 ° To castigar little (...); 2 ° To punish only for certain reason of charity (...); 5) To never beat children or push them, force them or rub them (...); 15 ° To be, as far as he is concerned, of pleasant access, showing goodness and cordiality (...); 20 ° To try to gain with the moderation, the mind of the students, whose rigor irritates or discourages "."
And again: "Do all that is possible so that children may find sure as a delight in religious exercises: catechisms, parish functions,
church songs, sermons, etc .; and always talk about it as things that are in merit and love (...). Accustom them to approach the sacraments often, making them appreciate the great advantages that using them frequently brings to
the soul; they teach well how to go to confession, to prepare for holy communion, and to give thanks to them (...). Do not inspire pupils in an austere piety moved by fear, but yes a sweet piety, based primarily on love ".
44 Virtues and duties ..., pp. 43, 46-47.
45 Virtues and duties ..., pp. 50-51.
46 Virtues and duties ..., pp. 47 and 49.
47 Virtues and duties ..., pp. 26, 30-31.
And lastly, there is no lack of references to reason: "Do not regulate oneself according to risky opinions, but take the Christian maxims, the divine and human laws, the principles of sound reason (...) . Always speak justly, always reasoned to the pupils, whatever their age, and get them used to doing so even on the occasions they present themselves (...). Firmness, in itself, is nothing other than the strength and constancy used to oppose evil, to prevent and repress disorder (...) such a strength of mind used by reason to keep children in the way of good ".48
Theoretically accessible to Don Bosco and bearers of pedagogical elements analogous to his are contained in writings of authors of various inspiration; but it would be more problematic to identify possible contributions to the composition of the pages on the "preventive system" .49
Greater probability seems to have the hypothesis of an mediated dependence on F. Dupanloup and on his De l'éducation. The bishop of Orléans is one of the authors of whom he declares to be indebted for his Notes on Sacred Pedagogy (1903; I edition lithographed 1897) d. Giulio Barberis. The Italian translation of De l'éducation "was not unknown at Valdocco and the convergences of content with the preventive system appear to be remarkable and the formulas relating to the distinction of the preventive and repressive system are very close.
48 Virtues and duties ..., pp. 24, 27, 42-43.
49 P. Stella documents in particular in relation to the ab. Blanchard and the Lazarist Pier Paolo Monaci (Don Bosco in the history of Catholic religiosity, vol. II, pp. 453-456). Pedagogical writings of PA Monfat, of the Society of Mary, could be added, above all, Les vrais principes de l'éducation chrétienne rappelés aux mattres et aux familles (Paris, Bray et Retaux 1875). The following work The practice of Christian education will be read and commented on in the community of educators of Valdocco (Turin). First free version of the sac. Francesco Bricolo (Rome, Tip. Of the Fratelli Monaldi 1879, translated from La pratique de l'éducation chrétienne. Paris, Bray et Retaux 1878), immediate source of the «Circular on the chastisements» of 1883.
50 Education for Monsignor Felice Dupanloup bishop of Orléans member of the French Academy. Italian version of D. Clemente De Angelis ..., 3 vol. Parma, Fiaccadori 1868-1869.
In Dupanloup the antithesis between the repressive and preventive system is first of all materialized in the opposition between civil and penal magistrates exercised in civil society and educational magistracy: «In all civilized societies it has always felt the need not only to repress evil, restraining the human passions with the brake of punishment, but the need was felt to prevent it by informing men by virtue of education; and for this reason the peoples better in flower of wisdom often do well a magistrate of the tutor, and a magistrate of the highest rank. "" But the differentiation of interventions takes place also within the educational space, due to the youthful reality to be transformed and to the concept itself and to the articulations of the "discipline" ("discipline has its roots in learners, learn,
That of the child is "a curious, mobile, restless, greedy age, an enemy of suggestion (...) childhood is light, disapplied, presumptuous, violent, stubborn (...) the defects of their nature, at least they also do not have acquired defects (...). In children everything is compliant and new, and it is easy to straighten out these tender plants, and make them tend to the sky (...). That is why even in the midst of their defects nothing is more amiable than to be seen in them when reason and virtue are born (...) despite appearances of lightness, and a too ardent transport to entertainments, a child can be wise, reasonable , and sensitive to virtue (...). I therefore have no difficulty in recognizing that the child, not excluded by that, who had the fate of being the happiest character, is a light, fickle, that flies from desire to desire, at the mercy of its own instability (...). But the pious institutors know it well, that precisely the work and the glory of Education is placed in knowing how to overcome lightness, and in knowing how to turn this inconstancy to a standstill ».53
According to Dupanloup, Nerbo of the educational process is disciplinary education, which "looks more deliberately at will and character", flanked by intellectual and physical education and crowned by religious education. However, it is precisely the discipline, understood in a strong sense, pedagogically rich, which is expressed in articulated training commitment, thanks to different modes of action. It reaches its intent: "1 ° Maintaining the constant execution of the regulation through the firm accuracy of its direction. 2. Preventing the violation of the regulation with the zeal of vigilance. 3 Repressing the transgression with punctuality of justice, in order to correct the disorder as soon as it takes place. Therefore the discipline has three main offices to perform: maintaining, preventing, suppressing. The concern not to leave anything, that he is guilty, without correction, it is the duty of the repressive discipline. The care taken to keep dangerous occasions away is the work of the preventive discipline.
51 Education, vol. II, lib. III. The institute, p. 379.
52 Education, vol. I, lib. III, chap. III. The Discipline, pp. 176-177.
53 Education, vol. I, lib. II. Of the child and of the respect due to the dignity of his nature, pp. 70-74.
The concern to always and everywhere show the path to follow is the office of the Discipline directive. It is easy to understand, that prevention is better than confrontation without comparison; but accuracy in maintaining the good, and vigilance in preventing evil make the need to repress less urgent. Therefore the greater importance of the governing discipline, which maintains the good; the secondary importance of the preventive Discipline, which prevents evil; and the lesser importance, as is necessary, of the repressive discipline which punishes him. "54
Antonio Rosmini (1797-1855), with whom Don Bosco had not superficial relations, had already developed similar and even more precise ideas to those of Félix Dupanloup in a letter to Don Paolo Orsi of 6 May 1836: "... It is necessary, that the tutor does not put too much of his confidence in external means, and I will say so mechanics, who can but obtain two goods, but nothing more, that is: 1 ° to remove the occasions of evil; 2 ° indirectly disposing the mind to the good. But these means do not give the good itself; they are nothing but a preparation for receiving the good, consisting in truth and grace. Or that manner of education, which puts all its confidence in the said material means and devices, so that it neglects precisely for this the immediate and formal means, generates without realizing two very serious evils in the minds of youth. Inasmuch as she restricts herself to preventive and prohibitive means, and in a word to negative means, she produces an apparent, false goodness, which can be called a college goodness; which soon goes away when the young man is no longer locked in the sacred walls, and therefore is no longer surrounded by the so-called rebels, who, without being able to make him good, put him in the impossibility of operating evil on the outside. Since then that education uses positive means yes, but purely devices to good, such as the gentleness of manners in preceptors, caresses, industries, so that good works, emulation, etc. are also materially sweet. , narrowing itself to this, causes a false direction of intention in the youth's soul that it is also the eye of the soul, whence the lucidity of the whole body depends, as the master of God says, because at the bottom of the youth it does not produce any true love of virtue for itself, for its ineffable beauty and intrinsic justice; but it produces only human affections towards his preceptors, a love of being praised, of being caressed, of being rewarded, such vainglory, self-esteem, ambition, the desire to dominate his fellow men, who thus learns to envy, rather than to love, in which love would also be the virtue, to which he must covet to lead it. for its ineffable beauty and intrinsic justice; but it produces only human affections towards his preceptors, a love of being praised, of being caressed, of being rewarded, such vainglory, self-esteem, ambition, the desire to dominate his fellow men, who thus learns to envy, rather than to love, in which love would also be the virtue, to which he must covet to lead it. for its ineffable beauty and intrinsic justice; but it produces only human affections towards his preceptors, a love of being praised, of being caressed, of being rewarded, such vainglory, self-esteem, ambition, the desire to dominate his fellow men, who thus learns to envy, rather than to love, in which love would also be the virtue, to which he must covet to lead it.
54 Education, vol. I, lib. III, chap. III. The Discipline, pp. 177-178.
It is not, however, that all these means, which alone harm, but that used together with the best means prepare the work of rendering the youth good, they should not be cured; on the contrary, we need to take great care of it, as we do with the hedge that defends the field from the herds. Evil is, as I said, solely in believing that everything is in them, or the principal of education, or that education with these means alone has begun. The field is well crowded and without seed it produces nothing but bad grass. No, they are not worth the effort either to initiate or to give the first seed of education; but, again I will say, there can only be the preludes of the great work of rendering the youth good. This work begins, and progresses, and is consumed only: 1 ° by making known to the spirit of the child the salutary truth, comforted by grace; 2 ° by making him contemplate the beauty of this truth which he knows; 3 ° with the fact that you fall in love with the beauty of the truth that you contemplate; and 4 ° by obtaining that you work in conformity with the beauty of that truth of which you have fallen in love. To achieve all this, only one thing is needed, and it is that the sight of the moral truth in question is clearly set before his intellect; the light then omnipotent of this truth comes only from the divine grace. Now that moral truth is set before the eyes of the intellect of children, it should be displayed with simplicity and consistency, not with ismancerie and artifices. "55 and 4 ° by obtaining that you work in conformity with the beauty of that truth of which you have fallen in love. To achieve all this, only one thing is needed, and it is that the sight of the moral truth in question is clearly set before his intellect; the light then omnipotent of this truth comes only from the divine grace. Now that moral truth is set before the eyes of the intellect of children, it should be displayed with simplicity and consistency, not with ismancerie and artifices. "55 and 4 ° by obtaining that you work in conformity with the beauty of that truth of which you have fallen in love. To achieve all this, only one thing is needed, and it is that the sight of the moral truth in question is clearly set before his intellect; the light then omnipotent of this truth comes only from the divine grace. Now that moral truth is set before the eyes of the intellect of children, it should be displayed with simplicity and consistency, not with ismancerie and artifices. "55
Particular attention deserves the little book of the Barnabite P. Alessandro Teppa (1806-1871), Prepo general site in the years 1867-1871, Warnings for the ecclesiastical educators of the youth, 56 that Don Bosco knows and recommends. "The Teppa intends to collect in the" small booklet those warnings and those general rules, that the experience of many years and the authority of the most famous writers (...) have shown to be for all more necessary and more important in order to succeed in the difficulty of education » ; it is directed in particular "to those who are still inexperienced in the difficult art of education". " And the antithesis or complementarity of the preventive and repressive system, considered as the opposition between material authority and moral authority, also appears substantially.
55 Complete Epistolary, vol. V, pp. 618-620.
56 Roma, Tip. and Lib. Poliglotta / Torino, Marietti 1868, 71 p.
57 In a letter to Fr Rua of 14 January 1869, Don Bosco writes from Florence: "10th Idem, take the booklet of Fr. Teppa: Notices to the Ecclesiastics, etc .: send one to Lanzo, the other to Mirabello, where he collected clerics and priests if you read a leader every Sunday during my absence. Do the same in Turin "(E II 4).
58 Warnings ..., pp. 4-5.
Now this moral authority is nothing other than the power to rule over the souls of others, and to make them willingly want what we want for their own good (...). Nor is it to be confused with material authority that others should be acquired with the firmness of his will and with the severity of his manner, so that he is made to fear and obey at any cost. This material authority may, however, sometimes come to the aid of moral authority when the voice of reason is not heard; it may still be useful, if not even necessary, to maintain discipline among the students, especially when many are gathered together; but if it is not tempered by moral authority it can only incite a servile fear, it can externally force, it cannot win and govern souls, who surrender only to the voice of persuasion, nor allow themselves to be governed only by moral authority. This can be done only by deserving it, or deserving otherwise, than by making oneself esteemed, respected and loved. "59 Consequently," the path of sweetness and persuasion "is privileged.
«Those who want to dominate the hearts of young people, above all seek to be loved. Those who are loved are always willingly listened to and obeyed. But to be loved there is no other way than to love. Si vis amari, ama; and not only in words, or by natural inclination, but to love with sincere and cordial love and for reasons of charity (...). Therefore, whoever wants to be loved by his students is the first to love them with a true heart with the love of a father and a friend. ”61 It follows from the comprehension effort of the individual students, the knowledge of each person's character and, therefore, the positive presence among them, constructive and encouraging, never "repressive" even in corrections and punishments. «As the dispositions are varied, the temperaments of the young are varied, so the first study of those who take them to educate them is to know well the nature of each one, in order to be able to conform to it (...). But because the Institutor can well know what the particular nature of each of his students is, and what is the most appropriate way to keep with them according to their various nature and circumstances, it is necessary that they be observed very carefully in all their sayings and deeds, especially when they speak and operate with greater freedom, as happens especially in the time of recreation. "
59 Warnings ..., pp. 14-16.
60 Warnings ..., p. 27.
61 Warnings ..., pp. 21-22.
62 Warnings ..., pp. 25-26.
"Know with reasons suited to the capacity of his students, and with appropriate examples show them the beauty of virtue, and the deformity of vice." 63 "To the instructions and exhortations they must then keep behind the warnings and the loving corrections; because young people are unstable by nature, inconsiderate and distracted, so that they often need to be called to their duty, nor for every little failure should they be taken back or punished (...). But in order for him to fulfill this important part of his office well, it is clear that he must be constantly attentive and vigilant over his students, and together he must still be full of zeal and charity, looking more to their advantage than to really comfortable, and knowing in his heart to sympathize with the defects of the young age, without impatiently bothering about it,
using with him a more serious and reserved attitude, and abstaining from those signs of benevolence and familiarity that he used to give him for the past (...). The beating of boys in every way, the pulling of their hair, their ears, and similar acts are absolutely banished because they are unseemly to well educated, useless always, and often harmful but not physically, but morally well. " , the explicit coincidence in the appeal to charity emerges, with the same reference to 1 Cor 13, as the foundation and summit of the mission of the educator: "whoever is in this deputy office has always presented the fine words of the apostle s. Paul to the Corinthians, where he enumerates the gifts and conditions of true charity ".67 and abstaining from those signs of benevolence and familiarity that he used to give him for the past (...). The beating of boys in every way, the pulling of their hair, their ears, and similar acts are absolutely banished because they are unseemly to well educated, useless always, and often harmful but not physically, but morally well. " , the explicit coincidence in the appeal to charity emerges, with the same reference to 1 Cor 13, as the foundation and summit of the mission of the educator: "whoever is in this deputy office has always presented the fine words of the apostle s. Paul to the Corinthians, where he enumerates the gifts and conditions of true charity ".67 and abstaining from those signs of benevolence and familiarity that he used to give him for the past (...). The beating of boys in every way, the pulling of their hair, their ears, and similar acts are absolutely banished because they are unseemly to well educated, useless always, and often harmful but not physically, but morally well. " , the explicit coincidence in the appeal to charity emerges, with the same reference to 1 Cor 13, as the foundation and summit of the mission of the educator: "whoever is in this deputy office has always presented the fine words of the apostle s. Paul to the Corinthians, where he enumerates the gifts and conditions of true charity ".67 and similar acts are absolutely banned as unbecoming to well educated, useless, always good people, and often harmful not even physically, but also morally. "66 And finally, the explicit coincidence in the appeal to charity emerges with equal reference to 1 Cor 13, as the foundation and summit of the educator's mission: "whoever is in this deputy office has always presented the fine words of the apostle s. Paul to the Corinthians, where he enumerates the gifts and conditions of true charity ".67 and similar acts are absolutely banned as unbecoming to well educated, useless, always good people, and often harmful not even physically, but also morally. "66 And finally, the explicit coincidence in the appeal to charity emerges with equal reference to 1 Cor 13, as the foundation and summit of the educator's mission: "whoever is in this deputy office has always presented the fine words of the apostle s. Paul to the Corinthians, where he enumerates the gifts and conditions of true charity ".67 "Whoever is in this deputy office has always presented the fine words of the apostle s. Paul to the Corinthians, where he enumerates the gifts and conditions of true charity ".67 "Whoever is in this deputy office has always presented the fine words of the apostle s. Paul to the Corinthians, where he enumerates the gifts and conditions of true charity ".67
In conclusion, the warnings of P. Teppa can be considered with good reason the closest literary source to the pages of Don Bosco on the preventive system.
63 Warnings ..., p. 32.
64 Warnings ..., pp. 33-34.
65 Warnings ..., p. 35.
66 Warnings ..., pp. 43-44, 47.
67 Warnings ..., p. 61 (the comment follows, pp. 62-69).
1. Doc. H - printed text of the separate Italian edition Inauguration of the Patronato di S. Pietro in Nizza a mare. Purpose of the same presented by the Priest Giovanni Bosco with appendix on the preventive system in the education of youth. Turin, Typography and Salesian Library 1877.
B = handwritten editing of Don Gioachino Berto
B2, B3 = subsequent interventions of don Berto
Bb = interventions of Don Bosco on the ms B
D = Italian manuscript editorial for the bilingual edition
D2 = successive interventions by the editor of the ms D
Db = interventions by don Wood on the ms D
Dc = text contained in the sheet added to the doc. D between page 28 and 29
F = printed Italian text of the bilingual edition
Inauguration of the Patronato of S. Pietro in Nizza a mare Purpose of the same exposed by the Priest Giovanni Bosco with appendix on the preventive system in the education of youth
The Patronage of St. Peter opened in the city of Nice in favor of the five unsafe children was welcomed by the Nices with great benevolence. Everyone, however, wanted the Pious Institution to come with an inaugurated family party, so that everyone was in a certain way publicly assured that their vows were fulfilled.
3 with ... youth om B add Bb 6 children om D add mrg Db
1 Cfr. Francis DESRAMAUT, Don Bosco in Nice. The vie d'un école professionnelle catholique between 1875 and 1919. Paris, Apostolate des Éditions 1980, 397 p. The term french patronage, reported to the educational institutions of Don Bosco, indicates whether oratory and hospitality. In his discourse Don Bosco distinguishes the respective recipients in «external» and «internal»: v. forward lin. 150-166, 209-213.
5 Nice, capital of the Alpes-Maritimes department, passed from the Sardinian Kingdom to France by virtue of the treaty of March 24, 1860 and following the plebiscite of 1516 April 1860. The municipality numbered in 1876 53.397 inhabitants (325.400 in 1971), the department 203.604 .
10 The ecclesiastical authority and the civil authorities welcomed the invitation with pleasure and cordial approval. Mr. Cav. Raynaud Mayor of the City held back by unexpected business was represented by Cav. Toselli councilor. Mgr. Pietro Sola with the clergy of the bishop's chapel came to solemnly pontificate.
15 The newspapers having published this inauguration each presumed the intervention of many citizens; to avoid confusion in the narrowness of the site, a circular was addressed to those who could be more especially interested.
The circular was of the following tenor: p. 4
20 «Monday 12 current, at half past two in the afternoon Monsig. Bishop will inaugurate the Patronato of S. Pietro, Piazza d'armi, N ° 1, ancient villa Gautier. This building and garden was purchased and destined to collect abandoned children to teach them a trade. With the conviction that this eminently popular and moralizing work will certainly meet the sympathy of all the people who take part in what contributes to the good of the working class, the Committee asks you to honor this function with your presence.
Mgr. PIETRO SOLA Bishop.
30 Sac. Gio. Bosco Superiore.
10 The Authority ... civil] The civil authority and the ecclesiastical authority BD The ecclesiastical authority and the civil authority torr Db
11 Auguste Raynaud, n. in 1829, m. in 1896, he was one of the most appreciated political figures in Nice during the annexation of Nice to France, during the second empire and the advent of the third republic, a good mayor, generally well regarded by men of all currents.
12-13 A Toselli compared to the members of the conference of San Vincenzo de 'Paoli presided over the av. Michel - cfr. 11 March 1894 Gold Weddings of the Société de St-Vincent-dePaul à Nice 1844-1894. Nice, Imprimerie du Patronage de St-Pierre 1894, p. 94
22 And the villa della vedova by Paul Gautier, whose name is found in the list of Honorary Members of Società di S. Vincenzo from 'Paoli a Nizza - cfr. Notice historique des conférences et oeuvres de Saint Vincent-de-Paul à Nice. Nice, Imprimerie-Librairie du Patronage de St-Pierre 1883, p. 66
29 Giovanni Pietro (Jean-Pierre) Sola, n. in Carmagnola (Turin) on 16 July 1791, sac. in 1816, parish priest for forty years at Vigone (1818-1857), recommended for bishop of Nice on 21 December. 1857, resigned in 1877, in. on 31 December 1881, he was a prelate-pastor sensitive to the catechistic and youth problem.
Sac. GIUS. RONCHAIL Director.
Il Comitato: Conte DI BÉTHUNE.
Story MICHAUD DE BEAURETOUR. CONTEST OF THE FERTÉ-MEUN.
Avv. ERNESTO MICHEL. 35
ADD FUGA (1).
Nice, March 9, 1877. I
31 Joseph Ronchail, Salesian priest, first director of the Patronage St-Pierre (1876-1887), director in Paris (1887-1898), n. in Laux d'Usseaux (Turin) May 21, 1850, priest in 1872, m. in Paris April 3, 1898 - see «Bulletin Salésien» 20 (1898) n. 5, June, pp. 151-159. In 1873 in Genoa he had obtained the French language master's license with points 42/60.
32 The name of the Count of Bethune travels several times in the Storia della Società di San Vincenzo di 'Paoli di Nizza - cfr. for example, Notice historique, p. 40 e 67. Rievocandone la morte (Reseve the death in 1891) the president avv. Michel remembers the tale, "presiding over the courses and various mondane circles, faisait toujours faine sur leurs budgets the part of the poor, which is envoyed to us Conférences" - Noces d'or, p. 88
33 The Comte Michaud de Beauretour, m. on October 23, 1903, he was present in various charitable works in Nice: the Conferences of Saint Vincent de Paul, the Archconfraternity of Mercy, the Fercle Catholique d'ouvriers. A brief profile appears in the periodical of the Patronage St-Pierre, «Adoption» 1904, genn., Pp. 14-15.
34 The Comte de la Ferté-Meun stands out very early in the Society of Saint Vincent de Paul (Notice historique, p. 68), in the Conference of the parish of Saint Martin and president of that of the Immaculate Conception. He is one of the members of the Commission created in 1869 "pour mettre sur pied 1 'Oeuvre du patronage des apprentis" - Notice historique, p. 43.
35 Ernest Michel is a protagonist in the field of Nice and Salesian Catholic initiatives. Lawyer, writer, organizer of charity, he was born in Nice in 1833, he graduated in jurisprudence in Turin, where he met the co. Cays and the work of Don Bosco. He died in January 1896 - v. necrology in «Bulletin Salésien» 18 (1896) n. 2, genn., P. 21.
36 The Baron Aimé Héraud de Ch'àteauneuf (1821-1902), doctor of law, secret waiter of cape and sword of His Holiness, was an active member of the Society of Saint Vincent de Paul - Notice historique, p. 43; a long obituary appeared in him in "Adoption" 1902, Dec., pp. 213-225.
37 The name C. Gignoux is found in the list of members of the Society of Saint Vincent of Nice - Notice historique, p. 71.
38 The Baron Auguste Faraut or Faraud, lawyer, n. in 1841, m. in 1877, he was president of the Saint-Martin Conference since 1863 and for a very short time, before the premature death, of the Cercle Catholique d'ouvriers - Notice historique, p, 38 and 57.
(1) While the report of this inauguration was entrusted to the press, 40 painful news came to deeply embitter our hearts. The lawyer Augusto Faraut, model of Christian life, zealous confrere of St. Vincent who did everything for everyone to benefit, he is no longer. Having always enjoyed enviable health and robustness, on the flower of his age he was kidnapped by immature death on March 31 45 he died. The Director of the Patronage of St. Peter communicates this to the Sac. Bosco with this short letter:
I came a few hours ago to St. John for the Easter confessions of this population; but I left Nice with a pained heart, leaving our young men in consternation. This morning I learned with real regret that our friend, our benefactor, our support, was dead at ten-thirty yesterday evening. A few days ago he had come to visit us: I later learned that he was a little unwell. Every day we went to ask about him and only Friday at noon did Baron Héraud his uncle tell me he was better. Last night Mr. Barone went to pay him a visit at seven o'clock and was glad he had seen that he smiled and took part in the jokes that were being prepared for the lottery in favor of the free popular Library, of which Mr. Lawyer was also one of the founders, at eight o'clock. and half a brain access hit him and soon led him to the other life. He leaves a great void in Nice, his poor wife with two girls, one of them still a few months old, 60 widow of 25, and many poor who mourn her death. For us in particular it is a real misfortune. He was a Salesian Cooperator and one of the first and most zealous. I immediately ordered prayers, communions, placed among us for the eternal rest of the soul of the late Lawyer and I recommend it to the prayers of the youth of the Oratory and of all the confreres. He was a Salesian Cooperator and one of the first and most zealous. I immediately ordered prayers, communions, placed among us for the eternal rest of the soul of the late Lawyer and I recommend it to the prayers of the youth of the Oratory and of all the confreres. He was a Salesian Cooperator and one of the first and most zealous. I immediately ordered prayers, communions, placed among us for the eternal rest of the soul of the late Lawyer and I recommend it to the prayers of the youth of the Oratory and of all the confreres.
65 S. Giovanni di Villafranca, 1 April 1877.
Sac. GIUS RONCHAIL.
In the Church . - Religious music performed by the students of the Institute - Sco. 5 po of the work exhibited by the Sac. Bosco - Blessing with the SS.70 Sacrament in solemn form imparted by Monsig. Bishop.
In the garden. - Dialogue composed by Monsig. Sola - Music and restraints 6 different minds - Visit of the halls, schools and laboratories.
71 composed ... Sola om B add mrg Bb
42 Confreres of St. Vincent are the members of the Society of St. Vincent de Paul, founded in Paris in May 1833 by the young university student Frédéric Ozanam (1813-1853), then professor at the Sorbonne. In Nice the first Conference was established in 1844, favoring its radiation in Liguria and Piedmont. She maintained friendly relations with Count Carlo Cays (1813-1882), president of the Superior Council of the Conferences of Piedmont and, in the last years of her life (1878-1882), a Salesian priest.
On the appointed day, long before the beginning of the functions, the small chapel and the adjoining rooms were stowed by people who had come. The courtyard in the alleys that divide it and flank it was born of many flags in different colors. The youngsters of the Establishment performed various musical pieces with soprano, contralto and choirs. Everyone was amazed how in such a short time the students could have progressed so much in this civilizing art of the human heart. Finished the singing of Vespers the Sac. Bosco set out the purpose of the Institute 80 with the following words:
Your presence, Excellencies. Rev.ma, Honorable Mr. Mayor, Respectable Gentlemen, I return to the greatest consolation, because it gives me 85 p. 7 opportunities to publicly thank you for the charity used in the person of the poor children of the Patronage of St. Peter. At the same time it is also given to me freely to express the purpose of a work, which you founded, which you advocate, so often the object of your charity, which I now humbly but warmly intend to place and unalterably keep under your kind protection . But so that I can give you a clear idea of the Institute you protect, I beg you to listen to a brief history, which should not come back to you, and it will help us to know how much we desire. Listen.
Some years ago the Bishop of this Diocese [1857-1877] went to Turin, and after speaking of other things he complained about a multitude of boys exposed to the dangers of the soul and body, and expressed a burning desire to provide for their need . Shortly thereafter two gentlemen of 100 this same city (1) in the name of the Confreres of St. Vincent de Paul expressed the same regret especially for the many children, who during the feast days ran through the streets, wandered through the squares, quivering, I cursing, pilfering.
96-104 Il vescovo, recandosi in Piemonte, his native land, and Torino I can think of trying to don Bosco's sense the central direction of the Sue. works, the Oratory of S. Francesco di Sales, via Cottolengo 32. But, perhaps, more attending the version of thevv. E. Michel, who was referring to the 1874 story: "I have been trying to get the attention of the Confederations of Nice in the reuse of the Oeuvre du Patronage (...). Alors le Président du Conseil particulier, from the passage to Turin, took the thought of addressing Don Bosco and the need to come and take care of us in the abandonment (...). The hope that Don Bosco will be traveling to Nice, visitéit 1Evéque will give you an account of these things. Il vint en effet »Note historique, pp. 53-54.
(1) Baron Héraud and Lawyer Ernesto Michel.
But the pain grew greatly p. 8 105 of those two benefactors of the unhappy, when they realized that those poor boys after the life of vagabond, after causing disturbances to the public authorities mostly went to populate the prisons. Great God, they exclaimed, will it not be possible to prevent the ruin of so many youngsters, who can be called unhappy, not because they are perverse, but only because they are abandoned? We have, it is true, the Dominican Patronages that give some use, but they do not provide enough for the necessity of some who live without a roof, without food and without clothes. Added to this is the shortage of priests, who remain free time to be able to take care of this important ministry.
115 It was then that with the approval of the beloved Bishop of this Diocese the prelodated Lords wrote letters and then came in person to Turin to observe a hospice there for a similar class of children (1). They came, we were soon understood on the need for
(1) It alludes to the Oratory of S. Francesco di Sales where about 900 120 poor youngsters are gathered for different professions, to different branches of study according to the various propensities and capacities.
a house where laboratories were activated, gathered the most abandoned, educated, sent to some trade. But where to find this house, and when did it find itself how to buy it, and by what means support it? 125 This house was to be opened here in Nice in favor of the people of this area. 9 city: in Nice, which is a city of charity, of charity, an eminently Catholic city.
116-117 "In the spring of 1875, it is probably necessary to locate the visit to Turin of M. Michel and Baron Héraud de Ch'ateauneuf, whom Don Bosco recounted in his history" - F. DESRAMAUT, Don Bosco in Nice ... , p. 33.
Therefore, with regard to material means, we have unanimously given this answer: "The Brothers of the Conference of St. Vincent de Paul will do what they can: then Nice will not deny us his charitable support. It is about the good of society, it is about saving souls, God is with us, He will help us ".
And here are two priests starting from Turin with hands in hand undoubtedly accompanying trust in the Lord's presence and in the charity of the Nices. Those two priests were welcomed by all with great benevolence, because from all of them an Institute was deemed necessary to give back to the children who were in danger. It was then, gentlemen, that you saw your Bishop, as a good shepherd, in his grave age of 85 running from square to square, from street to street, looking for a site, a shelter for the orphans, for the unsafe youth. This kindergarten was found in Via Vittorio, No. 21; and the Confratelli of S. Vincenzo de 'Paoli if 140 the temporary rent on it.
Mgr. Bishop inaugurated the new Patronato, he blessed the chapel, celebrated Holy Mass on November 28, 1875, expressing his great consolation with a special sermon for the grain of mustard seed, from which he hoped increase and advantage. 145 p. 10 The nascent Institute was said of St. Peter in accordance with the Bishop who inaugurated it, in honor of St. Peter the Prince of the Apostles and in homage to the Supreme Pontiff Pius IX who deigned to send a special blessing to the Institute, to the Benefactors, and to all the promoters of it, adding the generous offer of two thousand francs. He did not delay, he soon began to gather children on holidays, some of the most abandoned were admitted. All this, however, consisted of some rooms on the ground floor and below. But what good were a few chambers compared to so many children, who at any moment asked for shelter from their misfortune? The place was small, 155 the patients had to be few, however it had been enough to assure us that the unruly children, to whom the Christian upbringing itself is sometimes considered fruitless, if they can get away from the danger of their companions, of bad prints, closed in a secluded place they are easily reduced on the good path, they become useful citizens, the decorum of the pa- ria, the glory of our holy religion. That small flock, that small number of inpatients made there more manifest the need to provide for the growing number of poor children in a larger sphere, so they looked for another building, which served as a shelter and a garden who at any time asked for shelter from their misfortune? The place was small, 155 the patients had to be few, however it had been enough to assure us that the unruly children, to whom the Christian upbringing itself is sometimes considered fruitless, if they can get away from the danger of their companions, of bad prints, closed in a secluded place they are easily reduced on the good path, they become useful citizens, the decorum of the pa- ria, the glory of our holy religion. That small flock, that small number of inpatients made there more manifest the need to provide for the growing number of poor children in a larger sphere, so they looked for another building, which served as a shelter and a garden who at any time asked for shelter from their misfortune? The place was small, 155 the patients had to be few, however it had been enough to assure us that the unruly children, to whom the Christian upbringing itself is sometimes considered fruitless, if they can get away from the danger of their companions, of bad prints, closed in a secluded place, they are easily reduced on the good path, they become useful citizens, the decorum of the pa- ria, the glory of our holy religion. That small flock, that small number of inpatients made there more manifest the need to provide for the growing number of poor children in a larger sphere, so they looked for another building, which served as a shelter and a garden that unruly children, to whom the Christian upbringing is sometimes considered fruitless, if they can get away from the danger of their comrades, bad prints, closed in a secluded place, are easily reduced on the good path, become useful citizens, decorum of the country , glory of our holy religion. That small flock, that small number of inpatients made there more manifest the need to provide for the growing number of poor children in a larger sphere, so they looked for another building, which served as a shelter and a garden that unruly children, to whom the Christian upbringing is sometimes considered fruitless, if they can get away from the danger of their comrades, bad prints, closed in a secluded place, are easily reduced on the good path, become useful citizens, decorum of the country , glory of our holy religion. That small flock, that small number of inpatients made there more manifest the need to provide for the growing number of poor children in a larger sphere, so they looked for another building, which served as a shelter and a garden glory of our holy religion. That small flock, that small number of inpatients made there more manifest the need to provide for the growing number of poor children in a larger sphere, so they looked for another building, which served as a shelter and a garden glory of our holy religion. That small flock, that small number of inpatients made there more manifest the need to provide for the growing number of poor children in a larger sphere, so they looked for another building, which served as a shelter and a garden
132 Some precision in E DESRAMAUT, Don Bosco in Nice ..., p. 35
148 Pius IX, Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti, Senigallia 1792-Rome 1878, pope from 1846 to 1878.
165 capable of retaining exteriors in pleasant and honest recreation on holidays. This place was found and it is the Villa Gautier, where we, Respectable Lords, are presently gathered. This site p.11 was reputed very appropriate, because out of the tumults of the city, but close enough for the externals who can intervene.
170 After many incumbencies this plant was agreed in the sum of (100,000) one hundred thousand francs between purchase and ancillary expenses. By the offer of the Holy Father and other charitable people, half has already been paid: we hope that the other half will be paid little by little.
175 Now, gentlemen, if we look around us at noon we will have a site closed with a fence: it is given to the Society of St. Vincent de Paul for their works of charity. Another part of the garden, partly opposite and behind the house, serves to retain the external crafts collected from various parts of the city, which are here to spend the holiday. Not far from these, but completely separated, the interiors are recreated, that is those that are hospitalized and live in the house that we inaugurate. A section of the garden remains free, and this will be destined for the work on Thursday, which aims to gather the young students, to hold them with amusement, 185 with gymnastics, with declamation, with music, with the theater, so that they can spend the day far from dangers and with some advantage of science and morality. But all these categories of students before taking part in their entertainment always perform their religious duties. the
190 If then, you gentlemen, you will have the condescension to visit this edifice, p. 12 you will find some rooms reduced to a chapel, and it is precisely the small church that we currently occupy. Other special rooms serve as kitchens, refectory, dormitory for the children of the Hospice; then there are places for singing, sound, catechism and reading schools that take place during the day and even more so for those who attend the evening schools in very large numbers. In other places work the shoemakers, the tailors, the carpenters, the book binders that are the laboratories of the students of our humble Institute.
176-177 remitted ... charity] dedicated to the youth of the circle of adult Catholic workers, of those workmen who need a place, a recreation, assistance adapted and divided by the smallest B.
192 post we occupy add in the [Nelle torr B] adjoining rooms we hold back the workers of the Catholic circle, where, beyond the recreation starts cooking, dispensation of drinks, and edible for those who like to pass here the entire festive day B.
This is the little story that I wanted, indeed it was to expose you so that we are ever more grateful to the goodness of the Lord that from 200 nothing can derive what he judges to agree to the fulfillment of his adorable wishes.
p. 13 PURPOSE OF THIS INSTITUTE.
Upon hearing about schools, professions, interiors, exteriors, adult workers and artisans, you will tell me: What condition are these 205 young people? which is to say: What is the purpose of this Institute?
This is a right and appropriate question to which I answer with difficulty.
There are two categories of students: one of the externals, who intervene to spend the day of the Lord, and during the week they attend 210 night schools. The other category is of the interior, whose political, moral and educational condition you can lightly know from the fact that I beg you to listen. A young man showed up this morning asking for hospitalization. - Who are you? he was asked. - I am a child, a poor orphan. - Does your father no longer live? - He died first but I could know him. - And your mother? - My mother is in the greatest misery and not being able to give me bread, she sent me to look for what to live. - How do you make bread? - I make money by playing the violin. - Where is it? - In taverns and cafes, but if I can learn music well I hope later to go play in the 220 theaters and thus earn myself money. - How old are you? - I have
p.14 15 in 16. I - Can you read and write? - Very little. - Are you already promoted to Holy Communion? - Not yet. - After giving him a brief examination of his religious education, it became known that he ignored the most elementary parts and that he was in the greatest danger of losing his honor, his soul and being led by the unhappy prisoners of the prisons (1).
(1) Once the sacred functions were over, the auditors of the event were eager to see the young man, to whom he was alluded. Therefore our violinist appeared in the garden and formed a circle, and in the presence of all he gave a musical concert. One of the spectators, amazed at the player's ease and moved by the petty clothes that covered the poor creature, issued a mandate to be immediately supplied with clothing at the Conference of N. Madame of Nice. On the following day, they presented themselves with their violin to receive the dress and cheered up the charitable ladies who had gathered there to work for the poor. 235
The young man is still in the Patronage and shows good will to educate himself in science and religion.
The next day (March 13th) another young man of 16 presented himself who had never confessed or communicated. He was an orphan, a stranger, devoid of everything and already highly involved in the way of evil. He was warmly welcomed. On the 14th of the same month another boy was met who desperately relatives placed in a Protestant hospice. The boy, abashing the things he heard against the Catholics, managed to escape, but he was wanted and necessarily forced to escape. 15
245 conduit; he was able to escape the second time and it was then that for good fortune he met the Director of the Patronage of St. Peter, who, understood the sad case, immediately accepted him. From these and other similar facts you can understand what the condition of our young people is. Collect poor and unsafe boys, educate them in religion, place them
250 outsiders to work with an honest master, the interiors occupy them in the laboratories established here in the house, let them learn a trade with which they could at the time earn the bread of life. You will ask me again about this: Are young people of this nature many? The number of outsiders is very noticeable, but the interiors are alone for now
255 mind 65: there are however over two hundred those who ask urgently to be received, and this will take place as we have local prepared, we will order the discipline and divine Providence will send us means to keep them.
At this point in our presentation you will ask me another reasonable question. The narrowness of the place, the multitude of requests for acceptance, the repairs, the extensions of the premises, indeed of this church itself, where we are, claim a larger, higher building that can better serve the celebration of the Mass, to listen the confessions, to do the catechism I pei piccoli, for the p. 16 265 preaching of adults and for those who live nearby. These things are indispensable so that this Institute can achieve its end, which is the good of humanity and the salvation of souls. Now how to provide for the many needs that are needed? How to find the money that is indispensable to give bread to the interiors, dress them, provide them with 270 masters, assistants, chiefs of art? How to continue the work undertaken and those that should begin [?].
238-247 In the left margin of the text B Don Bosco (Bd) draws a vertical line and notes in correspondence, writing from top to bottom: "It is all in the form of notes and to be placed later". Vertical line and warning also include the text part existing in B and no longer present in DHF.
247 post immediately, add but for reasons that everyone can argue he was sent to another city and to another house of the Salesians, where he could learn religion and a trade B more safely.
It is all true, indeed I add again, that in order to support the works already begun several debts had to be contracted, and this same house is only half-paid; that is, there are still over fifty thousand francs to pay. In spite of all this we must not be dismayed. That Divine Providence which as a compassionate mother watches over all things, which provides for the birds of the air, for the fish of the sea, for the animals of the earth, for the lilies of the field, will not provide for us who before the Creator are far more precious of those material beings? More; that God who in you, in your 280 hearts, inspired the generous thought of promoting, founding and upholding this work so far, will not continue to instil grace, courage and give you the means to continue it? More:
No, therefore, no doubt, no fear that we may miss Heaven's help. We are not doing this wrong to the Divine Goodness, we are not doing this wrong to your Religion and to your great and many times experienced generosity. I am certain that the charity that moved you to make so many sacrifices in the past will never allow such a happily begun work to remain imperfect.
This hope, besides the goodness of your hearts, also has another firm foundation which rests on the great reward that you all 300 p. 18 seek, and that God assures to works of charity.
God is infinitely rich and of infinite generosity. As a rich man he can give us a wide guider for everything he did for his sake; as a father of infinite generosity, he pays with every good measure what we do for his love. You, the Gospel says, you will not give a glass of fresh water in my name to one of my least, or to a needy person, without having his wages.
306-308 Mt 10,42.
The beggars, says Dio in the book of Tobia, frees death, 310 purifies soul from sins, finds mercy in God's confusion, and leads us to eternal life. Elemosin is the one who is released: Purged sins, I make you merry and mercy.
Among the great rewards, this too begins that the Divine Savior considers all charity given to the unfortunate to himself. If we saw the Divine Savior walking begging for our squares, knocking at the door of our houses, would there be a Christian who would not generously offer him the last penny of his purse? The Savior is also represented in the person of the poor, the most abandoned. All that, He says, that you will do to the most abject do it to myself. Therefore they are no longer 320 poor children who ask for charity, but it is Jesus in the person of the p. 19 his poor people.
What then shall we say of the exceptional reward that God keeps reserved in the most important and difficult moment in which our fate will be decided with a life either always blessed or always unhappy? When we, o
325 Gentlemen, we will present ourselves to the court of the Supreme Judge to account for the actions of life, the first thing that he will lovingly remind us are not the manufactured houses, the savings made, the glory acquired or the riches procured: of this he will not speak, but only he will say: Come, blessed by my Heavenly Father, come into possession
330 of the kingdom that is prepared for you .. I was hungry, and you in the person of the poor you gave me bread; he was thirsty and you gave me a drink; I was naked, and you dressed me; it was in the middle of a road, and you gave me shelter. Tunc dicet Rex his qui a dextris eius erunt: Come, benedicti patris mei, possidete paratum vobis regnum a constitutione
335 of the world. For I was hungry and you gave me food to eat; I was thirsty, and ye gave me to drink; I was a stranger and you welcomed me; naked and you clothed me (Matt. ch. 25, v. 54-56).
These and more other words the Divine Judge will say as they are recorded in the Gospel: after which he will give them the blessing and lead them to the possession of eternal life.
But God the Father of goodness, knowing that our spirit is ready p. 20 and the very infirm flesh, wants our charity to have a hundredfold even in the present life. In how many ways, O Lord, does God give us the hundredfold of good works on this earth?
309-312 Tob 12,9.
318-319 Mt 25,40.
329-337 Mt 25.34-36.
A hundredfold are the special graces of well living and dying well; they are the fertility of the countryside, the peace and harmony of families, the success of temporal affairs, the health of relatives and friends; conservation, good education of the child. Rewarding Christian charity is the pleasure that everyone feels in his heart in doing a good work. Is it not great consolation when it is reflected that with a small 350 Limousin you help to remove beings harmful to the civil society to make them become profitable men to themselves, to his fellow man, to Religion? Beings that are about to become the scourge of the authorities, the infragers of public laws and go and consume the sweats of others in the prisons, and instead enable them to honor humanity.
In addition to all these rewards that God grants in the present life and in the future, there is still one that the beneficiaries must offer to their 360 benefactors. Yes, gentlemen, we do not want to defraud you of that p. 21 that we are all in our power. - Listen:
All the priests, the clerics, all the young people gathered and educated in the houses of the Salesian Congregation and more especially those of the Patronage of St. Peter, will raise morning and evening particular prays for their benefactors. Morning and evening your beneficiaries with special prayers will invoke the divine blessings upon you, on your families, on your relatives, on your friends. They will beg God that you keep peace and harmony in your families, grant you stable health and a happy life, from you keep misfortunes away from you both in spiritual things and in temporal things, and to all this add perseverance in the good, and; at the latest that God will please, your days be crowned with a holy death. If then in the course of mortal life, gentlemen, we will have the good fortune to meet you in the streets of the city or in any other place, oh yes then 375 we will remember with joy the benefits received and respectful we will discover our heads as a sign of indelible gratitude on earth, while compassionate God will grant you the reward of the righteous in Heaven. Centuplum accipietis et vitam aeternam possidebitis.
378-379 Mt 19,29.
380 After the sermon of opportunity, some listeners spontaneously judged to make a collection that was copious beyond the expectation. There were very few people for the narrowness of the place, almost all of the usual benefactors, so that it was judged appropriate to not even recommend the alms. However it turned out to be Fr. 22 385 about one thousand five hundred francs.
After the sacred function, a room was visited where objects for a small lottery were displayed on some tables in favor of the youngsters of the Patronato. The rumor spreading that the lottery had to be used to buy bread for the youngsters of the Patronato, there was a noteworthy sale of tickets.
So we had more reason to thank our praiseworthy listeners and to be ever more grateful to the divine goodness, which in so many ways and at every moment brings us new arguments to praise and bless it now and for all ages.
Several times I was asked to express some thoughts verbally or in writing about the so-called preventive system that is usually used in our homes. Because of lack of time I have not been able so far
400 to satisfy this desire, and presently I give a nod here, which I hope is like the index of what I have in mind to publish in a specially prepared operetta, if God will give me so much life to be able to carry it out, and this only to benefit the difficult art of youth education. I will therefore say: what the 405 Preventive System consists of, and why it should be preferred: its practical application, and its advantages.
There are two systems used at all times in the education of the
410 youth: Preventive and Repressive. The Repressive system consists in allowing the subjects to collect the law, and then to monitor them to know the p. 24 transgressors and inflict, where appropriate, a well-deserved punishment. In this system the words and the appearance of the Superior must be severe, and rather threatening, and he himself must avoid every familiarity 415 with the employees.
To increase the value of his authority, the Director must seldom be among his subjects and mostly when it comes to punishing or threatening. This system is easy, less tiring and it is especially useful in the militia and in general between adult and sensible people, who must by themselves be able to know and remember what is compliant with the laws and regulations.
The Preventive system is different and I would say the opposite. It consists in making known the prescriptions and regulations of an Institute and then supervising in such a way that the pupils always have the watchful eye of the Director or of the assistants above them, that as amorous fathers they speak, 425 serve as a guide to any eventuality, they give advice and lovingly correct, which is to say: to put the students in the impossibility of committing shortcomings.
This system rests entirely on reason, religion, and above kindness; therefore he excludes every violent punishment and tries to keep away the same light chastisements. It seems that this is preferable for the following reasons:
p. 25 I. The student notified in advance will not be discouraged by the failures committed, as happens when they are referred to the Superior. Nor is he ever angered by the correction made or by the punished or inflicted punishment, because in it there is always a friendly and preventive warning that reasons him, and for the most part manages to win the heart, so that the pupil knows the necessity of punishment and almost desires it.
II. The most essential reason is youth mobility, which in a moment forgets the disciplinary rules, the punishments that they threaten: therefore often a child becomes guilty and worthy of a penalty, to which he has never paid attention, which nothing at all remembered in the the act of the foul committed and which would certainly have avoided if a friendly voice had warned him. 445
III. The Repressive system can prevent a disorder, but it will hardly make criminals better; and it has been observed that the youngsters do not forget the chastisements suffered, and for the most part they retain bitterness with the desire to shake the yoke and also to take revenge on them. It seems sometimes that they do not care, but whoever keeps up with their progress knows that the reminiscences of youth are terrible; and that they easily forget
the punishments of the parents, but very rarely those of the educators. There are facts of some that in old age ugly revenged certain punishments rightly touched in time of their education. On p. 26 455 contrary, the Preventive system makes the pupil a friend, who in the assistant sees a benefactor who warns him, wants to make him good, free him from sorrows, from punishments, from dishonor.
IV. The Preventive system affirms the pupil in such a way that the educator can still speak with the language of the heart both in terms of education and after it. The educator, having gained the heart of his protégé, will be able to exercise over him a great empire, warn him, advise him and even correct him then that he will find himself in the jobs, in the civil offices and in commerce. For these and many other reasons it seems that the Preventive system should prefer the Repressive.
429-430 and above om B add sl Bb 444 for sure] probably B for certain em infra lin Bb
The practice of this system is entirely supported by the words of St. Paul who says: Charitas benigna est, patiens est; omnia suffert, omnia sperat, omnia sustinet. Charity is benign and patient; he suffers everything, but hopes for everything and supports any disturbance. Therefore only the Christian 470 can successfully apply the Preventive system. Reason and Religion are the tools that the educator must constantly use, teach them, he himself practice them if he wants to be obeyed and get his end.
I. The Director must therefore be all consecrated to his 475 educators, nor ever undertake commitments that distance him from his office, indeed he must always be with his employees whenever they are not necessarily bound by some occupation, except by others. duly assisted.
II. The masters, the chiefs of art, the assistants must be of known morality. The misleading of one can compromise an educational institution. Make sure that the students are never alone. As far as possible the assistants precede them on the site where they are to be collected; keep them with them until they are assisted by others; never leave them unemployed.
466 post on add the charity according to B of the Bb 471 the instruments] the fundamental principles B the instruments em sl Bb
467-469 1 Cor 13.4.7.
p. 28 III. Give yourself ample power to jump, run, cackle at - 485 pleasure. Gymnastics, music, declamation, theater, walks are very effective means of obtaining discipline, benefiting morality and health. It should be noted only that the subject of detention, the persons who intervene, the speeches that take place are not blamable. Do everything you want, said the great friend of youth S. Filippo Neri, it is enough for me not to sin.
IV. The frequent confession, the frequent communion, the daily mass are the columns that must hold up an educational edifice, from which one wants to keep away the threat and the whip. Never bore nor oblige the youngsters to attend the holy sacraments, but offer them the convenience of taking advantage of them. In the cases of spiritual exercises, triduums, novenas, preachings, catechisms, let us point out the beauty, the greatness, the sanctity of that Religion which proposes such easy means, so useful to the civil society, to the tranquility of the heart, to the salvation of the soul as are the holy sacraments. In this way the children remain spontaneously enticed to these practices of piety, they will willingly approach each other (1). •
485 faculty] freedom B 494 that ... hold up] of B who must hold up m mg Bb
497 offer] procure BD 503 post gladly add with pleasure and with fruit B
490-492 "The patience that Philip had with the young, to keep him away from sin, was unspeakable. So he endured the Holy Man, that they would make any noise, even near his rooms; as long as some of the house complained a great deal about their lack of discretion: this being reported one day to the Saint, he replied: let them say, even mock, and be cheerfully, because I do not want anything else from you, except that you do not sin "- Life of St. Philip Neri apostle of Rome and founder of the Congregation of the Oratory already written by Fr. Pier Giacomo Bacci ... Rome Tip. Marini 1837, p. 111 (book II, chapter VII, n. 5). - "Children, be cheerfully: I do not want scruples or melancholy: it is enough for me not to sin" [G. Bosco], Porta teco cristiano ... Turin, Tip. GB Paravia 1858, p. 34 (General memories of S.
504-517 Tradition always identified this minister in Lord Palmerston. On December 20, 1880, Don Bosco, telling this episode to the Marquis Vittorio Scati, began like this: "Lord Palmerston came to see me years later; he arrived at 10 in the morning and stayed here until six in the evening, minutely visiting everything and asking for everything, with that precision and interest that are proper to the English "(Autograph Report, Turin, 24 April 1891; see Bull. Sal. October 1922, p.259). MB XIII 921. But it is legitimate to accept with legitimate skepticism, when one thinks that the relative expansion of the Oratory-hospice coincides with the last years of life and political activity of the great English statesman Lord Henry John Temple Palmerston (1784-1865). To want to risk a hypothesis may seem more plausible than the visit of "a minister of the Queen of England" (Victoria, queen from 1837 to 1901) is that of some "minister in Turin". Among them, for example, is the figure of James Hudson (1810-1885), notoriously considered "more Italian than Italians", who was head of the English legation in Turin from February 1852 until retirement in 1863. - It should also be noted that in his deposition at the Informational Process the Salesian brother Fr. Enria refers the fact to 1875: "Once some English gentlemen came to visit the Oratory ..." (fol. 996r-v). Instead in the chronicle he left the episode is recalled without date indication; this same chronicle testimony is reported in MB VII 556-557 and attributed to 1863.
(1) It is not much time that a minister of the Queen of England visiting a 505 Turin Institute was taken to a spacious hall where about five hundred young people studied. He greatly marveled at the sight of this multitude of children in perfect silence and without assistants. His wonder was even greater when he learned that perhaps during the whole year he had not complained of a word of disturbance, not a reason to inflict or threaten punishment. - How is it possible to get so much yes
510 lenzio and so much discipline? ask: tell me. And you, he added to his secretary, write what he tells you. - Lord, replied the Director of the Establishment, the means used between us cannot be used between you. - Why? - Because they are arcane only revealed to Catholics. - Which? - Frequent confession and communion and daily mass well listened to. - You're right, we lack these powerful means
515 of education. Can't be supplied by other means? - If these elements of religion are not used, threats and a stick must be used. - You are right! you are right! Or religion, or stick, I want to tell it in London. -
V. Use maximum surveillance to prevent p. 29 companions, books or people who do bad talk are introduced. The choice of a good porter is a treasure for a house of education.
YOU. Every evening after the ordinary prayers, and before the students go to rest, the Director, or whoever for it, addresses some affectionate words in public giving some warning, or advice about things to be done or to be avoided; and you are studying to derive the maximum from facts that happened during the day in the Institute or outside; but his speech never goes beyond two or three minutes. This is the key to morality, good performance and Fr. 30 of the success of education.
VII. Let the opinion of someone who wishes to postpone first communion too late, when most of the demon has taken possession of the heart of a young man to untold damage of his innocence, be kept away like the plague. According to the discipline of the early Church they used to give children the consecrated hosts that survived in the Easter communion.
526-527 ma...minuti om B add mgr Bb
This serves to make us know how much the Church loves that children are admitted to Holy Communion in time 535. When a young man knows how to distinguish between bread and bread, and he shows sufficient instruction, he no longer pays attention to age and the Celestial Sovereign comes to reign in that blessed soul.
VIII. The catechisms recommend the frequent communion, 540 s. Filippo Neri recommended it every eight days and even more often. The Council of Tridentine clearly says that it desires that every faithful Christian, when he goes to hear the Holy Mass, will also take communion. But this communion is not only spiritual, but sacramental, so that greater fruit can be gained from this august and divine sacrifice. (Council Trid., Sess. XXII, chap. VI).
539 frequent om B add sl Bb post communion add every fifteen days or once a month B of the Bb
532-534 It seems that this indication is not reflected in other writings of Don Bosco. In these it is, however, frequent the affirmation that "the Christians of the first times went every day to listen to the word of God and every day they approached the holy Communion". G. Bosco, The month of May consecrated to Maria SS. Immaculate for the use of the people ... Turin, Tip. GB Paravia 1858, p. 141, OE X 435; ID., Angelina or the good girl instructed in true devotion to Mary Most Holy. Ibid. 1860, pp. 65-66, OE XIII, 19-20; ID., Dialogues about the establishment of the Jubilee ... Turin, Tip. of the Oratory of S. Francesco di Sales 1865, pp. 76-77, OE XVI, 150-151; ID., Nine days consecrated to the august Mother of the Savior under the title of Mary Help of Christians. Ibid. 1870, p. 50, OE XXII 302. A more explicit reference to children he found in a booklet by Msgr. de Ségur reprinted in V ediz. in the typography of the Oratory: "In the first centuries children like adults were admitted to Communion every day". - The Most Holy Communion for Monsignor de Ségur. Turin, Tip. of the Oratory of S. Francesco di Sales 1875, pp. 53-54.
539 "Is it better to communicate more often? Lord yes, in the major feasts, and more often according to the advice of the Confessor "- Short catechism for children who prepare themselves for confession and first communion. Turin, Canfari 1846, p. 49. "Is communicating often good and useful? It is very good, as long as it is done with dignity. How often can one go to Communion? We cannot rule over this, but each one must regulate himself according to the advice of a wise Director, who has the task of examining the profit that the penitents make of Communion, and their spiritual needs "- Catechism for use by young people already admitted to Communion, and adults. - «How often are we obliged to communicate? At least once a year, that is, at Easter of Resurrection. (...) Is it better to communicate more often? Not only is it good, but one of the best things for every Christian is to receive with the proper dispositions the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ at least every Sunday and Feast of Precept, and also during each week "- [Small Catechism, p. 79] = Compendium of the Christian doctrine for the use of the archdiocese of Turin which contains the small catechism to lay the first Communion and the great catechism ... Turin, Tip. and Libr. of the Oratory of St. Francis of Sales 1875. On the whole problem, see P. STELLA, Don Bosco in the history of Catholic religiosity, vol. II, pp. 299-303 (Campaign for frequent communion), 319-326 (Frequent communion). and also during each week "- [Small Catechism, p. 79] = Compendium of the Christian doctrine for the use of the archdiocese of Turin which contains the small catechism to lay the first Communion and the great catechism ... Turin, Tip. and Libr. of the Oratory of St. Francis of Sales 1875. On the whole problem, see P. STELLA, Don Bosco in the history of Catholic religiosity, vol. II, pp. 299-303 (Campaign for frequent communion), 319-326 (Frequent communion). and also during each week "- [Small Catechism, p. 79] = Compendium of the Christian doctrine for the use of the archdiocese of Turin which contains the small catechism to lay the first Communion and the great catechism ... Turin, Tip. and Libr. of the Oratory of St. Francis of Sales 1875. On the whole problem, see P. STELLA, Don Bosco in the history of Catholic religiosity, vol. II, pp. 299-303 (Campaign for frequent communion), 319-326 (Frequent communion). Don Bosco in the history of Catholic religiosity, vol. II, pp. 299-303 (Campaign for frequent communion), 319-326 (Frequent communion). Don Bosco in the history of Catholic religiosity, vol. II, pp. 299-303 (Campaign for frequent communion), 319-326 (Frequent communion).
539-540 "He also wanted that not only the Priests, but still the laity attended this Sacrament: for which some of his penitents communicated themselves every eight days, many every feast, others three times a week, and some, though few, every day: many of whom with this frequency became men of holy life, and of great perfection "- Life of St. Philip Neri ... written already by Fr. Pier Giacomo Bacci ..., p. 81 (book II, chapter I, n. 9). - «Between us there is no command to approach these holy sacraments; and this to let everyone approach you freely for love and never for fear. This was very advantageous, as we see many intervening every fifteen or eight days, and some, in the midst of their daily occupations, do their Communion exemplary even every day. Communion only had to be done daily by early Christians; the Catholic Church in the Tridentine Council inculcates that every Christian when he goes to listen to the s. Mass make Holy Communion. However, I advise all the youth of the Oratory to do what the Catechism of the diocese says, that is: it is good to go to confession every fortnight or once a month. St. Philip Neri, that great friend of the youth, advised his spiritual sons to go to confession every eight days, and communicate even more often according to the council of the confessor "- Regulations of the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales for the exteriors. Turin, Salesian Typography 1877, pp. 36-37 (Second part, chap. VII. Confession and Communion, nos. 2 and 3), OE XXIX 66-67. the Catholic Church in the Tridentine Council inculcates that every Christian when he goes to listen to the s. Mass make Holy Communion. However, I advise all the youth of the Oratory to do what the Catechism of the diocese says, that is: it is good to go to confession every fortnight or once a month. St. Philip Neri, that great friend of the youth, advised his spiritual sons to go to confession every eight days, and communicate even more often according to the council of the confessor "- Regulations of the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales for the exteriors. Turin, Salesian Typography 1877, pp. 36-37 (Second part, chap. VII. Confession and Communion, nos. 2 and 3), OE XXIX 66-67. the Catholic Church in the Tridentine Council inculcates that every Christian when he goes to listen to the s. Mass make Holy Communion. However, I advise all the youth of the Oratory to do what the Catechism of the diocese says, that is: it is good to go to confession every fortnight or once a month. St. Philip Neri, that great friend of the youth, advised his spiritual sons to go to confession every eight days, and communicate even more often according to the council of the confessor "- Regulations of the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales for the exteriors. Turin, Salesian Typography 1877, pp. 36-37 (Second part, chap. VII. Confession and Communion, nos. 2 and 3), OE XXIX 66-67. Oratory to do what the Catechism of the diocese says, that is: it is good to go to confession every fortnight or once a month. St. Philip Neri, that great friend of the youth, advised his spiritual sons to go to confession every eight days, and communicate even more often according to the council of the confessor "- Regulations of the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales for the exteriors. Turin, Salesian Typography 1877, pp. 36-37 (Second part, chap. VII. Confession and Communion, nos. 2 and 3), OE XXIX 66-67. Oratory to do what the Catechism of the diocese says, that is: it is good to go to confession every fortnight or once a month. St. Philip Neri, that great friend of the youth, advised his spiritual sons to go to confession every eight days, and communicate even more often according to the council of the confessor "- Regulations of the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales for the exteriors. Turin, Salesian Typography 1877, pp. 36-37 (Second part, chap. VII. Confession and Communion, nos. 2 and 3), OE XXIX 66-67. Francesco di Sales for the exteriors. Turin, Salesian Typography 1877, pp. 36-37 (Second part, chap. VII. Confession and Communion, nos. 2 and 3), OE XXIX 66-67. Francesco di Sales for the exteriors. Turin, Salesian Typography 1877, pp. 36-37 (Second part, chap. VII. Confession and Communion, nos. 2 and 3), OE XXIX 66-67.
541 says clearly] we learn B says clear em sl Bb 545 (Council ... VI) om BD add Db
540-545 "opt for the Council sent to every faithful present not only in spiritual desire but also by sacramental reception of the Eucharist, which would have accrued to them santissimi the offering richer fruit" - Seas. 22 (15 Sept. 1562), Doctrine and Canons moreover, the head 6. "Il sacrosanto desire of the Council grandemente, che tutti i fedeli che vanno to ascoltare la Santa harvested facciano la Santa communion soil is rich il frutto che sia piu spiritualmente MA sacramentalmente affinché pessi possono ricavare give this SS. Sacrifice ". Session. 22, chap. 6 - G. Bosco of Life 'sommi pontefici St. Anacleto S. Evaristo S. Alessandro 1 ... Torino, Tip. di GB Teubner, 1857, p. 26, and OE 9, 470; Id., The New giomi consacrati all'augusta Madre del Salvatore ..., p. 51, and OE 22 303. - "The Council of Trent, invoking the testimony of all Christian centuries, and of the Fathers of the Church, expresses very much the desire that all the faithful assistants at Holy Mass should be communicated to it every day, not only spiritually, but also sacramentally, because bring back more abundant fruit from this most holy Sacrifice (Sess. XXII, c. VI) "- The Most Holy Communion for Monsignor de Ségur ..., p. 8. See also Two hidden joys for Giuseppe Frassinetti. Turin, Tip. of the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales 1864, p. 7. because they bear more abundant fruit from this most holy Sacrifice (Sess. XXII, c. VI) "- The Most Holy Communion for Monsignor de Ségur ..., p. 8. See also Two hidden joys for Giuseppe Frassinetti. Turin, Tip. of the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales 1864, p. 7. because they bear more abundant fruit from this most holy Sacrifice (Sess. XXII, c. VI) "- The Most Holy Communion for Monsignor de Ségur ..., p. 8. See also Two hidden joys for Giuseppe Frassinetti. Turin, Tip. of the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales 1864, p. 7.
Some will say that this system is difficult in practice. I note that it is much easier, more satisfying, more advantageous for the students. On the other hand, educators have some difficulties, but they are lessened if the educator is zealously committed to his work. The educator is an individual consecrated to the good of his students, he must be ready to face every ailment, every effort to achieve his goal, which is the civil, moral, scientific education of his students.
In addition to the advantages described above, it is added here that: 555
I. The student will always be a friend of the educator and will remember with pleasure the direction he has had, still considering his teachers and other superiors as fathers and brothers. Where these students go mostly are the consolation of the family, useful citizens and good Christians. 560
II. Whatever the character, the nature, the moral status of a pupil at the time of his acceptance, relatives can live safely, that their child will not get worse, and it can be given for sure that there will always be some improvement. Indeed some children who for a long time p. 32 time I was the scourge of the relatives and even refused by the 565 correctional houses, cultivated according to these principles, they changed their nature, their character, they gave themselves to a life of custom, and at present they occupy honorable offices in society, thus becoming the support of the family , decorum of the country in which they reside.
III. Pupils who accidentally entered an Institute with sad 570 habits cannot harm their companions. Nor can the good youngsters receive harm from them, because there is no time, place or opportunity, because the assistant, whom we suppose to be present, would soon remedy us.
A word about chastisements. 575
What rule to keep in inflicting punishments? Wherever possible, punishment is never used; where the need then demanded repression, consider the following:
555 Beyond ... that om B add mrg Bb 562 safe] quiet B safe em sl Bb 570-573 III ... opportunity om B add mgr Bb 573-574 because ... remedy om B add Bb 577 post cast add in education B of the Bb
I. The educator among the students tries to make himself loved, if he wants to make himself a mere. In this case the subtraction of benevolence is a punishment, but a punishment that excites emulation, gives courage and never discourages.
II. The young men are punished by what they are used for - p. 33 punishment. It has been observed that an unloving look over some produces more effect than a slap. Praise when a thing is well done, blame, when there is neglect, is already a reward or a punishment.
III. Except for very rare cases, the corrections, the chastisements are never given in public, but privately, far from the companions, and maximum prudence and patience are used to make the pupil understand his wrong 590 with reason and religion.
IV. The Director makes the rules, prizes and punishments established by the laws of discipline well known, so that the student cannot excuse himself by saying: He did not know that this was forbidden.
The Institutes that will put this system into practice, I believe that 595 will be able to obtain great advantages without coming either to the whip or to other violent chastisements. For about forty years I have drawn with the youth, and I do not remember having used any kind of punishment, and with the help of God I have always obtained not only what was due, but also what I simply wanted, and this from those same children , which seemed to have lost the hope of success.
INDEX OF MATERIALS p. 34
INAUGURATION of the Patronage of St. Peter pag. 3
Speech by Rev. D. Bosco »6
605 Purpose of the Institute »13
580 la] un BD la em sl Db 591-593 IV ... forbidden om B add mrg Bb 593 prohibited] commanded or forbidden Bb
579-580 Cf. P. BRAIDO, The "preventive system" in a "decalogue" for educators, in RSS 4 (1985) 138-142 (Love and fear in the educational process) (see below, pp. 273-276) .
THE PREVENTIVE SYSTEM
IN THE EDUCATION OF YOUTH.
I. In what the Preventive System consists, and why should it be preferred »23 610
II. Application of the Preventive System »27
III. Usefulness of the Preventive System »31
A word about punishments» 32
5, there is nothing stands in the way.
Paris, 3 August 1877.
Joseph Zappata Vic. Gen.
2. Doc. R - printed text prefixed to the Regulations for the houses of the Society of St. Francis de Sales. Turin, Salesian Typography 1877.
C = extender of the manuscript text
C2 = interventions on the text of the same extensor
Cb = interventions of Don Bosco on the text C C2
Cc = other editor
Cc '= modifications of the Cc to his initial text
H = text of the separate Italian edition of 1877 (published in this volume)
L = ms additions of Don Gioachino Berto to chap. A word about chastisements in a copy of the separate Italian edition of 1877 For a new edition
M = text printed in BS 4 (1880) n. 9, Sept., pp. 7-9
Several times I was asked to express some thoughts verbally or in writing about the so-called preventive system, which is usually used in our homes. For lack of time I have not been able to satisfy this desire so far, and presently wanting to print the regulation that up until now has almost always traditionally been used, I think it appropriate to give a hint here but it will be like the index of an operetta that I am preparing if God gives me it will give so much of life that it can be destroyed, and this solely to benefit the difficult art of youth education.
6-8 wanting ... it will be] I give a nod here, which I hope C will give here a hint, which I hope is to be C2 wanting to print the Regulation that until now has almost always traditionally been used, I think it appropriate to give a nod here . I hope this is add mrg
Cb 8 add post what I plan to publish in C of Cb 9 that I pre
parando] specially prepared C that I am preparing em sl Cb 9-10 to be able to
terminate] to be able to perform C to be able to terminate torr Cb
1-13 The system ... advantages] History of the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales Head XXI ... Preventive system - Its application - Its advantages - A word on the punishments ... Finally he wrote briefly, demonstrating in which consist of the two preventive and repressive systems, citing the reasons why the former is to be preferred, teaching its practical application, and revealing its great advantages. This very useful writing already saw the light in the Regulations for Salesian Houses; and we believe that we are pleased with our readers to reproduce it by their norm and government. M pp. 6-7 6-9 wanting ... preparing] I give a hint here, which I hope is like the index of what I plan to publish in a specially prepared operetta, H 9-10 terminate] perform H
I will therefore say: What is the Preventive System, and why should it be preferred: Its practical application, and its advantages.
There are two systems in every age used in youth education: Preventive and Repressive. The Repressive system consists in letting the subjects know the law, then supervising in order to know the transgressors and inflict, where appropriate, the deserved punishment. On this system the words and appearance of the Superior must always be true, and rather threatening, and he himself must avoid any familiarity with the employees.
To increase the value of his authority, the Director must seldom be among his subjects and mostly only when it comes to punishing or threatening. This system is easy, less tiring and especially beneficial in the militia and in general among adult and sensible people, who must themselves be able to know and remember what is in conformity with the laws and other prescriptions.
The Preventive system is different and I would say the opposite. It consists in making known the prescriptions and regulations of an Institute and then supervising it in such a way that the pupils always have the watchful eye of the Director or of the assistants, who, as amorous fathers, speak, serve as a guide to "every event, give advice and lovingly correct, which is to say: put the students in the impossibility of committing shortcomings. 35
This system rests entirely on reason, religion, and above kindness; therefore he excludes every violent punishment and tries to keep away the same light punishments. It seems that this is preferable for the following reasons:
p.5- I. The student notified in advance will not be discouraged by the 40 shortcomings committed, as happens when they are referred to the Superior. Nor is he ever angered by the correction made or by the punishment threatened or inflicted, because in it there is always a friendly and preventive warning that reasons him, and for the most part he succeeds in gaining his heart, so that the pupil knows the necessity of punishment and almost want it.
37 above m M 42 Neither never] The young man not a warning M 43] a word M 44 and preventive m M earn] persuade him and earn him M
II. The most essential reason is youth mobility, which in a moment forgets the disciplinary rules, the punishments that they threaten. Therefore often a child becomes guilty and deserving of a penalty, to which he has never paid attention, which nothing at all remembered in the act of the phallus committed and which would certainly have avoided if a friendly voice had warned him.
III. The Repressive system can prevent a disorder, but it will hardly make criminals better; and it has been observed that the young men do not forget the chastisements suffered, and for the most part they retain bitterness with the desire to shake the yoke and also to take revenge on them. It seems sometimes that they do not care, but whoever keeps up with their progress knows that the reminiscences of youth are terrible; and that they easily forget the punishments of the parents, but very hardly those of the 60 educators. There are facts of some that in old age ugly revenged certain punishments rightly touched in time of their education. On the opposite 6 the Preventive system makes the pupil a friend, who in the assistant sees a benefactor who warns him, wants to make him good, free him from sorrows, from punishments, from dishonor.
65 IV. The Preventive system warns the student so that the educator can still speak with the language of the heart both in time of education and after it. The educator, having gained the heart of his protégé, will be able to exercise over him a great empire, to warn him, to advise him and also to correct him then, which will also be found in the jobs, in the civil offices and in commerce. For these and many other reasons it seems that the preventive system must prevail over the repressive.
45 the pupil] the culprit M 51 foul] made C foul em sl Cb
49 is guilty] he becomes a transgressor of a rule M 50-51 which ... avoided] to which at the moment of the point action he did not care, and would have certainly otherwise worked M 54 the delinquents] souls M 65 warns ] trafficking M makes you fond H 66 still talking] always talk to him M 67 The educator, earned] With such a system the educator earning M 71 prevail] to prefer MH
The practice of this system is entirely based on the words of s. Paul who says: Charitas benign east, patiens east; omnia suffert, 75 omnia sperat, omnia sustinet. Charity is benign and patient; he suffers everything, but hopes for everything and supports any disturbance. Therefore only the Christian can successfully apply the preventive system. Reason and Religion are the tools that the educator must constantly use, teach them, he himself must practice them if he wants to be obeyed and achieve his goal.
P. 7 I. The Director must therefore be consecrated to his students, and never take on commitments that distance him from his office, indeed he must always be with his pupils whenever they are not necessarily bound by some occupation, except that they are from others duly - 85 assisted.
II The masters, the chiefs of art, the assistants must be of known morality. Try to avoid every kind of affection or special friendship with the students like the plague, and remember that the misleading of one can compromise an educational institution. Let students be never alone. As far as possible the assistants precede them on the site where they are to be collected; keep them with them until they are assisted by others; never leave them unemployed.
III. Give yourself ample freedom to jump, run, cackle at will. Gymnastics, music, declamation, theater, walks are very effective means of obtaining discipline, benefiting morality and health.
84 pupils] employees C students em sl Cb 88-89 They study ... that they try to avoid every kind of affection and particular friendships with the students like the plague, and remember that add mrg Cb
73 II. Application ... Quotation] After this, Don Bosco goes on to say about its application and continues like this: M 76 post sustinet add and also above these others addressed to the parents: Fathers, do not provoke your children to anger, lest they be lost 'anima lin subd M 76-77 Charity ... trouble om M 80 teach them ... and] if you want M 81 post fine add So here are the main rules of application of the aforementioned system M 84 students] employees H 87 the heads of 'art om M 88-89 Studino ... that om H 93 assisted] supervised M 94 post unemployed add even in recreation time M 95 freedom] faculty H
It should be noted only that the subject of detention, the people who intervene, the speeches that take place 100 are not blamable. Do whatever you want, said the great friend of youth s. Filippo Neri, it's enough for me not to sin.
IV. The frequent confession, the frequent communion, the mass p. On a daily basis, I columns must hold up to a polite edifice, from which one wants to keep away the threat and the whip. Never oblige the youngsters to attend to the holy sacraments, but only encourage them and offer them comfort to take advantage of them. In the cases of spiritual exercises, novenas, preaching, catechisms, let us highlight the beauty, the greatness, the sanctity of that Religion which proposes 110 such easy means, so useful to the civil society, to the tranquility of the heart, to the salvation of the soul , just as the holy sacraments are. In this way the children remain spontaneously enticed to these practices of piety, they will gladly approach you with pleasure and fruit (1).
115 (1) It is not much time that a minister of the Queen of England visiting a Turin Institute was taken to a spacious hall where about five hundred young people studied. He greatly marveled at the sight of this multitude of children in perfect silence and without assistants. His wonder was even greater when he learned that perhaps during the whole year he had not complained of a word of disturbance, not a reason to inflict or threaten a punishment. - How is it possible to get so much silence and discipline? ask: tell me. And you, he added to his secretary, write what he tells you. - Lord, replied the Director of the Establishment, the means used between us, cannot be used among you. - Why? - Because they are arcane only revealed to Catholics. - Which? - The frequent confession and communion and the mass are well listened to. - You're right, we lack these powerful means of education. Can't be supplied by other means? - If these elements of religion are not used, threats and a stick must be used. - You are right! you are right! Or religion, or stick, I want to tell it in London.
99 the speeches] the people C the speeches em mrg C '105-106 ante oblige add an noiare neither C 106-107 only to encourage them om C 107 offer] procure C
98-100 that ... blameworthy) that the subject of detention is well chosen, the people who intervene are honest and not dangerous, and the speeches that take place there are not to blame M 103-104 the daily mass om M 105- 106 oblige] to annoy or compel H to compel M 106-107 only to encourage them and om H 109 proposes] presents M 113-114 with pleasure and with fruit om H with conviction M 115-128 It is not ... London om M
V. Use maximum surveillance to prevent the introduction of comrades, books or people who have been wrong in the past. The choice of a good porter is a treasure for a house of education.
YOU. Every evening after the ordinary prayers, and before the students go to rest, the Director, or whoever for it, addresses some affectionate words in public giving some warning, or advice about things to be done or to be avoided; and you are studying to derive the maximum from facts that happened during the day in the Institute or outside; but his sermon never goes beyond two or three minutes. This is the key to morality, good progress and good education.
VII. The opinion of some who want to postpone the first communion to an age too late, when most of the demon has taken possession of the heart of a young man to incalculable damage of his innocence, should be kept away like the plague. According to the discipline of the early Church they used to give children the consecrated hosts that survived in the Easter communion. This serves to make us know how much the Church loves that children are admitted for time p. 10 to Holy Communion. When a young man knows how to distinguish between bread and bread, and shows sufficient education, he no longer pays attention to age and the Celestial Sovereign comes to reign in that blessed soul.
VIII. The catechisms recommend the frequent communion, s. Fi-150 lippo Neri recommended it every eight days and even more often. The Council of Tridentine clearly says that it desires that every faithful Christian, when he goes to hear the Holy Mass, will also take communion. But this communion is not only spiritual, but rather sacramental, so that greater fruit can be gained from this august and divine sacrifice. (Council Trid., Sess. XXII, chap. VI).
137 sermon] talk C sermoncino em sl Cb 142 post has add sl already Cb 156 (Council ... VI) om C
130-131 let them be ... speeches] bad companions and books are introduced, or people who make bad speeches M 133 ordinary prayers] common prayers M 137 sermo ne] talk H speech M 137-138 never the two or three] i five M 138 This] This well-conducted sermon is like M of the good course om M 140 far away like the plague 1 'distant the pestiferous M 145 in the paschal communion] from the Communion of adults M 154 Ma ... sia om M 156 (Council ... VI) om M
Some will say that this system is difficult in practice. I observe that it is much easier, more satisfying, more advantageous for the students. On the other hand, educators have some difficulties, but they are lessened if the educator zealously places himself in his work. The educator is an individual consecrated to the good of his students, therefore he must be ready to face every ailment, every effort to achieve his goal, which is the civil, moral, scientific education of his students.
In addition to the advantages described above, it is added here that:
I. The student will always be full of respect towards the educator and rep. 11 will be pleased with his direction, considering his teachers and other superiors as fathers and brothers. Where these students go, most are the consolation of the family, useful citizens and good Christians.
II. Whatever the character, the character, the moral state of a pupil at the time of his acceptance, relatives can live safely, that their child will not get worse, and it can be given for sure that he will always get some improvement. Indeed certain children who for a long time were the scourge of relatives and even refused by correctional houses, cultivated according to these principles, changed character, character, gave themselves to a life of custom, and presently occupy honored offices in society, thus becoming the support of family, decoration of the 180 country in which they live.
III. Students who enter the Institute with sad habits by adventure cannot harm their companions. Nor can the good youngsters receive harm from them, because there is no time, place, or opportunity, because the assistant, whom we suppose is present, would soon remedy us.
158 I note that om C 167 full ... towards 1 '] the friend of the C full of respect towards the em sl Cb 185 remedy] impediment C
157 Usefulness of the system Estimate] The usefulness of this system of education cannot escape the consideration of a sensible person; however, to better end it, Don Bosco continues: M p. 8 166 here that] the following M 167 full of respect towards 1] the friend of the H 169-171 Where ... Christians om M 172-173 pupil] young man M 175-176 for ... de '] were the desolation of the M 177s these principles] the principles of this system M ante character add mutated M 179-180 become ... abide] and are the support of the family and the decorum of the country M 184-185 because ... remedy] for always be lovingly cared for and protected M
p. 12 A word about chastisements.
What rule to keep in inflicting punishments? Wherever possible, punishment is never used; then where the need calls for repression, consider the following:
I. The educator among the students tries to make himself loved, if he wants to make himself a lie. In this case the subtraction of benevolence is a punishment, but a punishment that excites emulation, gives courage and never discourages.
II. The punishment is punished by the youngsters. It has been observed that an unloving look over some produces greater effect than a slap would do. Praise when a thing is well done, blame, when there is neglect, is already a reward or a punishment.
III. Except for very rare cases, corrections, punishments are never given in public, but privately, far from the companions, and maximum prudence and patience are used to make the pupil understand his wrong 200 with reason and religion.
IV The striking in any way, putting on one's knees with a painful position, pulling ears and other similar punishments must absolutely be avoided, because they are forbidden by civil laws, greatly irritate the young and discourage the educator. 205
p. 13 V. The Director makes the rules, prizes and punishments established by the laws well known to the discipline, so that the pupil cannot excuse himself by saying: He did not know that this was commanded or forbidden.
202-205 IV. The striking ... educatore add mrg inf Cc 204 are ... civilians om C them while Cc are forbidden by the civil laws em mrg inf Cb 207 laws of discipline] its disciplinary laws C
186 A word about punishments] Don Bosco concludes his little treatise with a word about chastisements: M p. 8 193-194 punishment] such M 195 would not do om H 195-197 when ... punishment] for a beautiful action, the blame for a guilty negligence, can optimally serve as a reward or punishment privately, far from the companions , and use] privately and far from the eyes of comrades. Then use M 202-205 IV. The striking ... The educator om H The giving of rude titles, the striking in any way, putting on his knees with painful posture, pulling ears and other similar acts, must absolutely be avoided because they are forbidden by civil laws, greatly irritate the young, and discourage the educator himself LM 206 V.] IV. H 207 read] rules M 208 commanded or om H post prohibited add VI. Before D' to inflict any punishment it is observed which degree of guilt is found in the pupil, and where the admonition is not enough the reproach is not used, and where this is sufficient, one does not proceed further. VII. Neither in words nor in deeds do you ever punish yourself when the soul is agitated; never for faults of simple inadvertence; never too often LM 209-215 If ... successful om M 209 If ... will put] The Institutes that will put H 216 Sac. Gio. Bosco om HM will put] The Institutes that will put H 216 Sac. Gio. Bosco om HM will put] The Institutes that will put H 216 Sac. Gio. Bosco om HM
If this system is put into practice in our homes, I believe that we will be able to obtain great advantages without coming to the whip or to other violent chastisements. For about forty years I have drawn with the youth, and I do not remember having used any kind of punishment, and with the help of God I have always obtained not only what was due, but also what I simply wanted, and this from those same children , which seemed to Juta the hope of success.
Sac. Gio. Bosco
209 If ... it will put] The institutes that will put C If in our homes we will put corr Cb 213 post but add sl often Cb
Don Bosco, a militant educator, has repeatedly found himself in the opportunity or need to reflect and translate into theoretical statements significant traits of his experience among young people. Sometimes they are institutional tasks that induce him to clarify to himself and the immediate collaborators the specific features of the whole "system" practiced, as happens in the composition of the Memoirs of the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales and, ultimately, beyond the occasional reason and advertising, in the drafting of the pages on The Preventive System in Youth Education. At other times the reflections are translated into norms of action of an orientative and regulatory nature: thus confidential reminders to directors and Regulations (for exteriors and for houses).
A brief "decalogue" drawn up in the first half of 1877 and published in the autumn of the same year can also be placed among the normative and guidance documents.
The examination of the tiny composition can take place in a completely autonomous form with respect to the Regulations for houses, of which it ends up appearing as a kind of introduction and can be of particular interest for several reasons. It dates back to one year, 1877, exceptionally fruitful in the "legislative" activity of Don Bosco: General Chapter of the Salesian Congregation to be summoned to Lanzo next September 1877, Salesian Cooperators that is a practical way to benefit good society and civil society (1877), Inauguration of the patronage of St. Peter in Nice by the sea. Purpose of the same exposed by the Priest Giovanni Bosco with appendix on the preventive system in the education of the youth, Work of Maria Ausiliatrice for the vocations to the Ecclesiastical State erected in the Hospice of S. Vincenzo de '
"Cf. OE 28 313-336, 339-378, 380-446; 29: 1-28; 31-94, 97-196, 199-288.
Finally, the content and the ideal and practical meaning go beyond the original destination and location, revealing themselves transferable to the entire educational universe: the short text, in fact, is not only an echo of Don Bosco's personal intuitions but also of a substantial institutional and collective experience among young people of various backgrounds reaching a considerable degree of maturity and credibility.
Stuck between two "pedagogical" documents in themselves concluded and self-sufficient, the pages on the preventive system and the Rules for houses, the brief "decalogue" was considered in different contexts or proem to the Regulation or additional section of the famous booklet. It is true that Don Bosco himself seems to solve the problem when in article 10 of the definitive drafting he declares: «These are the preliminary articles of our Regulations. But everyone needs patience, diligence, and a lot of prayer without which I believe any good regulation is useless ". Moreover, in the upper margin of the manuscript (doc. B) he adds the indication: For the pag. la del Reg.to.
However, in the first handwritten editorial, consisting of 8 points (there are 1 and 10, added in the second), there is no such caption. In the printed tradition, then, there are some ambiguities, which have favored both interpretations.
A first indication is implicit in the autumn edition of 1877. In the Index of the booklet entitled Regulations for the Houses of the Society of St. Francis of Sales' the General Articles are put in relation with the pages on the preventive system rather than with text of the Regulation.
THE PREVENTIVE SYSTEM IN THE EDUCATION OF YOUTH
I. What is the Preventive System and why should it be preferred pag. 3
II. Application of the Preventive System »6
III. Usefulness of the Preventive System »10
A word about punishments» 12
General articles »15
2 Cf. OE 29 195-196.
CHAPTER I. The Director pag. 19
- II. Of the Prefect »20
- III. Catechist »25
- IV. Craftsman Catechist »29
- V. School Adviser» 31
- VI. Of the School Masters "33
- VII. Of the Master of Art »35
- VIII. School and study assistants »36
- IX. Of the
Assistant to the laboratories »38 - X. Assistants or Heads of dormitory» 40
- XI. Dispenser »42
- XII. Of the Coadjutors »there
- XIII. Del Cuoco and the kitchen helpers »45
- XIV. Dei Camerieri »46
- XV. Del Portinaio »47
- XVI. Del Teatrino »50
Adapted Matter» there
Things to be excluded »51
Duties of the Chief of the Theater» 53
- XVII. Regulation for the infirmary »55
FOR THE HOUSES
OF THE CONGREGATION OF ST. FRANCIS DE SALES
CHAPTER I. Scfípo of the Houses of the Congregation of
St. Francis de Sales pag. 56
- II. Acceptance »60
- III. Of piety »63
- IV. Contegno in church »64
- V. Del lavoro» 68
- VI. Contegno in school and study »70
- VII. Contegno in the laboratories »73
- VIII. Support towards superiors »75
- IX. Contegno towards his companions "77
- X. Of modesty" 78
- XI. Cleaning »80
- XII. Contegno in the house regime »81
- XIII. Contegno outside the house »83
- XIV. Of the walk »86
- XV. Contegno in the theater »ivi
- XVI. Strictly forbidden things in the house »88
Three evils to be avoided» 89
General rules pag. 91
Parts of the letter "93
Course of the letter and form of the letter" 95
In the text, instead, the General Articles appear to be clearly detached from the pages on the preventive system and constitute the preface to the Regulation.3
This second provision persists in all editions and reprints of the House Regulations of the Society of St. Francis of Sales.
However, at least the editions of 1893 4 and 1899 differ. The Index of the file of 1893 - shows only the Part One. Particular regulation of the text of 1877 - concludes the indications on the "preventive system" with A word on the chastisements (in italics). The title GENERAL ITEMS follows in uppercase and below with a good interline the title is still capitalized PARTICULAR REGULATION, as if to denote two distinct and separate topics. In the text we have the following succession: The preventive system in the education of youth (pp. 5-15), General articles (pp. 17-19), Part One. Special regulations (in capital letters) (p. 21).
The Index of the complete edition of the Regulation edited in 1899 includes, as in the text, titles arranged as follows: Part I. Preventive System and particular Offices - The preventive system in the education of youth (pp. 5-16) - General articles ( pp. 17-19) - Particular Uffizi (p. 20ss) - Part II. General regulation (p. 67ss.). In the Index Part I. Preventive System and Particular Uffizi appears divided into two titles highlighted with identical upper-case characters: PREVENTIVE SYSTEM and SPECIAL OFFICES, and the General Articles are listed under the first one.
1 Turin, Salesian Typography 1877, 100 p. Similarly, in his Notes on Sacred Pedagogy, lithographed (1903), Don Giulio Barberis reproposes the text of The Preventive System in Youth Education and, divided with a blank page, that of the General Articles premised on the regulation of houses (pp. 235 -237). The methods of edition of the two texts adopted by P. RICALDONE, Don Bosco educator are identical. Colle Don Bosco (Asti), Libreria Doctrina Cristiana 1952, respectively pp. 499-507 and 509-511.
2 Regulations for the houses of the Society of St. Francis de Sales. S. Benigno Canavese, Salesian Typography 1893, 62 p.
3 Regulations for the houses of the Pious Society of St. Francis de Sales. S. Benigno Canavese, Salesian Printing School 1899, 112 p.
On this line an even more accentuated autonomy, according to the indication of the original Index, is guaranteed to the General Articles in a printed tradition that begins from 1906. They are strictly connected to the pages on the preventive system and separated by the Regulations for the Houses of the Pious Society of Saint Francis of Sales. '
This Regulation is divided into three parts: Part I. Religious life. Part II. Salesian educational system and special offices. Part III. Regulation for pupils. Part II is divided into two sections: the second reproduces the first part of the Regulation of 1877; the original Title Special regulation has changed in particular Offices; the first, instead, with the title The preventive system in the education of youth brings together old and new subjects, distributed in 6 chapters: the first 4 correspond to the four original titles of the writing on the preventive system and indicate at the end the author: Sac. Giovanni Bosco; Chapter V integrally shows the 10 general articles (here from 288 to 297); the VI Education is divided into 5 subtitles: a) Moral education (art. 298-326); b) Religious education (art. 327-344); c) Vocation (art. 345-351); d) Intellectual education (art. 352-367); e) Physical education (art. 368381). It is clear the intention of those who prepared the text of the new Regulation to consider cumulatively the entire first section of the second part as the theoretical-pedagogical basis of the actual Regulation of 1877. The third part includes the second of the text of 1877.
The XI General Chapter of 1910 proposed a re-elaboration of the set of regulations, which will be sanctioned by the XII General Chapter of 1922 and will arrive at the official text of the Regulations of the Salesian Society, promulgated in 1924. ' In it the separation between the General Articles and the proposed regulatory articles is even clearer than in 1906. In fact, the Regulation for houses, which occupies the first and most substantial place, is divided into two parts: Part One Religious Life (with three sections: Common Life of Vows and Religious Virtues - Special Provisions) and Part Two Housekeeping. This, from the changed title compared to the editions of 1906 to 1920, is divided into three sections: sect. I. The Preventive System in youth education; sect. II. General rules for the application of the Preventive System; sect. III. Special offices.
6 It is in first place in a collection of 6 regulations, each with its own number, from the collective title on the cover of the Regulations of the Pious Society of St. Francis of Sales. Turin, Salesian Typography (BS) 1906, 196 p. There is no general index of subjects, but a general alphabetical index, made possible by the fact that the entire content is distributed in 1406 articles.
7 Cf. "Acts of the Superior Chapter of the Pious Salesian Society" 5 (1924) n. 23, 24 January, pp. 213-218.
It seems interesting to observe how the redistribution of the material occurs in the first two sections of the second part compared to the more voluminous edition of 1906. The first section includes 5 titles; the V shows under the name Other Recommendations the General Articles of 1877 and is concluded by the words: Sac. Giovanni Bosco, transferred here from Chapter IV. The second, in turn, includes four chapters, which contain the subject corresponding to the 5 paragraphs of chap. VI of 1906. They carry the following titles: Moral education, Religious education, Intellectual and professional education, Physical education and hygiene.
The same provision with the related titles followed, of course, in the official volume of the Regulations of the Salesian Society (Turin, SEI 1924) and likewise in subsequent editions until the last of 1966, which remained in force until 1971.8
From the point of view of the contents the «decalogue» repeats, specifies and integrates widespread concepts both in the pages on the preventive system, of which it seems to reflect the basic inspiration, and in the Regulation, to which it is approached especially for the structure: the matter in fact, it is distributed in articles, which, however, can hardly be called "regulations".
However, the characteristic of "general methodological principles", of indicative indications, of "pedagogical theorems", which command educational action as a whole and in the multiplicity of its expressions, seems more relevant.
For this reason an analysis that is completely independent of the documents that precede and follow it seems possible, with the possibility of reaching values and meanings in themselves.
The general approach of the linear "Decalogue" is strictly "preventive". It is evidently commanded by a rigid concept of protection and immunization. In this sense, it primarily reflects "collegial" education. The reference is to the young people of the «houses», first of all the Turin-Valdocco internship, then to the surveillance, to an assiduous assistance-presence without continuity solutions.
But it would be reductive to read the document in this one view.
8 The same formula is also adopted in "anthologies" of Don Bosco's writings. They welcome it, for example, B. FASCIE, Of the educational method of Don Bosco. Turin, SEI 1927 and P. BRAIDO, Don Bosco's educational system. Turin, SEI 1956.
The most characteristic principles, in fact, as will result from the analysis, overcome any situation and environment to involve the educational process to the maximum extent: thus, the qualities of educators, the primacy of love over fear, the differentiated physiognomy of the young and the correlative quality of the interventions.
In the "Decalogue" particular attention is given to that interweaving of love and fear, which was variously expressed in a literary tradition with remote origins, concerning both political government, and the figure and formation of the good prince, and, again, the area of monastic and religious life. ' Don Bosco, who had recalled the principle of being loved sooner or later than being fearing the director of the first Salesian religious and educational community outside of Turin in 1863, '° takes it up again here in an exclusively pedagogical context (art. 2).
But these are not two isolated cases, although they are certainly among the most significant. From a quick review conducted on Don Bosco's printed writings, good documentation can be found which confirms a non-occasional custom with the concept and relative formulas. And it is symptomatic that these - implicit or explicit - are repeated, before in religiously inspired writings, in a book on civil history, The history of Italy of 1855. From which it could be argued that also in Don Bosco the religious meaning and pedagogical originates from more remote "political" roots.
It seems to be amply demonstrated by the most expressive texts, which we will distinguish in two series: passages in which the binomial love-fear is enunciated in facts and descriptions; places, instead, where it is translated into sententious and precise formulas.
In each case the chronological order of the writings will be followed, warning that in the first series the second term of the comparison, fear, is sometimes hidden, but clearly presupposed as an essential element for understanding the discourse.
He [= Numa Pompilius] was very learned in the doctrine of the Etruscans, and from this he had learned to be beneficial and just to all, so he was loved by everyone (History of Italy told to the youth, 1855, p. 24).
To the prerogatives of a great captain Scipione he coupled an illustrious honesty, and was so affable and benevolent, that he won with sweetness those that he could not win by force (Ibid., P. 72).
9 Basti accennare ai due contributi di sintesi, eco di aunt altre ricerche, di K. GROSS, plus amari quam timeri. An ancient political maxim in the Benedictine Rule, "Vigiliae Christianae" 27 (1973) 219-229 e JB WOLF, "He endeavors to be loved more than to be feared" (RB 64, 15). An Evening-Old Teacher and Ruler Principle, in Salesianum 42 (1980) 115-133.
10 See F. Morro, "Confidential Memories to the Directors" of Don Bosco. Rome, LAS 1984; cfr. in this anthology volume, pp. 177-178 and 179.
He [= Julius Caesar] made himself loved by the people for his gentleness and benevolence, and everywhere he went, he received lively applause (...). Caesar did not hurt anyone, and he did not believe that others dared to do to him (Ibid. P. 92); analogously The peace of the Church or the pontificate of S. Eusebio and S. Melchiade, p. 6: Julius Caesar, after having been for the death of Pompey, the sole master of the empire, although he knew by his sweetness to make himself loved, was killed in it (in the Curia) by stabs.
Attend [Augusto] with all the laws to promote the order, and to seek the benefits of the love of 'Romani (Ibid., P.96).
Vespasian was a brave man, skilled in arms, affable and courteous to all, therefore loved by all who knew him (Ibid., P. 114; similarly Ecclesiastical History, 18714, p. 45).
Punctuality in rewarding and severity in punishing meant that he [. Valentinian] was loved by the good and feared by the wicked (Ibid., P. 153).
These virtues grew in his heart with the growth of age, and that young prince succeeded in earning the affection and esteem of the Normans so well that they recognized him as their leader under the name of Roger I (Ibid., P. 243) .
Francesco Sforza [Duke of Milan] had a long and glorious reign, during which he was able to be honored and feared by his subjects (Ibid., P. 364).
The Duke of Savoy [= Vittorio Amedeo II] was a good prince, he loved his subjects very much, from which he was equally loved (Ibid., P. 429).
To this series can be added texts in which the dyad love-fear is replaced by that, also generally implicit, of sovereign-father: the meaning of the discourse is always in the direction of the "plus amari quam timeri, as seems to emerge persuasively from some examples.
His death [= Constantine] was universally lamented, lamenting everyone in the loss of his monarch that of a tender father (Ecclesiastical History, 1845, p. 124).
When the Gauls left, Camillo, forgetting the injury inflicted on him by his fellow citizens in sending him into exile, became the father of the people, helping some of them, encouraging others to compensate the damage caused by their enemies (History of Italy, 1855, p. 57) .
Among the Romans he [= Totila, king of the Ostrogoths] was proud of humanity and generosity. When he entered Naples, he gave food to the poor people who were dying of hunger; but with the tenderness and care of a father who raises his sick children, and not with the ostentation of a winner, who is concerned only with his glory (Ibid., pp. 192-193).
Lorenzo the Magnificent, a shrewd fact that only love and good work make the subjects loyal and docile, doubled his zeal for the happiness and glory of the Florentines (...). Lorenzo de 'Medici after having governed the republic of Florence, as a father governs his family, was taken away from the love of his fellow citizens in 1492 (Ibid., P. 346).
In 1831, on the death of King Carlo Felice, Carlo Alberto] peacefully ascended the throne and governed his subjects for eighteen years with a government as benign as he could ever wish. His government was that of a father and not of a sovereign (Ibid., P. 485).
The series of formulas that also in the enunciation are similar to the classical principle studeat plus amari quam timeri is also relatively rich. It literally seems to begin in 1855 with the History of Italy, which greatly enriches the sample of quotations, explicit or implicit, offered by sources.11
Dionysius tyrant of Syracuse (...). Little jealous of being loved, as long as he was feared (La storia d'Italia, 1855, p. 49).
Titus son and successor of Vespasian (...). He wanted to be loved by everyone, rather than feared (Ibid., P. 117).
We do not want to be feared, we want to be loved and have all the confidence in us ("good night" of December 2, 1859, quoted in MB 6, 320-321).
A long experience has made known that the good result in the education of youth consists especially in knowing how to make ourselves loved to make us then to fear (variant: we need to make ourselves loved and never to make us fear) (Historical outline around the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales, 1862, p.
Study to be loved before you fear (Confidential Memories, 1863, ed. Motto, p. 24; idem 1869/70 and 1871, p. 29).
Study to make yourself loved if you want to make you fear (Ibid., 1871, p. 29).
[The professor. Banaudi] true model of teachers (...) without ever inflicting any punishment, he had managed to get all his students to fear him. He loved them as children, and they loved him as a tender father (MO, 1991, 71).
The educator among the students tries to be loved, if he wants to be feared (The preventive system, 1877, A word on the chastisements).
The teacher must try to make you loved by the pupils, if he wants to be respected (Il sistema preventivo, trad.francese nell'ediz, bilingual, 1877).
To be feared by young people one must first be loved (General Rules, ms A, 1877).
Everyone tries to make himself loved if he wants to be feared (General articles, ms B and press editions, 1877).
11 The following have been checked: Elements of universal history, 8 vol. Turin, at Giacinto Marietti 1823; History of Italy from its first inhabitants after the flood up to our days. Turin, Marietti 1844; Ancient history told to children by Mr. Lamé-Fleury, 3 vol. (1 in Greek History and 2 in Roman History). Venice, Santini 1846; O. GOLDSMITH, Compendium of Roman history for school use. Turin, G. Marietti 1851; LA PARRAVICINI, Giannetto, vol. III. Livorno, Antonelli 1851.
Let yourself be loved and not be afraid [speech to former ecclesiastical students of 29 July 1880 - B 4 (1880) n. 9, Sept., p. 11].
Try to make yourself loved, then you will be easily obeyed (Memories from 1841 to 1884-5-6, ms, p. 13).
Study to make yourself loved rather than fear you (Confidential confidential, 1886, p. 29).
As for the term fear, which Don Bosco does not often oppose to love, but composes with it, it seems to be able to point out that only rarely does it amount to fear, but rather it is closer to reverence, respect, respect, subjection: it is, in short, « affectionate fear, of son, not of servant ".12
Not long after that - a few weeks, maybe a few days Don Bosco had brought the core of the "preventive system" back to "assistance", drawing up his classic brochure. "It consists - he wrote - in making known the prescriptions and regulations of an Institute and then supervising in such a way that the pupils always have the watchful eye of the Director or of the assistants, who, as amorous fathers, speak, serve as a guide to every eventuality, give advice and lovingly correct, which is to say: put the students in the impossibility of committing shortcomings ».
In the articles of the "decalogue" the concept is substantially taken up with a characteristic clarification represented by the peremptory surprising warning: "In assistance a few words, many facts" (art. 3) of not easy interpretation. In terms of behavior, it would seem to require the educator sobriety, confidentiality, above all concreteness, which nothing should detract from the immediacy, cordiality, friendliness of relationships. As for the content, on the other hand, the reference to "facts" could be explained in advance by the effective, non-rhetorical love recommended in the preceding article: "with words, and even more with facts, it will make known that its solicitude is directed exclusively to the spiritual and temporal advantage of his students ».
But remarkable developments in method are to be found in subsequent articles in relation to the forms of assistance appropriate to the different "natures" of the young.
12 See N. TOMMASEO, New dictionary of synonyms of the Italian language, num. 3319 Fearful, Fearful. "Those who love, fear, say the proverb. Fear, which comes from affection, is not fear. And in general, the fear, sweet and quiet and anxious, almost exultation that one has of a loved person, fear is not "(Ibid., Num. 3322 Fear, Fear, Terror).
In principle, direct interventions should be extremely sober with respect to the "good" (art. 5), considered capable of a relatively coherent and autonomous path. Instead, greater sollecitudes will have to be adopted for "the more", that is, for "those who have ordinary character and character, somewhat fickle and inclined to indifference". For them he will have to assist an intelligent strategy of "brief but frequent recommendations, warnings and advice", encouragement "at work", "small prizes", demonstrations of "great trust" (Article 6). The general rule "a few words, many facts" seems particularly indicated in the treatment of the third category of "difficult disciples, and even disciples". Ample space is given here to a formally "negative" education, a rich set of positive, direct and indirect stimuli: "One can take advantage of facts, of episodes that have occurred to others in order to draw praise or blame from them, to fall on those we speak of" (art. 9). Without knowing the Emilio, Don Bosco shows that, based on personal and institutional experience and spontaneous intuitions, he shares the most valid persuasions independently.
The classification of children on the basis of moral criteria becomes almost a literary genre in the writings of Don Bosco, who reached the fullness of maturity in the Memoirs of the Oratory projecting it backwards in the early years of adolescence.
This idea, however, arises very early in its activity as a writer. As far as we can see, it dates back to the first book, the Historical Notes on the Life of the Cleric Luigi Cómollo (1844). He attributes the following warnings to his seminarist friend: "You finally feel with whom you treat, talk, and who you attend. I do not speak already of persons of different sex or other secular persons, who are for us of obvious danger, which must be avoided at all; but I speak of the same fellow clerics, and also seminarians; some of them are bad, others are not bad, but not very good, others are really good. The former must absolutely flee, with the latter only treat if it is needed, but do not form any familiarity, the latter then have to attend, and these are the ones from which the spiritual, and temporal utility. He is true, these companions are few "."
13 Historical notes on the life of the cleric Luigi Comollo ... Written by one of his colleagues. Turin, Speirani and Ferrero 1844, pp. 63-64, OE I 63-64.
The distinction returns three years later in The Young Provided (1847) and always with intentions and moral connotations: "There are three kinds of companions. Some good, some bad; some are not all bad, but neither are they good. With the first you can hold back and you will have the advantage; take the last treat when the need requires it, without contracting familiarity. The bad ones then absolutely have to escape ".14
A similar classification appears in some biographical notes on Domenico Savio: «An attentive companion in the school, docile, respectful (...) this soon became the friend of Domenico (...). He was a scum, an insolent (...). Domenico fled him like the plague. Then those who were a little lazy and greeted them, he rendered some service, if it were the case, but he did not contract any familiarity with them. "
Later, in 1873, referring to the years of the gymnasium (1831-1835), he wrote: «In these first four classes I had to learn in my own account to deal with my companions. I had made three categories of companions: good, indifferent, bad. These last ones to avoid absolutely and always, hardly known; catch the indifferent hold me by courtesy and by need; with the good ones to become familiar, when they met that they were really such "."
Thus, the General Articles conclude a long tradition; but together they introduce something completely new: they specify the «indoles» on the basis of a criterion, not only moral but also «psychological», temperamental, and consequently hypothesize a differentiated formative treatment. The moralistic evaluation is clearly overwhelmed by concerns, aims and educational methods, coinciding, moreover, with the moment of maximum pedagogical "theorization" of Don Bosco.
Before coming to the printed edition, the General Articles went through two handwritten editorials.
14 [G. Bosco], The young man provided for the practice of his duties ... Turin, Tip. Paravia 1847, pp. 21-22, OE II 201-202.
15 Life of the young Savio Domenico ... by the priest Bosco Giovanni. Turin, Tip. Paravia 1859, pp. 26-27, OE XI 176-177.
16 G. Bosco, Memoirs of the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales, Turin, SEI 1946, pp. 50-51.
For the first draft - ms A - Don Bosco used the free verse of a letter, a protocol sheet, sent to him by Genoa by Mr. Domenico Varetti dated 13 April 1877 and having as its object the furnishing of the paper mill of Mathi Torinese. Don Bosco folded the sheet in two, first filling the middle on the right (Inc Regole generali expl to all without it) and continuing on the left half (Inc 5 °. Solitude expl say or recommend). For the n. 8 (Inc 8. ° Dovendo expl themselves) uses the free verse of a simple sheet - format 21.3x13.5 cm. - of a letter sent to him by Trent on 11 April 1877 from the sac. Clemente Benetti, who presents to Don Bosco the Garbari spouses who intend to send their child to boarding school. Also in this case the sheet is folded in two and the text occupies the right half.
The date of composition should not be very far from the days indicated in the letters.
The next draft - ms B - also autographed by Don Bosco is contained in four unnumbered pages resulting from a simple protocol sheet folded in two. The folding and use have forced to ensure the welding of the two halves of the sheet with various gluing. The sheet in turn is included in a notebook consisting of 15 double sheets inserted one into the other, sewn with a string and protected by a cardboard cover with reinforced back. The notebook contains elements of the Regulations for houses. In the left margin of the fourth page of the sheet Don Berto writes in a vertical sense: Already printed in the House Rules pag. 15-17.
The immediate dependence on the first drafting, the handwriting, the style, the corrections allow us to think that this second one arose a short distance from that and, except for a probable transcription in good copy for the composer, is directly merged into the printed text doc C). The few, rather formal, variations may have occurred in the transcription or correction of the drafts.17
17 The Regulation was printed in October. Don Giulio Barberis gives some information on the editorial phases of the first months of the year in his Cronichetta, Quad. 12, in a page that dates back to the last days of April or early May 1877 (see p. 206, n, 3).
1. Ms A = ASC 026 Regulations
for those who have the management or assistance of youngsters.
1. Everyone must believe that in order to be feared by young people one must first be loved, that is, earn their hearts by making known 5 with words and even more with deeds, that our every concern is directed to their spiritual and temporal advantage.
2nd In assistance a few words and many facts, and to give students the opportunity to express their thoughts.
3) It is believed that youngsters usually manifest three kinds of rats or different types of rats: Good, ordinary, difficult or bad. We must study the means of reconciling them so that we can do good to all without causing harm to others.
4 ° General assistance is sufficient for those who are of a good and foldable nature, explaining disciplinary rules and recommending compliance.
5th Special solicitude devesi to the category of the most; of those that have an ordinary, fickle nature, tending to indifference. They must be satisfied with the occupation, with advice, with addressing the matter to them, giving even small rewards, and showing esteem and trust in them.
6th But the efforts are all directed to the most dissipated, fickle, difficult and even unruly. The number of them will be one of ten or maybe three out of twenty.
Every superior tries to get to know them well, ask about their previous life, try to make friends with them, let them talk a lot but he speaks little.
1 general post add pei masters, assis [tenti] A of the A2 4 post ie add let them know A of the A2 9 the youngsters ... of] there are three A young boys usually show three sorts of em sl A2 10 different om A add sl A2 11 to reconcile them] to get them to agree A to reconcile them em sl A2 11-12 you can ... that om A add mrg inf A2 12 carry] can not receive A port em sl A2 13 character, character] nature A character character em sl A2 14 the disciplinary rules om A add sl A2 14-15 recommending it] recommending A recommending torr A '15 post the observance add of the disciplinary rules A of the A2 16 to the ... of] lend in favor from A to the category of the most; of em sl A2 17-18 We must] We study A circles of em A 'Bisogna em sl A' 18 with stories, tips om A add sl A2 21 post efforts add sl all A2 of A 'all om A add sl A2
7th Every time he arrives among his pupils, he stays with them or starts from them always gives a look to know if those of the third category are in their place and if he notices their absence he soon makes them look under aspect have them tell you or recommend 30 giving.
8 ° Having to say to them words of blame they always call them apart, nor do they ever give themselves special warnings or corrections in the presence of the other companions.
One can, however, take advantage of episodes, of facts of others to praise or conduct praise on the conduct in general that also falls on them.
2. Doc. C - printed text contained in the Regulations for the houses of the Society of St. Francis de Sales. Turin, Salesian Typography 1877, pp. 15-17.
1. Those who find themselves in some office or assist young people, whom Divine Providence entrusts to us, all have the task of giving warnings and advice to any young person in the house, whenever there is reason to do so especially when it comes to 'prevent the offense 5 of God.
2. Everyone tries to make himself loved if he wants to be afraid. He will achieve this great end if with words, and even more with deeds, he will make known that his concerns are directed exclusively to the spiritual and temporal advantage of his students. the
23 or maybe] and also A or perhaps em sl A2 29-29 of third category om A add sl A2 35 draw praise] praise To praise em A2
1 ante Articles add mrg sup For page la of Reg.to B 2 are in] above B are in em sl B2 8-9 will let us know om b add sl B2 9 that ... direct] that every solicitude is direct B his concerns are directed torr B2
3. In the assistance a few words, many facts, and students are given the freedom to freely express their thoughts; but be careful to rectify and even correct the expressions, the words, the acts that were not in conformity with the Christian education.
15 4. The boys usually show one of these different characters. Indole good, ordinary, difficult, bad. It is our strict duty to study the means of reconciling these different characteristics to do good to all without affecting one another.
5. To those who have had a character from nature, a good nature is enough general surveillance explaining the disciplinary rules and recommending their observance.
6. The category of the most is of those who have ordinary character and character, somewhat fickle and inclined to indifference; they need brief but frequent recommendations, warnings and advice. 25 We must encourage them at work, even with small prizes and by showing great confidence in them without neglecting surveillance.
7. But the efforts and the solicitudes must be in a special way addressed to the third category which is that of the difficult disciples and even the disciples. The number of these can be calculated one in fifteen. Every
30 superior work to get to know them, ask about their past way of life, show themselves their friend, let them talk a lot, but he speaks little and his speeches are brief examples, maxims, episodes and the like. But never lose sight of each other without giving in to the fact that you are suspicious of them.
35 8. The masters, the assistants when they arrive among their pupils immediately bring the eye above them and realizing that someone is absent soon let him look under the appearance of having him what to say or recommend.
12 attentive] careful B 13 the acts] the facts B 14 were compliant] agreed B were to conform em sl B2 15 one of these] three B one of these different em B2] or different indoles B different corr B2 16 Indole om B add sl B2 18 be of] not cause B are cause of corr B2 20 explaining] explaining B explaining corr B2 23 procliva] procliva C 24-25 We must encourage them] Encourage them B We must encourage them corr B2 30 pass om B add sl B2 31 post live add antecedent B of the B2 33 post without add but B of the B2 dar] give it B dar corr B2 33-34 that ... they om B add sl B2 35 their] the B their em sl B2 36 these] those B 36-37 that ... absent] of their absence B who among them is absent corr B2 37 appearance] appearances B have him] have them B have corrected him 39 39 post should add say B of B2 make a] a word of B make an em sl B2
9. Should they be blamed, give warnings or corrections, never be present in the presence of the companions. It is possible to take advantage of facts, episodes that have occurred to others to praise or blame them, to fall on those we are talking about.
10. These are the preliminary articles of our regulation. But everyone needs patience, diligence and a lot of prayer without which I believe any good regulation is useless. 45
39-40 ante corrections add do B of the B2 40 post never add tosto and B 44 a tutti om B add sl B2 44-45 without ... useless] that the columns above which B is founded without which I believe useless em sl B2
The pages on the preventive system of 1877 find in the following months a characteristic translation in a synthetic "project" that Don Bosco draws up during the Roman stay, which began on December 22nd 1877 and lasted until March 26th 1878, and addresses the Minister of the Interior, Francesco Crispi. '
The story is not entirely clear; but information from biographers and some letters intended for religious and civil authorities allow a good reconstruction of the facts and at the same time a fair knowledge of the circumstances, of the motives and of the meaning of the initiative.
It does not seem to arise from merely pedagogical reasons, but also to take root in an ancient and persistent aspiration of Don Bosco to find in Rome an operative center for his religious Society. The one and the other reason appears clearly present in the interviews with lay and ecclesiastical personalities and in the letters addressed to them, according to a double-track policy that from a skilled diplomat the Piedmontese educator leads to the realization of his charitable purposes.
According to what is reported in the Biographical Memoirs, on February 16, 1878 Don Bosco received an audience from the Interior Minister Francesco Crispi, who he asked about security guarantees for the imminent Conclave, which would take place on days 19 and 20 and would end with the election of Leo XIII. In the interview, first agitated and then cordial, one would finally have spoken at length of the "educational systems", complaining "the disorders that took place in the prisons of the young corrigendi". "On this topic - the annalist continues in rather surprising terms - the conversation lasted a long time.
1 Of the intense political activity of Francesco Crispi (1818-1901), several times Minister and President of the Council, it suffices to recall the belonging to the historical Left and, in relation to the reminder of Don Bosco, the fact that he was the holder of the Ministry of Interior in the second ministry chaired by Agostino Depretis, from 26 December 1877 to 23 March 1878. He was succeeded by Giuseppe Zanardelli.
The Minister heard the opinions of Don Bosco, made vows because those places, where the imprisoned youth instead of improving, was morally getting worse, were entrusted to the educators who grew up in the Oratory of Don Bosco and asked him a program of his system to be able to examine it. The Blessed understood very well the impossibility for the Minister to make such a decision; nevertheless he let say and promised that he would send him his way of seeing around the reorganization of the houses of punishment for juvenile prisoners ".
A few days later Don Bosco sent the minister a brief reminder of his education "system" with a letter of introduction, which also contained proposals for six possible Roman offices for a hospice for young people.
I have the honor to present to VE the bases above which the preventive system applied can be regulated between youngsters who are unsafe in public streets or in homes and hospices of education.
At the same time, anxious to follow the good will expressed by VE, I dare to name some places in Rome that can serve this purpose and that are dependent on the same government (...).
Whichever of these local governments would like to leave at my disposal I would assign it exclusively to poor and unsafe children with slight disturbance of government finances and I have full confidence that this can be done.
In this way, a large number of poor children would be expected to ask to be hospitalized, and there would also be an end to the serious and costly inconvenience of sending a multitude of boys from this city to the hospice of Turin and S. Pierdarena (.. .).
Rome Feb. 21 1878 3
Similar concepts to these and those contained in the Don Bosco memo had already expressed and will continue to develop also in the ecclesiastical world.
He had had occasion, almost officially, at the first Conference of the Cooperators in Rome, on 29 January, which Don Bosco considered of exceptional importance: "it will make history in history", he writes the same day to Fr Rua; 4 "is a great historical event for us", repeats to the director of Nice, Fr Giuseppe Ronchail, a few days later.
2 MB XIII 483.
3 The transcription of the letter is made on the hand-written minute preserved in the ASC 131.01, E III 298-299.
4 E III 284.
5 Lett of 2 February 1878, and III 286.
As reported in the Salesian Bulletin of March, in his speech Don Bosco, responding to two difficulties, had had the opportunity to deal with the two themes that were then particularly dear: the care of the young and the Salesian presence in Rome.
Will the Salesians not encounter obstacles in their work with the civil authorities? - Do not start this danger (...), because the work of the Salesians and their Cooperators tends to benefit morality, to reduce the number of children, who, abandoned to themselves, are in great danger of going to populate the prisons. Instructing them, starting them at work, providing the means, and where it is necessary, even sheltering them, saving nothing to prevent their ruin, or rather making them good Christians and honest citizens, these works, I say, cannot but be respected, indeed desired by any government , from any policy (...).
Some will say (...): The works of the Salesians (...) are outside Rome (...). I answer: The Romans who always did great charity, and strongly helped the works of the Salesians, must console themselves for having done something useful to the Romans. At any time a notable number of boys were sent by this City to the Salesian Houses; many are presently present, many now demand that they be brought there and taken care of. After all, everyone also cooperates in the well-being of the youth of this great city; since the Salesians themselves enjoy the hope that God will grant them the possibility of joining you soon, and this most zealous clergy for the poor youth of Rome (...). 6
It is more than ever probable that Don Bosco has before his eyes something that comes close to the text sent to Francesco Crispi, while on an unspecified day in March he prepares a letter to Leo XIII. Identical are the indications about the diagnosis of the juvenile condition and the relative interventions.
the Sac. Gio. Bosco humbly prostrated at the foot of VS begs to want to allow him to show a need severely felt in all countries, but especially in Rome. This city in normal times was abundantly provided with educational institutions for every condition of citizens. Now the abnormal state of things, the extraordinary increase in population, the many young people who go here in search of work or refuge, make indispensable some measures for the low class of the people. This need is made painfully obvious by the large number of wandering youngsters, who, by spending some time in the squares and streets, mostly go to populate the prisons. He is to provide at least in part for this need that every year no less than a hundred children of this city are sent to the Salesian Hospices of Genoa and Turin. These poor people are more abandoned than perverse and it would seem that they would benefit greatly if an institution could be opened, where:
6 BS 2 (1878) n. 3, March, p. 13
1 ° In the festive days they gathered in special gardens, and were kept there in pleasant recreation with music, with gymnastics, with other pleasant games, while they were instructed in catechism and in practices of piety.
2 ° Diurnal and evening schools were activated for the poorest, that is to say for those youngsters, who being already rather mean or ragged are not accepted in public schools.
3rd Those who were absolutely poor and abandoned were admitted to a special hospice, where they learned a profession with which they could gain the bread of life and live as good Christians.
With these means Christian education would be given to not a few poor boys, who would thus be initiated along the path of honor and honesty, with well-founded hope that they would no longer go to populate the prisons that they were already open to.
To carry out this important and difficult ministry, if the SV likes it, the humble exponent willingly offers Salesian religious, who have precisely this purpose and with the divine help have already obtained good results elsewhere. They would be truly fortunate whenever they could perform not the commands, but the simple desires of VS, and join their weak efforts to so many priests who zealously cultivate this same harvest.
A serious difficulty arises in the material means with which to found and sustain this Institute; but since the Providence of the Lord never failed in such cases, so with great trust one hopes that God will either send the necessary means or inspire some Catholic wealthy, who, moved by the gravity of the need, wants to come to the aid of the capital of Christianity, freeing many children from material and moral ruin to give them back to the civil society good Christians and good citizens.
Your holiness deserves to bless the projected idea and the humble exponent, who prostrates himself at the feet of VS and professes
Umil.mo son Sac. Gio. Bosco. '
7 The transcription is carried out on the autographed text existing in the ASC 131.01, which corresponds, except for some details, to the text published in E III 317-318. - Concepts and terms were appealed on one side and the other in the meeting with Leo XIII on March 16, according to a report written immediately by Don Bosco: «(...) Enough, he began to say, in this sense I am not only Cooperator but operator and as Pontiff and as simple faithful. I will undoubtedly promote all the institutions that aim at the good of society, especially those that take care of children who are in danger. I am convinced that there is no more noble ministry than that of working to reduce the number of children to make them honest citizens and good Christians (...). - S. Father, I replied, For many years I have been thinking of sending some Salesians to join the priests of Rome and cooperate with them for the sake of the unsafe youth, especially of foreigners. A small shelter, a festive oratory, evening schools, day schools for the poorest, that's what I think is indispensable (...) "(E III 328).
But Don Bosco did not abandon the "lay" line and in April he made a first indirect approach with the new interior minister, Giuseppe Zanardelli, 8 through the comm. Giovanni B. Aluffi, general secretary to the ministry.
Car.mo Sig. Aluffi,
I would like to resume the practices begun under the Crispi Ministry and which were already well under way. I therefore need you to advise me on how to do it. If the cards for the Decoration of Giovanni Albertotti Dott. And Prof. in Medicina have been preserved, I would only renew the prayer; if they were lost then I would add a copy of everything. I say the same about the preventive project of opening houses to accommodate unsafe children; since he was formally appointed by that same Minister. By his rule I tell you that Zanardelli in the past was always in good relations and has always treated me with great kindness (...).
Turin, April 25th, 789
The double problem will return, it seems for the last time with reference to the reminder on the preventive system, in a minute of letter dated to July 23 destined to Zanardelli himself.
In February, the last course was taken by Mr. Minister of the Interior asked me to express my thoughts on the preventive system and on the possibility of providing for children who are not yet perverse but only abandoned, therefore unsafe in the various cities of Italy, especially in Rome.
Eager to satisfy Mr. Minister and do good to the youth I have prepared a practical reminder, of little cost to the government and easy to execute.
Presented those writings and made a lecture he succeeded the change of Ministry because everything remained suspended.
If ever this was still the intention of the EV I would lend myself quite willingly; and if that fold were not available, I would renew a copy that I would soon receive from the hands of the EV
Whatever deliberation in your wisdom you judge to take, I beg you to accept my constant will to work to reduce the number of unrighteous and to increase that of honest citizens, while I have the high honor of being able to profess myself.
8 Jurist, deputy of the historical Left, Giuseppe Zanardelli (1826-1903) was several times Minister, President of the Chamber and President of the Council in the three-year period 1901-1903. He was the holder of the Interiors in the first ministry governed by Benedetto Cairoli, from March 24 to December 1878.
9 E III 335.
Of the EV
Turin, 23 July 187810
It does not appear that the reminder was requested, indeed that there was any feedback. At the limit, one does not even have the certainty that the letter was actually sent or has come into the hands of Zanardelli. In any case, the document has remained inoperative.
1. Doc. N - Don Bosco's corrections and manuscript additions in a booklet of the separate printed edition of 1877.
The printed file of the usual format, containing the separate 1877 edition of the three known "sections", is found in the ASC 133 "Inauguration" 2. Don Bosco intervenes with many substantial amendments in the third "section" on the "preventive system". ». Modifications and exclusions generally tend to eliminate or reduce religious references. On the fourth cover page above the engraving, on the right, Don Berto wrote: Project to educate the youth with the Preventive System presented to the Minister of the Interior in 1877. Neither the content nor the year are exact. Due to the considerable omissions the text differs from the original editorial, but it is still very far from the structure and contents of the memo sent to Crispi in February 1878.
The following are the variants in relation to the separate Italian edition of 1877.
NB The numbers indicate the lines of the text of the document H published in this same volume.
395-396 The system ... youth H The preventive system in the houses of education N
397-406 Several times ... advantages H of the N
408 and why ... prefer H and why should it be preferred in youth education N
10 This transcription is also taken from the minute existing in the ASC 131.01. The text corresponds almost perfectly to that already published in E III 366-367.
429-430 This ... kindness H This system rests on everything
above reason, and loving kindness N
490-492 Do ... sins H of N
522 after the ordinary prayers H of N
529-545 VII. Yes ... cap. VI) H of N
597 with the help of God H of the N
2. Ms O - The preventive system in youth education. [Prome-memory to F. Crispi] - microfiche 26 E 4-9.
It is an entirely autographed form of Don Bosco, with numerous equally autograph corrections, entrusted to two separate sheets of different sizes, kept in the ASC 131.01 Governo, Crispi.
The first is a double sheet, protocol format, 264x208 mm, of 4 pages. The paper is very light, without lines. Only the first page is numbered, but by a subsequent archivist. Bending marks remain both vertically and horizontally. The ink is purplish, faded. Corrections, on the other hand, are made with black ink, more resistant to time.
The second sheet is simple, smaller in size, 208x133 mm. The paper is sturdy, without scratches. The ink is black, similar to that used for corrections in the previous sheet. Bending marks remain horizontally.
It should be noted that the letter s may appear capitalized as the initial of the words System, Society, Security (public security); but in reality it has the same dimensions even when it is used as a lower case within a word.
Doc. O - ms - autographed draft of Don Bosco of a reminder for the minister Francesco Crispi.
O = handwritten editing of Don Bosco
O2, O3.,. = successive interventions by Don Bosco
p. I The preventive system in youth education
There are two systems used in the moral and civil education of youth: Repressive and preventive. Both are applicable in the midst of civil society and educational institutions. We will give a brief outline of the preventive system to be used in the midst of civil society; then how it can successfully be practiced in the recluses, in the colleges, in the hospices and in the same boarding schools.
Preventive and repressive system in the midst of society.
The repressive system consists in making known the laws and the penalty 10 they establish; then the authority must watch to know and punish the guilty. This is the system used in the militia and in general among adults. But the young people lacking education, no reflection, excited by their comrades or lack of reflection, often blindly draw themselves into disorder for the sole reason of being abandoned. 15
While the laws watch over the culprits, it is certainly necessary to use great solicitude to diminish the number.
3 in the ... civil om O add sl 02 4 are applicable] soglionsi apply 0 are applicable ap 02 7-8 nei2 ... educandati] and in the same houses of education OR in colleges, in hospices and in the same schools em 02 11 which ... establish] threatened to offenders 0 established in it sl sl 02 that they establish corr 0 'the authority must om O add sl 02 12-13 This ... adults om O add mrg 02 12 post system add generally 02 of 0 '14 post excited add often O of 02 14-15 often blindly om O add mrg 02 15 post mess add and become discoli not O 02 02 post read add make their course and O of 02 16-17 devonsi. ..number] it seems that these can be diminished a great deal Or we should certainly use great solicitations to decrease the number corr 02 17 post number add with taking care of those who are in danger OR taking care of the abandoned and unsafe corr 02 of 03
Which children should be told about dangers. p. 2
I believe that those who:
1 ° From the cities or different countries of the state they go to other cities and countries in search of work. Most of them carry a little money with them, which they consume in a short time. If they do not find work afterwards, they are in real danger of giving themselves to the thief and beginning the way that leads them to ruin.
2 ° Those who are orphans of their parents do not have those who care for them, therefore they remain abandoned to the vagrancy and the company of the urchins, while a friendly hand, a charitable voice could have started them on the path of honor and the honest citizen.
30 3rd Those who have parents who cannot or do not want to take care of their children; therefore they drive them out of the family or abandon them absolutely. Unfortunately, the number of these misplaced parents is great.
4 ° The wanderers who fall into the hands of public security, but 35 who are not yet unchaste. If they were received in a hospice where I was instructed, they would certainly be taken off to work. 3 days and returned to the civil society.
Experience has made it known that these four categories of children can effectively be provided:
1 ° With festive recreation gardens. With the pleasant recreation, with music, with gymnastics, with running, with jumps, with declamation, with the theater they are easily gathered. With the evening school then, with the Sunday school, with the catechism the proportionate and indispensable moral food is given to these poor children of the people. 45
18 must tell each other] trovansi 0 must be said em sl 02 21 ante From add From foreign countries, or even 0 from 02 24-25 and begin ... ruin] to live 0 and begin the path that leads to ruin em 02 26-27 them ... abandoned] take care of them they are almost forced to give themselves 0 assist them therefore they remain abandoned em sl 02 28 friend] beneficial 0 friend em sl 02 charitable could have] friend them could O charitable could have em sl 02 36-37 would be ... companies] are returned to society and removed from the danger of going to populate the prisons 0 would certainly be removed from the prisons and returned to the civil society corr 02 42 with 'jumps] recreation O with the race, with the jumps em sl 02 43 with the school om O add sl 02
2 ° In these meetings, investigate to know those who are out of the master, and make sure that they are employed and assisted during the week.
3) Then we find those of those who are poor and abandoned, nor how to dress, nor how to feed themselves, nor where to sleep at night. Otherwise we cannot provide otherwise, except with hospices and houses of preservation, with arts, trades and even agricultural colonies.
The Government without taking a minute administration, without touching the principle of legal charity can cooperate in the following 55 ways:
p. 4 1 ° Administer gardens in the restraints Festive minds; help to supply the schools, and the gardens of the necessary furnishings.
2 ° Provide rooms for hospices, supply them with the necessary tools for arts and crafts to which the hospitalized children would be applied. 60
3 ° The Government would allow free acceptance of the students, but would give a daily allowance or monthly allowance for those who were in the conditions described above. This would appear either from the certificates of the civil authority; or from the facts of the police stations, which very often meet young people who are in fact in this condition.
4th This daily subsidy would be limited to one third of what a youngster would cost in the state reformers. Based on the correctional prisons of the Generala of Turin, and reducing the total expenditure for each individual it can be calculated to cents per day 70.
In this way the government would help, but would leave the competition of the private charity of the citizens free. THE
45 to these ... people om Or to these children of the poor people add 02 to these poor children of the people corr O '47 and assisted om O add mrg 02 51 post these add have absolute need and must be hospitalized, otherwise O 02 51-52 se ... also om O add sl 02 52 agricultural colonies om O add mrg 02 54 without ... administration om O add mrg inf 02 55-56 cooperate ... ways om O add 02 57 to supply] with some subsidies to provide O to provide em sl 02 58 gardens] premises Or gardens em 02 68-71 Pigliando ... day om O add mrg inf 02 69 of Generala om O add sl 02
75 Based on the experience of thirty five years it can be seen that:
1. Many young people who have come out of prisons easily set out on an art with which they can earn the honesty of life.
2 ° Many who were in extreme danger of being unclean, were threatening to cause harassment to honest citizens, and were already giving slight disturbances to public authorities; they withdrew from danger and stood on the road of the honest citizen.
3 ° From the registers it is understood that not less than one hundred thousand young people assisted, gathered, educated with this system, learned who the - p. 6 music, literary science, art or craft, and have become virtuous artisans, shop assistants, Bottega masters, master teachers, hard-working clerks, and many who honor honorable degrees in the militia. Many also provided by the nature of non-ordinary genius, they were able to take university courses and graduated in 90 letters, in mathematics, medicine, laws, engineers, notaries, pharmacists and the like.
81 disturbances ... authorities] suspicions at 0 public security disturbances em 02 disturbances to the public security authority corr 03 disturbances to the public authority corr 04 84-85 who ... literary science Or who the music, who the science literaria em sl 02 85 chi arte o om O add sl 02