LAS - ROMA
In the summer of 1877 a text by Don Bosco appeared entitled The Preventive System in Youth Education. Although later it was often referred to as the Treaty or Treatise on the Preventive System, it constituted the simple appendix of a propaganda brochure, published in Italian and French, entitled Inauguration of the Patronage of St. Peter in Nice a Mare. Purpose of the same exposed by the Priest Giovanni Bosco with appendix on the preventive system in the education of the youth. '
A few days after the composition of the text Don Bosco himself explained to the trusted novice master, Don Giulio Barberis, because at the brief chronicle of the inauguration of the new headquarters of the Nice opera, on 12 March 1877, and at the text of the speech held there, had added those unscheduled pages. "I believe this job to be good for France. There are no positives like here; but they speak more immediately, bring enthusiasm, accept new things more willingly ... then we need them to know us more closely now. The preventive system especially will be received, repeated by the newspapers, will make noise ". 2 We will see in his place how Don Bosco himself in four months will provide three different editions of the brochure (bilingual, Italian, French) and insertion of the pages of the preventive system of the first printed edition of the Regulations for the houses of the Society of St. Francis of Sales, raising the unexpected composition of 1877 almost to lex fundamentalis of its regulations for young people and for Salesians throughout a century , diffused in all the languages that mark the expansion of Salesian works. The publication of the text in the "Salesian Bulletin" is soon added: Italian and French in 1880, Castilian (1887 in Argentina, 1889 in Spain), German in 1899 (preceded by the Mehler edition of 1892) and many others. ' widespread in all languages that mark the expansion of Salesian works. The publication of the text in the "Salesian Bulletin" is soon added: Italian and French in 1880, Castilian (1887 in Argentina, 1889 in Spain), German in 1899 (preceded by the Mehler edition of 1892) and many others. ' widespread in all languages that mark the expansion of Salesian works. The publication of the text in the "Salesian Bulletin" is soon added: Italian and French in 1880, Castilian (1887 in Argentina, 1889 in Spain), German in 1899 (preceded by the Mehler edition of 1892) and many others. '
1 Turin, Typography and Salesian Library, San Pier d'Arena - Nizza Marittima 1877, 68 p. The text of the preventive system - in Italian on the left page, in French in the right - occupies pages 44 to 65.
2 G. BARBERIS, Cronichetta 12, p. XI, ASC - Rome.
3 See a quick review of the most widespread editions from 1877 to 1924 in GIOVANNI (s.) Bosco, The Preventive System in Youth Education. Introduction and critical texts by Pietro Braido, in "Salesian Historical Researches" 4 (1985), pp. 208-213.
6 Pietro Braido
The reference to the pages, in more or less widespread forms, is repeated in the biographies of Don Bosco, which multiply him still alive: C. Conestabile and L. Mendre (1878), Ch. D'Espiney (1881), A. du Boys (1884) ... and even more explicitly among the admirers and scholars of his educational system.4
But, apart from the formulas «preventive system», «repressive system», which date back to 1877, the characteristics of Don Bosco's charitable and educational work are already present in his practice, and in his reflection already for thirty years: in the first contacts with young people in Turin, in the oratory, in the hospice, in his activity as a publicist, in the draft regulations for the "outsiders" and for the "interiors", in the "memos" and "historical notes" relating to the first speakers and to the congregation, in the youth biographies of the 50s and 60s, in the directives given to hospice directors and colleges of the 60s and 70s. "
Indeed, in comparison with such a rich and varied experience, the contents and references of the pages of 1877, apart from certain statements of principle, appear to be reductive. In them, in fact, the preventive system is seen exclusively from a "pedagogical" perspective and in relation to a total institution, such as a hospice or a college.6 Instead, in the whole of Don Bosco's experiences and in his reflections on they, the "pedagogical" dimension of the system itself translates into several "methodological" versions, notably differentiated, corresponding to the variety of operational initiatives and institutions in which it arises and takes shape: the oratory, the association, the culture
At the same time, in Don Bosco too the awareness of the universal character of his system is growing, applicable both within Salesian institutions and in the widest range of educational and re-educational institutions. The young universe, in the multiplicity of social, cultural, psychological conditions, in the possibilities and methods of prevention and recovery, was immensely larger than the forces at its disposal could achieve, numerically modest and with limited possibilities for articulated qualifications. Moreover, it is obvious that even for today and for the future, the potential sphere of action of his preventive message far exceeds the scope of his personal and institutional choices: See P. BRAIDO, The pedagogical experience of Don Bosco in his "becoming", in "Orientazioni Pedagogici" 36 (1989), pp. 32-35 (The preventive system published and proposed as a universal method of youth education); ID., Don Bosco's practice and the preventive system. The historical horizon, in vol. The Preventive System towards the Third Millennium. Rome, SDB Editions 1985, pp. 165-177 Operators, educators.
P. BRAIDO, The Preventive System of Don Bosco at the Origins (1841-1862). The path of the "budget" in reality and in documents, in "Salesian Historical Researches" 14 (1995) 255-320.
The observations of P. STELLA, Don Bosco in the history of Catholic religiosity, vol. II Religious mentality and spirituality (Rome, LAS 1981), pp. 459-466 Values and limits of the brochure on the Preventive System.
popular, the handicraft hospice, the ecclesiastical institute-seminary, the college, the community of «religious» -educators.
Not only that, but beyond the "educational" dimension, in the different methodological configurations there is one, fundamental, that precedes and supports it, and is that beneficial, welfare, social, "political". It emerges clearly from the implementations and formulations of the first decades and becomes urgent in the words and writings of the years 1877-1887: requests for subsidies to private authorities and bodies, circulars for lotteries and constructions, in particular with the birth of the "Salesian Bulletin »In 1877 the letter to the cooperators of each beginning of the year, the sermons de charité, the conferences, the speeches. It was strongly emphasized alongside the educational one already in the last decades of the nineteenth century, beset by the "social question", and in the early 1900s, often in contrast to solutions of socialist and anti-Christian inspiration.
The different figures of the "preventive system" and, above all, the two basic educational and social dimensions, constantly accompany Don Bosco in the development of his experience and his reflections, with alternating prevalence of one or the other. The writings are also mirrored, of which we want to present, according to the chronological order of the composition or events to which we refer, the most synthetic and meaningful expressions, drawing from a vast production, which from different angles reflects ever present preventive concerns . '
None of them has come to a complete "organic theoretical arrangement" and to determine their succession there often occurred random "circumstances," but always in relation to permanent ideal inspirations and unshakable certainties.
'See P. BRAIDO, "Poor and abandoned", "unsafe and dangerous": pedagogy, assistance, sociality in Don Bosco's "preventive experience", in "Annals of the history of education and scholastic institutions", 3. Brescia, La Scuola 1996, pp. 183-236.
See P. STELLA, The printed writings of St. John Bosco. Rome, LAS 1977, 176 p. The writings published after the death of Don Bosco and, therefore, not included in the publication of Pietro Stella, will be specified as they will be mentioned.
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Don Bosco soon formed very clear ideas about what he wanted to do and how, about the program and the method. Therefore, as the dimensions of action expand, the corresponding forms and structures are accompanied by specifying; therefore, also the concrete programming and the relative "documents" of animation and direction: constitutions, general and particular regulations, chapter and council acts, the innumerable provisions matured in meetings with individuals and communities, in visits and inspections, or entrusted to individual letters and circular.
In this persistent regulatory effort, supported by a patient desire to adapt and readjust to changing situations, he reveals marked qualities that could escape those who insisted on the "mysterious" and "enigmatic": intelligence, "quantitatively above the media "," qualitatively producer "," not in depth in all that learns and observes ", with" the push towards organization in a broad range of marked activity "," the originality of its discoveries "and" the continuity of the action".'
The result is a significant characteristic of his normative and animation activity, in practice and in the writings, including in a privileged way those gathered in the present anthology. The continuous reference to the base, to individuals, which becomes a sharing of work and life, listening, consultation, formal and informal, has the consequence that the progressive elaboration of experiences and formulas reflected is both personal and institutional, individual and community. The interaction becomes more intense as Don Bosco associates young students with his activity, which he molds according to his own ideal, makes it a "religious society", starting them to become co-protagonists in the welfare and educational action. In this way, as a teacher, he almost inadvertently becomes a "disciple" within collectively constructed experiences. How could he act, speak and write in that way of the director, of assistance, of the "preventive system", of the educational "family", of study and work, of "piety", of play and of joy, without the custom with directors, assistants, teachers, instructors, immersed daily with him - and even more than he - in the commitment among young people, in solidarity with them, participating in their successes, but also in difficulties, problems, defeats? It is natural that this involvement of action and reflection grows with the expansion of the number and age of the collaborators and institutions and the consequent multiplication of meetings, debates, discussions and deli of the educational "family", of study and work, of "piety", of play and joy, without the custom of directors, assistants, teachers, instructors, immersed daily with him - and even more than him - in the commitment among young people, in solidarity with them, do you share in their successes, but also in their difficulties, problems and defeats? It is natural that this involvement of action and reflection grows with the expansion of the number and age of the collaborators and institutions and the consequent multiplication of meetings, debates, discussions and deli of the educational "family", of study and work, of "piety", of play and joy, without the custom of directors, assistants, teachers, instructors, immersed daily with him - and even more than him - in the commitment among young people, in solidarity with them, do you share in their successes, but also in their difficulties, problems and defeats? It is natural that this involvement of action and reflection grows with the expansion of the number and age of the collaborators and institutions and the consequent multiplication of meetings, debates, discussions and deli do you stand in solidarity with them, share in their successes, but also in their difficulties, problems and defeats? It is natural that this involvement of action and reflection grows with the expansion of the number and age of the collaborators and institutions and the consequent multiplication of meetings, debates, discussions and deli do you stand in solidarity with them, share in their successes, but also in difficulties, problems, defeats? It is natural that this involvement of action and reflection grows with the expansion of the number and age of the collaborators and institutions and the consequent multiplication of meetings, debates, discussions and deli
9 See G. MORETTI, The Saints in their Writing. Graphological examinations. Rome, Pauline Editions 1975, pp. 300-301.
settlements agreed in the consultative and decision-making assemblies, as well as in the daily «conversation»)
Consequently, in this historical-vital tradition, even writings not immediately drafted by him, but desired or inspired in unity with a common experience, such as the letters dated May 10, 1884 and the same circular on the punishments of January 29, 1883. As a transcription or echo of lived and explicit experiences, the documentation on the state of the oratory in 1849 is accepted and proposed , the conversation with Urbano Rattazzi of 1854 and the dialogue with Francesco Bodrato of 1864.
All seem to retain persuasive historical validity, although some were for a long time ignored or remained unpublished or were handed down in fragmentary forms. They are equally the expression of a collective and institutionalized tradition, which guaranteed their survival and continuity in terms of facts, handing down the same inspirations, needs and sensibilities, from which they originated.
From the first group of reproduced documents (1845-1862) at least two aspects emerge of Don Bosco's progressive awareness of his peculiar youthful and popular "mission": the emergence already in the most ancient writings (1845, 1847) of some germinal features of his educational style, perceived by the reviewers themselves; and the growing persuasion in those who observe the activity with greater attention and sympathy, that he reveals relatively original ways of intervening, a "new" and "typical" system "The summit of these initial developments can be represented by the conversation with U Rattazzi in April
10 Pietro Braido
of 1854. Indeed the utterances also appear too refined and are certainly influenced by the fact that the text was first published in the Salesian Bulletin of November 1882. But it is quite plausible that conversing on education systems with a a lay minister, rather than referring to the festive oratory and the annexed hospice, Don Bosco preferred to propose the extension of his pedagogical experiences to the "penal establishments" or "State criminal institutes" and, more broadly, to the "public schools" and to the "Houses of education".
However, the "educational system" of Don Bosco first and more than reflection on reality is a lived experience and "pedagogy told", as shown by the Historical Reference (1854) and the Historical Outlines (1862) on the Oratory of St. Francis of Sales. They can be considered as the most ancient and significant formulations of his vision of the youth problem and his style of intervention, supplemented by the interesting hints about the primitive oratory offered in La forza della buona educación (1855) 12 and Severino (1868). ' 3
On the contrary, ends, contents, methods will undergo variations of accent in the biographies of Domenico Savio (1859), Michele Magone (1861), Francesco Be-succore (1864) and in the same Valentino (1866), in many respects apparente.'4 Il speech, in fact, is closely connected with the life of a boarding school, which is almost a "small seminary", and deals with young aspirants to the ecclesiastical state.
Traits very close to the latter are, evidently, found in the Confidential confidential memoirs, which originate from a letter addressed to Don Michele Rua, who in November 1863 took over the management of the college or small seminary of Mirabello Monferrato. But a new element also insinuates itself in them: the "system" or style is not only the rule of life of the educational institution; it becomes a form of "religious" cohabitation (educators belong to a society of consecrated persons through vows for the educational mission) and, on the outside, a typical way of relating to the wider civil and ecclesial space (outside).
For himself, not of his own youth institutions but of more general educational fields, Don Bosco takes into account the meeting in Mornese in the Monferrato with
It should be extended, it seems, although in different measures, to the various documents as it seemed appropriate to state in particular for the two known letters of 1884, undoubtedly not written or dictated by Don Bosco. Beyond the problem "of the people immediately involved and the only direct witnesses to the genesis of the documents, it is clear that the two compositions constitute a happy synthesis of a collective experience, matured over several decades by Don Bosco together with his collaborators, which he has rethought and already formulated on several occasions, as can also be seen from the documentation reported in the source apparatus in the critical edition. Letters arise from a living and consolidated tradition; they express it and reformulate it in sometimes original and incisive terms; on the theoretical level they enrich and perfect it. So they go
"It is worth bearing in mind that between the Chronicle by C. Danna (1849) and the conversation with the Justice Minister U. Rattazzi (1854), with Patente of March 31, 1852 of the Archbishop of Turin Monsignor Luigi Fransoni, exile in Lyon, Don Bosco was appointed spiritual head director of the three Turin Oratories of St. Francis de Sales, of St. Luigi Gonzaga, of the Custodian Angel 12 See J. SCHEPENS, "The power of good education" .Etude d'un ecrit de don Bosco, in vol. The commitment of the educator, edited by JM Prellezo, Rome, LAS 1991, pp. 417-433.
"3 See B. DECANCQ," Severino. "Study of the brochure with particular attention at the "first oratory", in " Salesian Historical Researches " 11 (1992) 221-318.
14 See G. Bosco, Valentino or the impeded vocation. Introduction and critical text by Mathew Pulingathil. Rome, LAS 1987.
the elementary teacher Francesco Bodrato, in October 1864. In fact the discourse, less "systematic" and more archaic than the conversation with Urbano Rattazzi of 1854 (drawn up however, as we said, in 1882), limits itself to mentioning to the general inspirations of religion and reason, with indirect reverberation of love.
Instead, the Memoirs of the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales, not Don Bosco's autobiography, have a completely different approach and scope, not primarily the history of the Oratory, but an intentional proposal of an ideal program, of a realized and indefinitely perfectible "model" of Multidimensional youth "educational assistance". The recipients are the "Salesians", who more directly recognize themselves consecrated to the work of the "oratory", projected and prefigured in the dream of the nine years and subsequently incarnated in the various forms of presence among the young suggested by the circumstances, "according to the needs of the times »
"Occasional" is the more "pedagogical" writing of Don Bosco, 1877, in which the fortunate formula "preventive system" appears for the first time. Together with propaganda, information and operational management, it relates to other regulations and will be defined by him as "our regulation".
The pages on the "preventive system in the education of youth", presented in February 1878 to the Interior Minister Francesco Crispi, seem to be even more uncovered by advertising and information intentions. The dictation is almost entirely new compared to the pages of 1877. Context, solution perspectives, recipients are completely new, only similar to those hypothesized in the conversation with Rattazzi of 1854.
Angusti are the destination and the object of the circular on the punishments of 1883, a theme that in the pages on the preventive system of 1877 had just been touched on, almost to remove it.
And of limited scope, as to the genesis and the immediate results, also appears the letter dated May 10, 1884, in double writing. The horizon is the small Turin world of Valdocco and the totality of the system is not reflected in it, although the central theme of educational love is there.
Instead, the last writings (1885-1886), the so-called spiritual Testament and the three American letters expand the horizons, making explicit and enriching what was already announced in Confidential Memories. The "preventive system" becomes a global style of life and action, spiritual and "religious" pedagogy, "Salesian spirit".
'5 See G. Bosco, Memoirs of the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales from 1815 to 1855. Introduction, notes and critical text by Antonio da Silva Ferreira. Rome, LAS 1991.
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The circle is only apparently closed; for on the operational level as on that of formulas and codifications, silences and gaps abound, which other "occasions" could have filled. Probably neither the fluidity of the experiences nor the personal mental propensities (and the very precariousness of the pedagogical and pastoral knowledge) would never have allowed Don Bosco to reach that complete theoretical work that he seems to forecast at the beginning of the pages on the preventive system, in truth more rhetorically than realistically.
The different origin and quality of the writings, the heterogeneity of contexts and contexts within Don Bosco's overall action, will necessarily have to impose particular attentions on reading and interpretation.
As has been repeatedly emphasized, the inevitable problem of the relationship between writings and works must be borne in mind. " Don Bosco, in fact, is first of all a man of action, interested in concrete problems to be solved and in the tireless search for practical solutions. The same writings respond to the need for intervention in the face of situations to which to give persuasive and effective answers and not so much speculative solutions in homage to the coherence of an order of ideas. They also accompany or follow the experience to describe it, clarify it, direct it, prescribe it, regulate it.
It follows that if the knowledge of the writings is essential for a complete understanding of the overall action, their reading and interpretation would be largely incomplete and even distorted without the constant control of experience. "Writings and works can be considered two inseparable dimensions of operational vitality of Don Bosco, of the collaborators and institutions in which they act and interact together It is not said that it always results in a unitary and coherent whole: the "theory" does not always adapt the practice and this may appear from time to time more advanced or more cramped than that, and obviously both riu
16 In this perspective the alternative of Don Bosco, educator or educator, was discussed at length. See P. BRAIDO, The Preventive System of Don Bosco. Turin, PAS 1955, pp. 25-30; more explicitly in the second edition (1964), pp. 59-73 (The educational "art" of Don Bosco) and in the introduction to vol. SG Bosco, written on the preventive system. Brescia, La Scuola 1965, pp. XXXIV-XLIII (Don Bosco artist of education).
"For more extensive reasons and developments, see the introduction to the quoted volume SG Bosco, Writings on the preventive system, pp. XI-LVII (Meaning and limits of the presence of the preventive system of Don Bosco in his writings) and to the collection SAN JUAN Bosco , Obras fundamentales, edited by J. Canals Pujol and A. Martinez Azcona, Madrid, BAC 1978, pp. XIII-XXXII (Los escritos en la experiencia pedagógica de Don Bosco).
scire considerably conditioned by psychological, environmental and cultural mortgages.'8
A second commitment to discernment and integration is required of the reader from the relatively fragmentary and "occasional" nature of Don Bosco's "theoretical" and programmatic writings. In no one is it possible to find an exhaustive and organic exposition of his operational vision. Nor can they relate to almost parts or chapters of a completed system. Therefore, they will have to be read, meditated, critically studied and interpreted, not only in reference to the global experience, but in the reciprocal connections and in the whole of Don Bosco's entire written production.
In this indispensable operation, besides the present collection, at least a double series of writings could be usefully privileged, which can be placed in the same programmatic, historical and reflected line: the Memoirs of the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales, fundamental and, paradoxically, perhaps the document More theoretical and normative intentional than Don Bosco; '9 and the biographies of Domenico Savio (1859), Michele Magone (1861) and Francesco Besucco (1864), supplemented by the other three more or less fictionalized: La forza della buona educación (1855), Valentino or the impeded vocation ( 1866) and Severino or adventures of a young alpigiano (1868).
With all this, a complete and exhaustive "system" cannot come out, nor for yesterday, much less for today. Furthermore, an objective understanding should take into account the hierarchies of the themes, their quantitative extension and the quality and intensity of the developments, in particular of the many and eloquent silences. For this reason a more "cultural" contextualization cannot be ignored. This last criterion of reading cannot, therefore, disregard the largest possible supply on Don Bosco, on history, on the "mentality", on the genesis, development, and even material conditions of his works. Moreover, historically founded and rigorously elaborated contributions are not lacking; 2nd and not even a few suggestions and research proposals.2 '
18 On this point, which is considered the capital for the exact perception of the historical significance of Don Bosco, exposed to the opposing dangers of reductionism and hyperbole, some brief considerations have been proposed on the subject of the presence of the laity in the Church and in society according to Don Bosco (praxis and ideas), extensible to his entire operational and reflected experience: cf. P. BRAIDO, Laity and lay people in the operational project of Don Bosco, in vol. Lay people in the Salesian family. Proceedings of the XII Week of Spirituality of the Salesian Family, edited by M. Cogliandro and A. Martinelli. Rome 1986, pp. 32-34.
I9 Only the preface will be presented, which specifies the recipients, the aims and the meaning.
20 The studies of P. STELLA, Don Bosco in the history of Catholic religiosity, vol. I Life and works. Rome, LAS 1979; vol. II Religious mentality and spirituality. Ib. 1981; ID., Don Bosco in economic and social history (1815-1870). Ib, 1980.
2 'See, for example, P. BRAIDO, Don Bosco's operational project and the utopia of Christian society. Rome, LAS 1982 and Intellectual Light full of love ..., pp. 1063-1073, in particular pp. 1071-1073 (Rational and creative love).
22 See F. DESRAMAUT, Don Bosco en son temps (1815-1888). Turin, SEI 1996, XIX-1451 p.
14 Pietro Braido
For a better positioning over time of the writings of Don Bosco presented here it seems appropriate to offer the schematic summary of significant dates of his life and activities.
Don Bosco's biography can be divided into three periods: the "preparation" (1815-1844), the delineation of the fundamental features of his educational action (1844-1869), the organizational and "theoretical" consolidation of his institutions (1870- 1888).
1815 (August 16) was born in the town of Becchi in the municipality of Castelnuovo d'Asti.
1817 his father dies.
1824 he began reading and writing from a priest, don Giuseppe Lacqua.
1827 (at Easter) is admitted to the first Communion.
1828 (February) is a boy in the Moglia farmhouse (until autumn 1829). 1829 (November) resumes the study of Italian and Latin at
the priest D. Giovanni Calosso (died November 21, 1830). 1830 from January he attends the elementary municipal school of Castel
nuovo (Christmas 1830-summer 1831).
1831 from November he is a student at the public school of grammar, humanity and rhetoric of Chieri.
1835 enters the Chieri Seminary where he studies philosophy and theology.
1841 on June 5, the eve of the feast of the SS. Trinity, in Turin he receives priestly ordination.
1841 (November) enters the Ecclesiastical College in Turin for the practical study of morality and homiletics; at the same time he is involved in catechesis for city children and immigrants.
1844 (October) is a chaplain in one of the institutions of the Marquise of Barolo, settling in the Refuge.
1845 (May) - 1846 (March) the difficult peregrinations of the "Oratorio" take place from S. Pietro in Vincoli to the Molini Dora, to Casa Moretta and to Filippi meadow.
1846 in April there is the final arrangement of the Oratory in the Pinardi house, in the Valdocco region, where in November it comes to live with its mother; during the winter the night schools begin with the teaching of reading and writing and then of drawing and arithmetic.
1847 the hospice begins; at the Porta Nuova the oratory of S. Luigi is open; the Compagnia di S. Luigi rises.
1848 (October) the publication of The Friend of Youth begins, a religious, moral and political newspaper (it will last six months, later merging with the Instructor of the people).
1849 takes over the management of the Oratory of the Guardian Angel in the Vanchiglia region; establishes the Society of Workers or Mutual Aid (the statute of 1850).
1852 (March 31) the archbishop mgr. Fransoni appoints Don Bosco as "director and spiritual leader" of the oratory of St. Francis de Sales, to whom the oratories of St. Louis and of the Guardian Angel must be "united and dependent".
1853 begins the publication of the Catholic Readings and opens a modest internal laboratory for shoemakers.
1854 the bookbinding workshop is opened; to two clerics (including Rua) and two young men (including Cagliero) Don Bosco proposes to experience an apostolic associative form, seed of the future Salesian Society; first contacts with the Minister Urbano Rattazzi; Domenico Savio (1842-1857) joined the students of Valdocco.
1855 the third internal school class was established (so far the young students attended private schools).
1856 the carpentry and tailoring laboratories are opened and the first and second high school are introduced; the Compagnia dell'Immacolata is established.
1857 the Compagnia del SS. Sacrament and the Little Clergy constituted; a Youth Conference of St. Vincent de Paul is also established.
1858 Don Bosco makes his first trip to Rome to submit to Pius IX his plan for a religious society, dedicated to the young; a first draft of constitutions is compiled.
1859 the gymnasium is completed (five classes); the Compagnia di San Giuseppe is established; the Salesian Society stands as a private and de facto religious association.
1860 the first two lay Salesians ("Coadiutori") are present in the privately constituted religious society.
1861 (December 31st) the opening of the printers' laboratory is authorized.
16 Pietro Braido
1862 the blacksmiths' workshop was born; profession of religious vows of the first Salesians (May 14).
1863 the first institute outside Turin is inaugurated, in Mirabello Monferrato, under the direction of Don Rua, to whom Don Bosco writes a letter for the occasion, which contains the first text of Confidential Memories (the institute will be transferred to Borgo S. Martino in 1870).
1864 the college of Lanzo Torinese begins its activity; Decretum laudis in favor of the Salesian Society.
1865 draft of the Library of Latin writers: it begins in 1866 with the title «Selecta ex latinis scriptoribus in usum scholarum».
1868 consecration of the church of Mary Help of Christians.
1869 (19 febbraio) approvazione pontificia della Società Salesiana (decreto del 1° marzo); apertura dell'istituto di Cherasco; esce il primo volume della Biblioteca della gioventù italiana (nel 1885 arriverà al 204° e ultimo volume).
1870 fondazione del collegio-convitto municipale di Alassio.
1871 fondazione del collegio-convitto municipale di Varazze e della scuola per artigiani a Marassi (Genova), trasferita l'anno seguente a Sampierdarena (Genova).
1872 accettazione del collegio de' nobili di Valsalice (Torino). Fondazione della Congregazione religiosa femminile con il titolo di Istituto delle Figlie di Maria Ausiliatrice.
1874 le Costituzioni della Società Salesiana vengono definitivamente approvate dalla Santa Sede.
1875 inizio della diffusione delle opere di don Bosco in Francia e nel continente sudamericano (Argentina, Uruguay, Brasile, ecc.) con istituzioni educative, scolastiche, professionali, iniziative per l'assistenza agli emigranti e attività missionarie.
1876 approvazione pontificia dell' Associazione dei Cooperatori e Cooperatrici Salesiani.
1877 è celebrato il primo Capitolo Generale della Società di San Francesco di Sales, seguito, vivente don Bosco, da altri tre: 1880, 1883, 1886. Nel 1877 si ha pure la pubblicazione delle classiche pagine sul sistema preventivo e dei Regolamenti. In agosto ha inizio il Bollettino Salesiano.
1880 don Bosco accetta di costruire la chiesa del S. Cuore a Roma (sarà consacrata nel maggio del 1887).
1881 i Salesiani entrano in Spagna (Utrera).
I 883 viaggio trionfale a Parigi.
1884 penultimo viaggio a Roma (il 19°) per problemi connessi con la costruzione della chiesa del S. Cuore e con il conseguimento di speciali garanzie giuridiche per la sua Società religiosa.
1886 8 aprile-6 maggio: eccezionale accoglienza e permanenza in Spagna, a Barcellona.
1888 31 gennaio: morte di don Bosco.
Roma, 31 gennaio 1997
18 Pietro Braido
NB. The apparatus of variants accompanying the texts published in this volume is considerably reduced compared to that of the original critical editions listed in the Bibliographic Note.
20 Pietro Braido
The writings published in the present volume are listed first in chronological order, the critical edition of which has already been edited. This is followed by the indication of some anthological collections dedicated to Don Bosco and of studies considered particularly suitable for guiding the educator and spiritual animator in the reading of Don Bosco.
A. GIRAUDO, «Sacra Real Maestà». Considerations about some unpublished don Bosco's, in "Salesian Historical Researches" 13 (1994) 267-313.
P. BRAIDO, Don Bosco for poor youth and abandoned in two unpublished works of 1854 and 1862, in vol. Don Bosco in the Church at the service of humanity. Rome, LAS 1987, pp. 13-81.
F. MOTTO, The "Confidential Memories to the Directors" of Don Bosco, RSS 3 (1984) 125-166.
A. FERREIRA DA SILVA, The dialogue between Don Bosco and the master Francesco Bodrato, RSS 3 (1984) 375-387.
J. BORREGO, Recuerdos de San Juan Bosco in los primeros misioneros, RSS 3 (1984) 167-208.
GIOVANNI (s.) Bosco, The Preventive System in Youth Education. Introduction and critical texts by Pietro Braido, RSS 4 (1985) 171-321. [There is also the text of the preventive system applied among the unsafe youngsters of 1878, pp. 300-304].
P. BRAIDO, The "preventive system" in a "decalogue" for educators, RSS 4 (1985) 131-148.
JM PRELLEZO, of punishments to be inflicted on Salesian houses. A circular letter attributed to Don Bosco, RSS 5 (1986) 263-308.
P. BRAIDO, The letter of Don Bosco from Rome of 10 May 1884, RSS 3 (1984) 295374.
AND MOTTO, Memories from 1841 to 1884-5-6 for the sac. Gio. Bosco to his Salesian sons. [Spiritual Testament], RSS 4 (1985) 73-130.
Bosco (s.) GIOVANNI, Writings on the preventive system in youth education. Introduction, presentation and alphabetical and systematic indexes by P. BRAIDO. Brescia, La Scuola 1965, LVII-668 p.
Bosco Giovanni, spiritual writings. Introduction, choice of texts and notes edited by Joseph Aubry, 2 vol. Rome, Città Nuova 1976, 258 + 356 p.
San Juan Bosco, Obras fundamentales. Edición dirigida por Juan Canals Pujol y Antonio Martinez Azcona. Estudio introductorio de Pedro Braido. Madrid, Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos 1978, XXXII-831 p.
P. BRAIDO, The preventive pedagogical experience in the dry. XIX. - Don Bosco, in Experiences of Christian pedagogy in history, vol. II: Sec. XVII-XIX. Rome, LAS 1981, pp. 271-401.
P. BRAIDO, Don Bosco's pedagogical experience. Rome, LAS 1989 (the French, English and Spanish editions have appeared with the same publisher).
P. BRAIDO, Don Bosco's operational project and the utopia of Christian society. Rome, LAS 1982.
P. BRAIDO (edited), Don Bosco in the Church at the service of humanity. Studies and testimonies. Rome, LAS 1987.
P. BRAIDO, Don Bosco for young people: The "oratory" - A "Congregation of Oratories". Rome, LAS 1988.
F. DESRAMAUT, Don Bosco et la vie spirituelle. Paris, Beauchesne 1967. F. DESRAMAUT, Don Bosco en son temps (1815-1888). Turin, SEI 1996.
Don Bosco and his pedagogical experience: inheritance, contexts, developments, resonances,
edited by C. Nanni, in «Orientazioni Pedagogici» 36 (1989) 1-241.
Don Bosco in the history of popular culture, edited by F. Traniello. Turin, SEI 1987.
Don Bosco in history. Proceedings of the 1st International Congress of Studies on Don Bosco (Salesian Pontifical University - Rome, 16-20 January 1989), edited by M. Midali. Rome, LAS 1990.
Éducation et pédagogie chez Don Bosco. Colloque interuniversitaire, Lyon, 4-7 avril 1988. Paris, Editions Fleurus 1989.
R. FARINA, Reading Don Bosco today. Methodological notes and suggestions, in Ongoing Formation he calls upon religious Institutes. Leumann (Turin), LDC 1976, pp. 349-404.
JM PRELLEZO, Valdocco in the nineteenth century between real and ideal (1866-1889). Documents and testimonials. Rome, LAS 1992.
P. STELLA, The press writings of S. Giovanni Bosco. Rome, LAS 1977.
P. STELLA, Don Bosco in the history of Catholic religiosity, vol. I: Life and works. Rome, LAS 1979 '; vol. II: Religious mentality and spirituality. Ibid, 1981; vol. III. The canonization (1888-1934). Ibid. 1988.
P. STELLA, Don Bosco in economic and social history (1815-1870). Rome, LAS 1980.
Between May and June 1863 Don Bosco, following an inspection of the scholastic authority at his Turin-Valdocco high school and a clarification interview with Michele Amari (1806-1889), at the PI from 1862 to 1864, wrote to the minister at some of his writings: «(...) I will tell you that among the various books printed with my name, you note the Sacred History, Ecclesiastical History, and the History of Italy. These three operettas were written under the eyes and with the revision of the Government. He brought a copy of it to all the authorities of every edition just ended; and since my purpose, everyone can see it in all the leaders, to instill moral thoughts and lead the young reader to the consideration of the divine law, which obliges every man to the observance of the human law, so I had only word of encouragement "."
There is some forcing in what Don Bosco says, master of the "captatio benevolentiae". Among other things, is it certain that his Stories, especially sacred and ecclesiastical, primarily pursue religious, purely catechistic and apologetic goals? Naturally, moral and civil aspects are also included. For sacred History, an anonymous reviewer in "L'Educatore Primario" also stresses this, when he calls it "truly industrious. Inasmuch as beyond the stimulus to virtue and the abhorrence of the vice which you perceive on every page, we see that the good man must unite work with virtue ".
In the second edition (1853) of this fortunate work (it had more than a hundred editions in Italian and several dozen reprints, and multiple translations in foreign languages) there is a marked "theological" attention to the history of salvation, "the providential end of the Sacred Books having been of keeping alive in men the faith in the Messiah »?
1 In I 585,
2 Concerning ecclesiastical history, Fr. Stella observes: "Don Bosco, while he is at the table filling out his history, has no educated clergy or lay people before him, but boys from public schools, colleges or seminaries, young artisans desirous of learn in evening schools (...). Don Bosco (...) does not choose passages on the relations between Popes and emperors or on heretics in conflict with Orthodox Catholics, but edifying episodes, hagiographic portraits, miracles and virtuous acts that dot the events of the Church, show its "progress" ( is its term) and "like it in the midst of so many contrasts are propagated and preserved". More than Loriquet (and the Lhomond, from which Loriquet derives), Don Bosco wonders what saints flourished in the Church, what works of charity they promoted (...) "(P. STELLA, Don Bosco in the history of Catholic religiosity, vol. I, p. 230).
3 See N. CERRATO, The catechesis of Don Bosco in its sacred history. Rome, LAS 1979, pp. 71-80.
26 Pietro Braido
The inspiration to "piety" then appears even more accentuated in The Young Provided, which wants to be explicitly a book of prayer and a "Christian method of life" .4
But "theological" elements about the availability of the young age to moral and religious education are also contained in the short text drawn from a Regulation Plan dating back to 1854.
These same intentions are found in the History of Italy, which ought to have favored the lay components rather than the object. Instead, "in Don Bosco's stories, as in those of his main models, episodes and characters are found more than an organic fabric of events; and the clear narrative, to which Don Bosco had by now practiced for a decade and which turns out to be really adapted to the intelligence of those to whom it is addressed. They are pages of an educator who narrates. Although the preoccupation with the truthfulness and validity of what it presents is not extraneous, his dominant care is to teach, to present the facts "most fruitful in morality and useful teachings", studying, like Parravicini, to bring forth the moral teaching from the same exposition of the facts,
The news and the "chronicles" that appear in L. Valerio's family readings in 1846 and, in 1849, in the two Catholic newspapers, L'Armonia and Il Conciliatore Torinese for solicitude, respectively, by theologians Guglielmo Audisio and Lorenzo Gastaldi and in the pedagogical journal Giornale of the Society of education and education, in a Chronicle written by C. Danna. It is a significant indication that Don Bosco's incipient work is perceived to be very close to the demands of a moral and civil elevation of the popular strata and of a planned and generalized basic education, of which these periodicals are lively promoters. "
4 The young man provided for the practice of his duties of Christian piety ... Turin, tip. Paravia and comp. 1847, OE II 185-532.
P. STELLA, Don Bosco in the history of Catholic religiosity, vol. I, pp. 231-232. This way of seeing is placed in a broader historical-theological perspective: see P. STELLA, Don Bosco in the history of Catholic religiosity, vol. II, chap. IV History and salvation, p. 59-100.
G. Bosco, Fragments and documents 27
The prefaces of Don Bosco's books are taken from the following editions:
Ecclesiastical history for use by schools useful for every class of people dedicated to the Hon ... Lord F. Ervé de la Croix provincial of the DIDSC Brothers compiled by the priest BG Turin, tip. Speirani and Ferrero 1845, pp. 7-12 - OE I 165-170.
Sacred history for use of schools useful to every state of persons enriched with similar engravings compiled by the priest Giovanni Bosco. Turin, come on
dictionary of Speirani e Ferrero 1847, pp. 5-8 - OE III 5-8.
Sacred history for use of schools useful to every state of persons enriched with similar engravings compiled by the priest Giovanni Bosco. Edition 2 "improved. Turin, by the printers-publishers Speirani and Tortone 1853, pp. 3-6.
The young man provided for the practice of his duties in the exercises of Christian piety ... Turin, tip. Paravia 1847, pp. 5-8 - OE II 185-188.
The history of Italy told to the youth by its first inhabitants up to our days accompanied by a Geographical Map of Italy by the Priest Bosco Giovanni. Turin, tip. Paravia 1855, pp. 3-5 - OE VII 3-5.
Some bibliographical references are added for the benefit of those who wish to read and interpret the prefaces, reproduced in the volume, in relation to the works from which they are extracted.
P. BRAIDO, Styles of popular Christian education on the threshold of 1848, in vol. Pedagogy between tradition and innovation. Milan, Life and Thought 1979, pp. 383-404.
A. CAVIGLIA (ed.), Works and writings published and unpublished by "Don Bosco":
Vol. I, Part I Sacred History. Turin, SEI 1929. Introductory note: "Sacred History" and "Ecclesiastical History" in the idea and writings of Don Bosco, pp. VII-LI.
Vol. I, Part II Ecclesiastical History. Turin, SEI 1929. Preliminary note: The original survivors of Don Bosco's writings on ecclesiastical history, pp. VII-XXIV and pp. 5-8.
Vol. III The history of Italy. Turin, SEI 1935. Introductory speech: The history of Italy masterpiece of Don Bosco, pp. IX-CVI. '
6 See A. GAMBARO, Piedmontese pedagogical movement in the first half of the nineteenth century, in «Salesianum» 12 (1950) 215-228; R. BERARDI, School and politics in the Risorgimento. The education of the people from the Carlo Albertine reforms to the Casati law (1840-1859). Turin 1982; G. CHIOSSO, Don Bosco's oratory and educational renewal in the Carloalbertino Piedmont, in vol. Don Bosco in the Church at the service of humanity. Rome, LAS 1987, pp. 83116, in particular pp. 109-112; G. CHIOSSO, Popularity and modernity in Don Bosco's pedagogical experience, in "Orientazioni Pedagogici" 36 (1989) 77-99.
'On the works of A. Caviglia, some clarifications by P. Stella must be taken into consideration: «It is obvious that the ecclesiastical history for use by schools (1845) must not be compared to the ecclesiastical history of Fleury and even with the similar stories of Bercastel, of Rohrbacher, of the Ddllinger or with the Corso del Salzano. See Bibliography of works recognized or cited as a source or model for Don Bosco's "History of Italy", in CAVIGLIA, Introductory Speech, p. C-CVI. Unfortunately there are gaps, not a few inaccuracies and aporias. With the nickname of anonymous Mariettians the brochures of the Jesuit Loriquet and the others are presented and confused, compiled on the Rollin, and manipulated, according to SOMMERVOGEL, by the Jesuits Acacio SARACINELLI and Paolo BEORCHIA (Biblioth. De la Comp. De Jésus, I, cl 1317); the series of contemporary biographies for LC, Turin, De-Agostini 1853, 2 vol., source for the profile of Pellico and for that of Manzoni, of which the Caviglia sought in vain the model (oc, p. 579) is not reported. The edition of the Giannetto used by DB is certainly not that of Turin in 1838 (CAVIGLIA, oc, p. CII), but most probably the one reprinted several times in Livorno. As for the Lamé-Fleury, the dictation of DB is closer to the translation of Piucco, than to those of Mellini and Galeffi. Of the Bérault-Bercastel DB he did not use the Venice edition of 1793-1805 nor the one of Florence 1842-46, but the Turin of 1831-1835 ... As for the ecclesiastical history of DB, Don Caviglia did not make any related apparatus to the sources "(P. STELLA, Don Bosco in the history of Catholic religiosity, vol. I, p. 230, text and n. 7).
28 Pietro Braido
N. CERRATO, The catechesis of Don Bosco in its sacred history. Rome, LAS 1979.
P. STELLA, Spiritual Values in the "Young Man Provided" by St. John Bosco. Rome 1960
The educational intent of Don Bosco's first most important books, "useful for every class (or state) of people", but primarily for youth, is explicitly supplemented by "social prevention". It is highlighted by Don Bosco himself and by one of his admirers and friends, can. Ottavio Moreno, who is emotionally and professionally involved in the problem of "abandoned youth".
The first series of documents is concluded by the difficult-to-locate report of a "pedagogical conversation" between Don Bosco and the Minister Urbano Rattazzi in 1854. The editorial staff, however, dates back to a time very far from the event. Above all, some concepts - in particular the formulas «preventive system», «repressive system» - appear premature in 1854. Don Bosco, so faithful to the short and perfect maxims, would not have let them fall into oblivion for twenty-three years. They simply betray the familiarity of the editor, Don Bonetti, with the pages of 1877. All the rest, however, could be said at any other time, especially in a conversation with a justice minister engaged in the reform of the judiciary and the code penalty, as indicated below.
The text can make a significant bridge between the documents of the first and second sections of the anthology collection, representing - with reference to difficult children and prison - the synthesis of both aspects of the "preventive", educational and social action, in the primary and tertiary case.
G. Bosco, Fragments and documents 29
Dedicated to me for several years in the education of the young, eager to offer her all the most useful knowledge, which was possible for me, I did research for a short course in Sacred History principal
mind, and Ecclesiastical, that it was at its adapted capacity. 5
I read those belonging to the old and the New Testament, which are already running with great advantage for the hands of the young men, and I was fully satisfied. Then coming to ecclesiastical history I could not be satisfied.
Because I found many of them; but they are either too voluminous or extended more than duty in profane history; some may be called rather polemical dissertations on the splendor of the Church; others are finally translated from foreign languages and take the name of partial Stories, and not universal, and what I could not observe without indignation, it is that certain authors seem to have blushes of speaking of the Roman Pontiffs and of the more luminous facts than directly to the Holy Church concern.
4-8 «At the first announcement of a new course in Sacred History, some will say that this effort is useless at all, finding itself in the varied number of editions and authors already to satisfy every condition of people. The same seemed to me too; but put me to the examination of it I was disillusioned "- Sacred History (1847), preface, p. 5. - "I do not intend here to pass all the Bibles that we receive translated from foreign languages, I only mean those printed without the original, which are reduced to a summary for use by the youth. And since these are many I shrink to give a hint of the most accredited as we want: The Sacred History of Schmid which bears the title Stories extracted from the Holy Scriptures, and the Sacred History for use by the houses of education printed by Marietti, 1847. A sacred story destined for the par me schools that must rigorously have these three qualities: 1 true, 2 moral, 3 reserved (...). These three fundamental characters are missing in the stories we are talking about - Warning about the use to be made in schools of sacred stories translated from foreign languages »[A. CAVIGLIA], Works and writings published and unpublished by "Don Bosco" I, 1, pp. 17-18.
14-17 "The Church (...) is the congregation of all those who profess the faith and the doctrine of Jesus Christ, and are governed by a Supreme Head, who is his Vicar on earth" - Ecclesiastical History, p . 14 - «Thus Jesus Christ ascended to heaven (...) He appointed s. Peter to govern his Church, and from this point Ecclesiastical History begins "- Sacred History, p. 206. - "And One, because the true Catholics (...) all depend on a single leader, who is the Roman Pontiff, who, like a universal father, rules and governs the whole Catholic family (...) the Roman Pontiff, who, as the father of a great family, led in the past, and will guide all the good believers his children for the future until the end of the ages "The young man provided (18512, p. 324 - Fundamentals of the Catholic religion).
30 Pietro Braido
Therefore moved by the need, and by the requests of many zealous and authoritative people, I have undertaken to compile the present compendium 20 of Ecclesiastical History.
I read all the ones I could have written in our own languages, or foreign, and I got from each one those feelings, and those expressions that are more Italian, simple according to the capacity of a young man. The facts completely profane or civil, arid, or less interesting, or 25 places in question I have at all neglected, or only hinted at; those that seemed more tender and moving to me, I treated them more closely, so that not only the intellect is instructed, but the heart, too, feels such affections to remain not without a great spiritual benefit included.
30 For whoever was born, and was educated in the womb of the Catholic king
I think there can be no more necessary thing in religion, and that returning can be more agreeable at the same time, than that History, which sets forth the principle and progress of this religion, and makes it clear how it, in the midst of so many contrasts, has been propagated and preserved.
35 Because it is easier to perceive the most important thing vi
it contains, I divided it into epochs, all exposing it in the form of dialogue. And I did everything with the advice of prudent people.
Bless Heaven therefore this tenuous effort, whose purpose is to increase the glory of God, and to facilitate the advancement in the knowledge of that History, which of all, after the Sacred, is the most commendable, and is from Heaven blessed is that courteous reader who wishes to please you.
21-22 "It is obvious that the ecclesiastical history for the use of schools (1845) should not be compared to the ecclesiastical history of Fleury and even with the similar stories of Bercastel, of Rohrbacher, of Di: Munger or with the Corso del Salzano. Don Bosco (...) at a glance and within reach places the handbooks of Jean-Nicolas Loriquet (17671845), translated into Italian, published by Marietti, also with the subtitle "for the use of youth". Where it integrates or replaces, Don Bosco generally assumes from Bercastel »P. STELLA, Don Bosco in the history of Catholic religiosity I, p. 230.
32-34 "Ecclesiastical history is nothing other than the narration of those facts which were adverse or favorable to the Church from its foundation up to our times" - Ecclesiastical History, p. 13, see pp. 387-388.
G. Bosco, Fragments and documents 31
Useful books +
Church history for schools, useful for every class of people, dedicated to the most honorable Mr. And Ervè de la Croix provincial of the DIDSC brothers compiled by the priest BG Turin, Tip. Speirani and Ferrero 1845.
A new and very useful book, which also aims at the education of children, has come to light in these last days: this is an ecclesiastical story. The learned and good priest, author of the same who for modesty did not want to honor her by his name, seeing with regret in the abundance of voluminous ecclesiastical stories the lack of an elementary book, which gave an account of the birth, growth and finally the marvelous marvel of the church of Jesus Christ, he prepared himself to fill this void with dictating one, which discarding the political part, the controversy, and everything that does not touch religion very closely, included the story of the most important things.
Convinced of the great educational principle, that is, having to illuminate the mind in order to make the heart good, all went around the narrative on this pivot. So many things just hinted at her, others she was silent at all and around some much more it spread, that to a compendium it didn't agree. We do not even give him no honor from it, rather we give him praise of wisdom and good judgment. It is true that some other mende can find you: but is it worth of the human works clear and free of it? The period runs straight and easy, the language is quite pure, there is sometimes a force of eloquence; everywhere anointing is scattered, which gently moves you and attracts you to the good. - This precious booklet came from the types of Speirani and Ferrero, the edition is inexpensive, although adorned with engravings and with very clear and beautiful characters.
Sac. prof. RAMELLO '
+ «L'Educatore Primario. Giornale d'educazione ed istruzione elementare» 1 (1845) N° 34, 10 dicembre, p. 575'.
' Giuseppe Luigi RAMELLO, sacerdote, n, a Bra nel 1820, m. a Torino nel 1861, ispettore delle scuole elementari a Susa, promotore di numerose scuole serali nella città e zona di Pinerolo, professore di Metodo a Voghera, fu anche professore di grammatica nelle scuole dell'Oratorio di don Bosco nell'anno 1857-1858: cfr. «L'Educatore. Giornale di educazione ed istruzione» 4 (1848) marzo, pp. 173-178; «Giornale della Società d'istruzione e d'educazione» I (1849), p. 120 e 2 (1850), p. 476.
2 «L'Educatore Primario» (1845-1846), diretto da A. Fecia, coadiuvato da validi uomini di scuola, tra cui V. Troya e V. Garelli, usciva presso Paravia tre volte al mese (il 10, 20 e 30) in fascicoli di 16 pagine. Era destinato a insegnanti e a quanti si sentivano impegnati nella diffusione dell'istruzione e educazione morale, religiosa, culturale nelle scuole infantili, domenicali, serali, primarie tra il popolo, cioè tra la gente di campagna e, nella città, tra gli addetti ad attività artigianali; scopo: «dare alla nostra patria una gioventù istrutta e religiosa», ad opera di persone moralmente e pedagogicamente qualificate, poiché «educati maestri sapranno essi alla lor volta educare il popolo».
G. Bosco, Frammenti e documenti 33
Una lettera al marchese Michele Benso di Cavour
la parte che l'Eccellenza Vostra prende in tutto ciò che riguarda al buon ordine pubblico, civile e morale, mi fa sperare che non Le torni discaro un ragguaglio sopra di un nostro Catechismo, che ha di mira il bene della gioventù e di cui Ella stessa dimostrò più volte prenderne parte favorevole.
Questo Catechismo fu incominciato tre anni sono nella Chiesa di San Francesco d'Assisi e, benedicendo il Signore l'opera sua, i giovani intervennero sino al numero di cui erane il luogo capace. Allorché poi l'anno 1844 per cagion d'impiego mi sono andato a ristabilire alla Pia Opera del Rifugio, quei buoni giovanetti continuarono recarsi qua per la loro spirituale istruzione. Fu appunto in quel tempo che, di concerto con il signor teologo Borelli e don Pacchiotti, abbiamo presentato una memoria a Monsignor Arcivescovo, che ci autorizzò a convertire una nostra camera in Oratorio, dove si faceva il Catechismo, si udivano le confessioni, si celebrava la Santa Messa pei sovra accennati figliuoli.
Ma cresciuto il loro numero, né potendo più essere ivi contenuti, abbiamo supplicato gli Illustrissimi Signori di Città a tal oggetto, e ci venne riscontrato con autorizzazione di poter traslocare il nostro Catechismo nella Chiesa di San Martino presso ai Mulini della Città. Là il concorso dei ."giovani fu grande e sovente oltrepassava i duecento cinquanta.
Senonché anche da questa Chiesa siamo stati dai Signori Sindaci della Città prevenuti dover il nostro Catechismo altrove traslocarsi pel prossimo gennaio, senza che ci venisse accennato il motivo. L'imbroglio per noi era grande, abbandonare l'opera incominciata che pa
+ G. Bosco, Epistolario. Introduzione, testi critici e note, a cura di Francesco Motto, vol. I (1835-1863). Roma, LAS 1991, pp. 66-68.
' Intervento di don Bosco in prima persona presso il marchese Michele Benso di Cavour, Vicario di Città, per il trasferimento dell'Oratorio nella casa Pinardi nella zona periferica di Valdocco, nel Borgo Dora. Michele Benso, marchese di Cavour (1781-1850), padre di Gustavo e Camillo, dal 1819 è decurione di città a Torino e dal 1833 uno dei sindaci. Nel 1835 è nominato Vicario di Città (o di Polizia) e vi rimane fino al 1848. Il testo della lettera era stato pubblicato da G. Bracco nel suo saggio Don Bosco e le istituzioni, inserito nel vol. Torino e don Bosco, Parte prima, a cura di G. Bracco (Torino, Archivio Storico della Città di Torino 1989), pp. 126-128.
34 Pietro Braido
reva sì buona ci rincresceva, solo Sua Eccellenza il Conte di Collegno dopo d'aver parlato con Lei ci confortava proseguire.
Durante quest'inverno l'abbiamo fatto parte in nostra casa e parte in varie camere prese a pigione. Finalmente la settimana corrente siamo venuti a trattativa di un sito col signor Pinardi, con cui fu pattuita la somma di franchi ducento ottanta per una camera grande, che può servire di Oratorio, più altre due camere con sito aderente. Questo luogo ci sembra essere conveniente, sia perché trovasi molto vicino al Rifugio, come anche per essere in un posto affatto distante da ogni Chiesa e vicino a parecchie case; resta solo che Ella ci manifesti se vada bene in ciò che concerne alla società civile ed esteriore.
Lo scopo di questo Catechismo si è di raccogliere nei giorni festivi quei giovani che, abbandonati a se stessi, non intervengono ad alcuna Chiesa per l'istruzione, il che si fa prendendoli alle buone con parole, promesse, regali e simili. L'insegnamento si riduce precisamente a questo: 1° Amore al lavoro — 2° Frequenza dei Santi Sacramenti 3° Rispetto ad ogni superiorità — 4° Fuga dai cattivi compagni.
Questi principii che noi ci studiamo d'insinuare destramente nel cuore dei giovani hanno prodotto effetti meravigliosi. Nello spazio di tre anni più di venti abbracciarono lo stato religioso, sei studiano il latino per intraprendere le carriera ecclesiastica, molti altri ridotti a buoni sentimenti frequentano le loro rispettive parrocchie. Il che è molto considerevole attesa la qualità dei giovani, i quali comunemente sono all'età da dieci a sedici anni, senza principii di religione e di educazione, la maggior parte in preda ai vizii e in procinto di dar motivo di pubbliche lagnanze o di essere posti nei luoghi di punizione.
Ella ha un cuor buono e amante di tutto quello che ridonda al pubblico bene civile e morale; laonde la preghiamo a voler proteggere queste nostre fatiche, le quali, come ben vede, non tendono già ad alcuna ombra di lucro, ma solo a guadagnar anime al Signore.
Le spese che dobbiam fare per fornire di quanto ricercasi il luogo accennato sono molte; abbiamo già il prelodato Conte Collegno che si offrì nostro benefattore, il quale ci diede annuenza di manifestarlo a Vostra Eccellenza, a cui avrebbe poi egli stesso tenuto dettagliato discorso. Qualora poi Ella desiderasse di parlare con me e con i miei colleghi saremmo pronti ad ogni di Lei cenno, e sarebbe nostro ansioso desiderio.
Nell'atto poi che Lo prego d'aver per buona la libertà che mi son
G. Bosco, Frammenti e documenti 35
taken, I wish you all the good from the Lord and I consider myself in the greatest honor to be able to say to you with the most perfect esteem and with the most profound respect.
of Your Most humble Excellency
and very obliging servant
Bosco Gioanni priest
Spiritual Director at the Refuge
Turin on March 13th 1846.
I have spoken with HE Rev. Monsignor Archbishop and with the Count Colegno that there can be no doubt of the advantage of a Catechism and that I will gladly receive Mr. Bosco priest Monday 30 at the Office to the two vespertines.
Benso di Cavour.
2 The tone of the response and the positive outcomes of the meeting may legitimize some doubts about the total objectivity of what Don Bosco writes in the historical note (see further on pages 119-120).
36 Pietro Braido
Sunday schools and solazzi for the poor.
Letter to the Director of Readings.
I come in a hurry with these few lines of mine to notify the SV, as in part, of its most holy vow (published in n ° 21) so that the many ragged children also come to our Turin to be collected and instructed, to have been performed until the beginning of this year thanks to a small company of young priests. "
They rented two small houses with adjacent gardens; one of these houses is located not far from the refuge of the Marchioness of Barolo outside Porta Palazzo, and the other is located towards the Po, and, if I'm not mistaken, in the new suburb called Vanchiglia.
+ «Family readings. Weekly Journal of Moral, Civil and Religious Education "5 (1846), No. 25, June 20, p. 196 (Annals of the Italian charity LXVIII). '
'The family readings arise on the ashes of the popular readings, begun in 1837 and suppressed by decision of Lazzari, on 27 March 1841. They are published weekly by the publisher Pomba with the purpose of offering readings, information, proposals and projects useful to the less well-off and educated classes for their decisive moral and civil elevation; the pedagogical contents in function of a more extended organization of popular education often appear appreciable, with contributions by V. Troya, C. Bon-Compagni, I. Petitti, GE Baruffi, etc. On the frontispiece of each issue there is the motto "Ignorance is the maximum and the worst of poverty", punctuated by a double series of keywords, which define the "mind" of the magazine: "Religion, Association, Education, Morality - Education , Work, Welfare, Charity. " They too ended up suppressed, decreed on May 27, 1847 following an article deemed offensive to the Society of Jesus written by a certain lawyer. Paolo Alda. See F. LEMMI, Censorship and newspapers in the Sardinian states at the time of Carlo Alberto. Turin, Società Subalpina Editrice 1943, pp. 35-56. He mentions, negatively, Count C. Solaro della Margherita in his historical-political Memorandum, chap. XI, num. XIII (Turin, Speirani and Tortone 1851, pp. 281-282). Solaro della Margherita in his historical-political Memorandum, chap. XI, num. XIII (Turin, Speirani and Tortone 1851, pp. 281-282). Solaro della Margherita in his historical-political Memorandum, chap. XI, num. XIII (Turin, Speirani and Tortone 1851, pp. 281-282).
Fondatore e direttore delle Letture popolari e delle Letture di famiglia è Lorenzo Valerio (Torino 1810-Messina 1865), imprenditore, pubblicista e politico. Direttore di una manifattura di seta si allontanò nel 1831 dal Piemonte per le sue idee liberali, facendo un lungo viaggio in Francia, Germania, Ungheria, Russia. Rientrato in patria nel 1835 assunse la direzione di un setificio ad Agliè nel Canavese, dove fondò un asilo aportiano, il primo in Piemonte. Con la proclamazione dello Statuto divenne nel 1848 uno dei capi della sinistra democratica, dirigendo prima La Concordia e poi Il Progresso e Il Diritto, sedendo ininterrottamente al parlamento subalpino come deputato. Tenace oppositore di Cavour, nel 1860 accettò da lui la nomina a commissario regio nelle Marche. Senatore del regno nel 1862, fu nominato ne] 1865 prefetto di Messina, morendo pochi mesi dopo.
I sacerdoti, che lavoravano autonomamente nella rispettiva opera, sono, da una parte, Don Bosco e i cappellani del Rifugio, teol. Giovanni Borel (1801-1873) e don Sebastiano Pacchiotti (1806-1884), dall'altra, don Giovanni Cocchi (1813-1896), vice-curato dell'Annunziata, che già dal 1840 aveva aperto un oratorio nel sobborgo Vanchiglia.
G. Bosco, Frammenti e documenti 37
In queste due case accorrono in gran folla in tutti i giorni festivi i veri cenciosi, i veri biricchini di Torino, e fa stupire veramente il vedere con quale amore e con quanta allegrezza v'intervengano, e con quale modesto ed esemplare contegno vi stieno.
E che fanno di bello, in tali nuovi asili tutti questi giovani venditori di zolfanelli fosforici, di biglietti di lotteria ecc. ecc., di apprendisti, di garzoni, di servi, d' ogni genere insomma di mestieri e d'industria? Ecco quello che fanno o almeno quello che loro tanto caritatevolmente si fa.
Primieramente si fa loro, da fervidi sacerdoti, una breve istruzione religiosa, si cantano salmi o divote laudi, quindi si danno loro lezioni di educazione, di moralità, e in ultimo quivi vengono pure loro somministrati diversi mezzi di ricreazione (in quella di Po vi è pur anche l'esercizio della ginnastica), e talvolta vien pur loro donata qualche cosa di merenda.
Io non mi estendo di più, ma la S.V. potrà benissimo prendere informazioni di questa nuova filantropica e caritatevole istituzione tutta dovuta allo zelo del Clero torinese; e quando sentisse volontà di parlarne in quell'ottimo suo Giornale, a cui auguro eterna vita (insiememente ai suoi compilatori), bramerei che si facesse raccomandazione vivissima onde altre di simili case si aprano in diverse posizioni di questa città...
Noi, poichè ci accertammo della verità delle cose contenute in questa lettera, di cui ci duole ignorare il nome dello scrittore, ne assumiamo volentieri la responsabilità. Più tardi le Letture parleranno distesamente di cotesta nuova istituzione, che cotanto onora il Clero torinese.'
Le «Letture» non ne hanno più parlato. Il periodico veniva soppresso di autorità nel maggio del 1847.
38 Pietro Braido
Due sono gl'inganni principali, con cui il demonio suole allontanare i giovani dalla virtù. Il primo è far loro venir in mente che il servire al Signore consista in una vita malinconica e lontana da ogni di-5 vestimento e piacere. Non è così, giovani cari. Io voglio insegnarvi un metodo di vita cristiano, che sia nel tempo stesso allegro e contento, additandovi quali siano i veri divertimenti e i veri piaceri, talché voi possiate dire col santo profeta Davidde: serviamo al Signore in santa allegria: servite Domino in laetitia. Tale appunto è lo scopo di questo io libretto, servire al Signore e stare sempre allegri.
The other deception is the hope of a long life with the convenience of converting into old age or at the point of death. Mind you, my children, many were deceived in this manner. Who assures us of coming
3-5 "But (some will say) if we begin at the present to serve the Lord, we become melancholy. It is not true, the one who serves the devil will be melancholy (...). Who is more affable and more jovial than s. Luigi Gonzaga? Who is more lepid and more cheerful than s. Filippo Neri? Nevertheless their life was a continuous practice of every virtue. Courage, therefore, my dear ones, give yourselves in time to virtue, and I assure you, that you will always have a cheerful and happy heart, and you will know how sweet it is to serve the Lord "- The young man provided, p. 13. Cf. Some tricks that the devil uses to deceive the young, ibid., Pp. 28-29.
6 «Method (...) 23 The usual way to proceed, to act, to treat or behave in a given circumstance, in performing a particular task or towards other people; conduct, demeanor, behavior; habit, custom, custom, custom (...) »- S. BATTAGLIA, Great dictionary of the Italian language, vol. X. Turin, UTET 1978, p. 277. - See also lin 25.
6-10 «Although then he was so concentrated in the things of spirit, he never saw himself clouded in the face, or sad, but always hilarious, and glad he rejoiced with the sweetness of his speech, and he would say that he greatly enjoyed those words of the prophet David: Serve Domino in laetitia; he spoke willingly of history, of poetry, of the difficulties of the Latin or Italian language, and this in a docile, and jovial way, yes, that while he proffered his own feeling, he always showed himself to submit to others "- [G. Bosco], Historical notes on the life of the cleric Luigi Comollo ... Turin, tip. Speirani and Ferrero 1844, pp. 23-24. - "What often excited in me a feeling of particular wonder was to notice how busy he was, not only to pass on in his actions every thing that was very unseemly to a cleric, but much more in fulfilling them with a certain readiness, grace and hilarity, which he fell in love with »- P. GIORDANO, instructive signs of perfection offered to young people in the edifying life of Giuseppe Burzio. Turin, tip. typographic artists 1846, p. 138 [testimony of Don Bosco].
G. Bosco, Fragments and documents 39
vecchi? Uopo sarebbe patteggiare colla morte che ci aspetti fino a quel tempo, ma vita e morte sono nelle mani del Signore, il quale può di- 15 sporne come a lui piace. Che se Iddio vi concedesse lunga vita, sentite ciò che vi dice: quella strada che un figlio tiene in gioventù, si continua nella vecchiaia fino alla morte. Adolescens iuxta viam suam etiam cum senuerit non recedet ab ea. E vuol dire: se noi cominciamo una buona vita ora che siamo giovani, buoni saremo negli anni avanzati, buona la 20 nostra morte e principio di una eterna felicità. Al contrario se i vizi prenderanno possesso di noi in gioventù, per lo più continueranno in ogni età nostra fino alla morte. Caparra troppo funesta di una infelicissima eternità. Acciocché tale disgrazia a voi non accada vi presento un metodo di vivere breve e facile, ma sufficiente perché possiate diven- 25 tare la consolazione, dei vostri parenti, l'onore della patria, buoni cittadini in terra per essere poi un giorno fortunati abitatori del cielo.
This Operetta is divided into three parts. In the first you will find what you must do and how much you must flee to live as good Christians. In the second one, several special 30-vote practices are collected. The last contains the office of the Blessed Virgin with the main vespers of the year, and with the addition of some spiritual songs.
My dear ones, I love you all from my heart, and it is enough that you are young for me to love you very much, and I can assure you that you will find books by people far more virtuous and more learned than me, but hardly 35 you will find anyone more than love me in Jesus Christ, and that you desire your true happiness more. May the Lord be with you and make it so that by practicing these few suggestions you may come to the salvation of your soul, and thus increase the glory of God, the sole purpose of this fulfillment
the action. 40
Live happy, and the Lord be with you.
Very affectionate in Jesus Christ S ac. Bosco GIOANNI.
17-23 "The Lord makes you know that if you begin to be good in youth, you will be good in the rest of life, which will be crowned with a happiness of glory. On the contrary the bad life begun in youth too easily will be such until death, and will inevitably lead you to hell. Therefore if you see men advanced in the years given to the vice of drunkenness, of play, of blasphemy, you can mostly say: these vices began in youth: Adolescens juxta viam suam, etiam cum senuerit non recedet ab ea. Prov. 22 »- The young man provided, p. 12.
25 Cf. tin 6.
33 I love you with all my heart - The young man provided (1963 ff).
40 Pietro Braido
At the first announcement of a new course in Sacred History, some will say that this effort is useless at all, finding itself in the varied number of editions and authors already to satisfy every condition of 5 people. The same seemed to me too; but when I began to make an examination of it I was disillusioned; because it is also an abstraction that many of these Stories are too voluminous or too short, I only say that for the display of concepts and phrases they take away the sweetness of the simple and the popular of holy books; others almost completely omit the "chronology", so that the reader can hardly notice if what he reads is close to the creation of the world or to the coming of the Messiah. Almost in all of them, then, there are several ways of speaking that can serve as mere concepts in furniture and keep the minds of youngsters.
15 So I studied myself to compile a course in Sacred History, the
which, while containing all the most important news of the sacred books without danger of reawakening less opportune ideas, could be presented to any young person with telling him: take and read. In order to succeed in this I will tell a number of young people of all levels
20 one by one the facts of the Holy Bible, minutely noting what impression the story made in them and what effect it produced afterwards.
This normally served me to admit some, to mention just a few others, and to expose others with the relative circumstances. I also had
25 I saw many of the narrow places in history, and extracted from everyone what seemed convenient to me, transcribing even more things that I found clearly and worthily exposed.
24-27 "The models of sacred history for the use of schools (1847) will not be so much the commentaries of the Tirino or the Calmet or the Martini (of which, however, the version is under view), but still the little books of the Loriquet and, above all , the History of the Jewish people summarized by prof. Francesco Soave CRS for use by Italian schools and the Sacred History of the priest Cipriano Rattazzi, who imitates the fortunate History of the Old and New Testament, that is, of the Sacred Bible with moral reflections of Le Maitre de Sacy or Royaumont, edited by another friend of Don Bosco, Giambattista Paravia »- P. STELLA, Don Bosco in the history of Catholic religiosity, vol. I, p. 231.
G. Bosco, Fragments and documents 41
As far as the chronology is concerned, I adhered to that of P. Calmet, except for some small variations, some of which
modern critics are required. 30
On each page I always have that principle fixed: to illuminate the mind to make the heart good, and (as a valiant master expresses himself) to popularize as much as possible the science of the Holy Bible, which is the foundation of our Holy Religion, while contains i
'Sac. Scum in the Primary Educator, Prog. 35
29 P. CALMET Antoine, Dom Augustin, Benedictine (1672-1757), one of the most fruitful and respected exegetes of the century XVIII, author among other things of a literal Commentary of the Old and New Testament, in 23 vol. (1707ss), of a historical, critical, chronological, geographical and literal Dictionary of the Bible (1719) and of a sacred History of the Old and New Testament (1718). In the Dictionary there is a classic Table chronologique générale de l'Histoire de la Bible. - "Therefore, give me the reading of Calmet, History of the Old and New Testament (...)" - MO 110.
31-32 "The facts (...) that seemed to me more tender, and moving, I treated more circumstantially, so that not only the intellect is instructed, but the heart even proves such affections to remain not without great spiritual benefit including »- Ecclesiastical history, preface, p. 10. - "Convinced of the great educational principle, that is, having to illuminate the mind in order to make the heart good, all went around the narrative on this pivot" - G. RAMELLO, rec. of Ecclesiastical History, in "The Primary Educator" 1 (1845) N. 34, 10 Dec., p. 576.
32-33 "The newspapers hold a place of their own in the present conditions, which not only the times and habits, but even more the needs of science entrusted to them; because they have such an office of presenting the science subdivided, and give it almost to tenuous doses, or as we would say today, popularize it »- Sac. Agostino FECIA, Introduction to N. 1 of "The Primary Educator" 1 (1845), 10 January, p. 1.
33-38 "It is therefore not untimely that children know the main events of this history which is also the history of humanity. Add that no other thing can be more useful, and we will have responded to the first two observations: since I would like it to be considered as the necessary apparatus for the dogmatic teaching of religion, since I believe that it is no small harm to religious belief to expose it as a lifeless tradition, like a series of dommi without concatenation, like abstractions without corresponding reality. While the Sacred History implicitly contains the domma and the proof and sometimes also explicitly; and the transition to the teaching of religion and morality will therefore be easy and graduated. Now who knows how necessary it is that the truth should appear in its light, in his life and in his reality, he will understand at the same time that no other teaching can be more useful "- Vincenzo GARELLI, Of the teaching of history by means of plates, in" The Primary Educator "1 (1845) N. 24, 30 ag, p. 406.
35 Agostino FECIA, priest, n. in Biella in 1803, m. in Turin in 1876, he was the fruitful author of texts for the learning of the Italian language and founder-director of L'Educatore Primario. Journal of education and elementary education (1845-1846) then The Educator. Journal of Education and Education (1847-1848). In the second version the magazine is also intended for secondary school teachers and appears in two monthly files of 32 pages each. The pedagogical-didactic themes are developed in a systematic way, so - as the compilers write - the volume of a vintage tends to «become almost a theoretical-practical course in Pedagogy and Methodology». The program of the magazine for 1848 inaugurates the division of the material into the following five sections: I. Pedagogy and General Methodology. II. Special method and practical exercises. III. News and documents on public education. IV. Bibliography, announcements and judgments on the best books on education and instruction. V. Varieties, stories and poems for children.
42 Pietro Braido
proof and dogmas, so as to make it easy then from the sacred story to pass to the teaching of morality and religion, which is why no other teaching is more useful and important than this. However, since from wiser masters he inculcates himself, 'that the Sacred History is enshrined
40 with the aid of the figurative papers representing the facts, which refer to it, so that this was done by inserting various incisions concerning more luminous facts.
History is divided into age; and these are divided into chapters in the form of dialogue; method, in my opinion, the easiest, because any story can be from the mobile mind of a young man understood and re
If this my any effort will be to somebody beneficial, render it
glory to God for which it was only undertaken.
2 V. Varrell [= Garelli] Educat. Prim. Vol. 1 °, p.
39-42 "Then coming to the method, here are the rules that Aporti prescribes" Sacred History must be taught to children with the aid of the figurative cards representing the facts, which refer to it (...) ". This method brings together great advantages, makes teaching graduated, carries out and directs the imagination of children, educating them in time for the manifestations of beauty and truth. Therefore we warmly recommend this collection of tables to the directors of kindergartens, and to the well-to-do families, arranging them to embellish the rooms in which they work and the family is habitually »- V. GARELLI, Of the teaching of history by means of tables, pp. 406-407. - Cfr. Ferrante APORTI, To the honorable Commission of the kindergartens of Turin and Manifesto d ' association with sacred history represented with tables composed and designated in lithography by Gallo Gallina a painter of history - "L'Educatore Primario" 1 (1845) N. 13, May 10, pp. 207-208.
49 Vincenzo GABELLI, n. in Mondovì in 1818, m. in 1879, a scholar of philosophical and pedagogical studies, a professor of method in Mondovì, Genoa and Turin, from 1859 an administrator of studies in Genoa and then in Turin, where he showed himself particularly benevolent towards Don Bosco and his works.
G. Bosco, Fragments and documents 43
Of a school teacher over the Sacred History for use of the
schools, compiled by the Bosco Priest.
FRIEND AND CONNECT CAR.me
In your letter of December 31, 1847 you asked me to express my feeling about the Sacred History of the Bosco Priest, which you want to introduce into your school. Although my opinion is of little weight, however, as a friend I will say that, it seems to me after having carefully read it. I do not know that Priest, except for the very good that I intended to be done by him in the sacred ministry and for various of his valuable writings. He totally occupied for youth explained to a whole number of young people the Sacred History distributed in the festive days, he noted the impression he made in the tender mind of his audience, then going to the table he changed, lengthened, meditated all that which he did not he did it for his purpose, and succeeded in reducing the Sacred History, which I would call really industrious.
Because beyond the stimulus to virtue and the abhorrence of the vice that you see on every page, we see that the good man must unite virtue with the lavord. Then he makes a Noah shine, and when he comes out of the ark he begins to cultivate the earth. Abraham, peaceful, charitable and obedient. Isaac and his family work tirelessly to support themselves. The sons of Jacob feed the flock. Rut bass in the field. David visits his brothers. Habakkuk brings lunch to the harvesters in the countryside. And thus, as the reader progresses, he remains convinced that he was born for work, to respect every authority, to hate vice and vicious people, and to love virtue. The wording is popular, but pure and Italian, it is in the form of a dialogue that the boy immediately understands what he reads. It is adorned with similar engravings, which very much excites the curiosity of the young boys, and helps stop the memory of the facts seen in the figure. So I tell you that you do very well
+ «The Educator. Journal of Education and Education "4 (1848) September, pp. 542-543.
44 Pietro Braido
to introduce it into your school, as I have already done. My schoolmates compete to have it in their hands, and they read it with anxiety and do not finish presenting it to others and talking about it, a clear sign that they understand it.
You mentioned to me the History of Can. Schmid, but in any case this valuable work, cannot take the place of Sacred History. I believe you still remember that last autumn Professor Danna said that Sacred History must be preceded by a nod, which indicates excellence divided by epochs, and these reduced to chapters in the form of dialogue. All this is missing in the Schmid. I also note that this author tells more things that do not exist in the Sacred Text, as I will show you in our first interview. What then cheats most is that it lacks chronology, without which the reader does not notice if he reads things close to the creation of the world, or close to the coming of the Messiah, in the end Schmid has only traits of the Holy Bible, which mostly extending to multiple pages, they are not adapted to the brevity desired by 'elementary teachers for the education of youth. These inconveniences are by no means excluded from the Sacred History which I have proposed to you, for whose work I apply the beautiful praise which was printed in the public papers around an ecclesiastical History, also intended for the youth. "The period flows straightforward and easy, the language is pure, everywhere an anointing is spread which gently moves and attracts good". This precious booklet came from the types of Speirani and Ferrero; the edition is cheap though decorated with engravings. Communicate this feeling to our friends, and esteem it as you like, as long as you always have me. These inconveniences are by no means excluded from the Sacred History which I have proposed to you, for whose work I apply the beautiful praise which was printed in the public papers around an ecclesiastical History, also intended for the youth. "The period flows straightforward and easy, the language is pure, everywhere an anointing is spread which gently moves and attracts good". This precious booklet came from the types of Speirani and Ferrero; the edition is cheap though decorated with engravings. Communicate this feeling to our friends, and esteem it as you like, as long as you always have me. These inconveniences are by no means excluded from the Sacred History which I have proposed to you, for whose work I apply the beautiful praise which was printed in the public papers around an ecclesiastical History, also intended for the youth. "The period flows straightforward and easy, the language is pure, everywhere an anointing is spread which gently moves and attracts good". This precious booklet came from the types of Speirani and Ferrero; the edition is cheap though decorated with engravings. Communicate this feeling to our friends, and esteem it as you like, as long as you always have me. "The period flows straightforward and easy, the language is pure, everywhere an anointing is spread which gently moves and attracts good". This precious booklet came from the types of Speirani and Ferrero; the edition is cheap though decorated with engravings. Communicate this feeling to our friends, and esteem it as you like, as long as you always have me. "The period flows straightforward and easy, the language is pure, everywhere an anointing is spread which gently moves and attracts good". This precious booklet came from the types of Speirani and Ferrero; the edition is cheap though decorated with engravings. Communicate this feeling to our friends, and esteem it as you like, as long as you always have me.
2 February 1848.
Affez.mo Bag. MG '
'It could be the monregalese priest Michele Garelli, Vincenzo's brother, who like these has always worked in the school as an elementary teacher and professor. Born October 4, 1806, he was ordained a priest in 1830, died in Mondovì on April 12, 1867.
G. Bosco, Fragments and documents 45
The undertaking of a new course in Sacred History will certainly seem to some useless labor, while there are already so many to be able to satisfy every condition of people. So it seemed to me too; but postulating me to examine those, who go by the hands of everyone, I was deceived; because it is also an abstraction, that many of these stories are either too voluminous, or too short, some to show off concepts and phrases lose the sweetness of the simple and the popular of the Holy Books: others almost entirely complete the chronology, so that the inexperienced reader can hardly understand at what age the fact that he reads belongs, if he gets closer to the creation of the world, or to the coming of the Messiah. Almost in all then, even in those intended for youth, certain expressions are encountered,
minds of youngsters. 15
Induced by these reasons, I proposed to compile a course in Sacred History, which contained the most important news of the sacred books, and could be presented to any young man without danger of awakening dangerous or less opportune ideas in him. With a view to succeeding in this division, you will report to a number of young men of all ranks one by one the main facts of the Holy Bible, noting carefully what impression that story made in them, and what effect it produced afterwards.
This usually served to leave out some, to mention just a few others, and to expose others with more minute circumstances. I also had many of the compendia of the Sacred History before me and extracted from each one that which seemed most convenient to me.
As far as the chronology is concerned, I adhered to that of Father Calmet, except for some small variations, which some modern critics deem necessary. 30
On each page I always had the eye for the purpose of illuminating the mind to make the heart good, and how a valiant master expresses himself, "popularizing as much as possible the science of the Holy Bible.
The providential end of the Sacred Books having been to maintain
'Sac. Feccia [= Fecia] in the primary Educator, prog. 35
46 Pietro Braido
in men, live the faith in the Messiah promised by God after the fall of Adam; indeed the whole of the Sacred History of the Old Testament being able to say a constant preparation for that very important event, I wanted in a special way to notice the promises and the prophecies concerning the
40 future Redeemer.
To then follow the opinion of wise masters, 2 who recommended that history be taught with the aid of the figurative cards representing the facts, which refer to them, I had various engravings concerning the most luminous facts inserted.
45 History is divided into age; and these divided into chapters, which are
also divided into progressive numbers, which indicate the matter in each part of the contained chapter. The experience suggested this to be the easiest way for any story to be from the mind of a young man understood and believed. The experience has also made known, that
50 the boys are often stranded because many names of places and cities mentioned in the Sacred History are no longer seen in the geographical maps of the object. Therefore in this second edition I have worked to compile a small dictionary, in which the ancient names are compared with the moderns: with this medium it must be easy to do the ravvi
55 the ancient names in any geographical map.
The study of Sacred History shows its excellence by itself, and it does not need to be recommended, since Sacred History is the oldest of all stories, it is the safest, because it has God by author; it is the most valuable, because it contains the Divine will manifested to the
60 men; it is the most useful, because it contains and proves the truth of our Saint
2 v. F. Educated Contribution. Prim., Vol. 1st, pag. 406.
41-44 «Sarebbe utilissimo il raccontare ai fanciulli i fatti più insigni della Storia Sacra, specialmente quelli che servono a prova della divinità di nostra Religione, e ad esempio e conforto di virtù: sarebbe giovevole altresì ajutare le loro piccole intelligenze con stampe rappresentanti quei fatti» — F. APORTI, Manuale di educazione ed ammaestramento per le scuole infantili. Cremona, Manini 1833, p. 32.
61 Ferrante APORTI, sacerdote n. a San Martino dell'Argine, Mantova, 1791, m. a Torino nel 1858, fu il fondatore del primo asilo italiano, alla fine del 1828. Insegnante di esegesi biblica e di storia ecclesiastica nel seminario di Cremona, tenne a Torino nell'estate del 1844 uno storico corso di metodo. Compromesso di fronte al governo austriaco nel 1848 fu esule nella capitale subalpina, senatore del Regno e presidente del Consiglio dell'Università e della Commissione permanente per la scuola secondaria. Conobbe don Bosco e fu presente a qualche saggio delle scuole serali da questi promosse.
G. Bosco, Frammenti e documenti 47
Religion. No study, therefore, being of this most important, there must be no one more dear and precious to those who truly love his Religion. If any of this hard work of mine will be beneficial to some, let it be given glory to God, for whose honor it was only undertaken by me.
48 Pietro Braido
THE ORATORY OF S. FRANCESCO DI SALES
In the poorest of the suburbs of this metropolis, inhabited almost exclusively by workers who live with the product of their daily labors, and who are often reduced to real misery following an illness or lack of work, a few years ago one of those works arose of charity of which the Catholic spirit is an inexhaustible source. A zealous priest anxious for the good of souls was consecrated entirely to the pitiful office of plucking from the vice, idleness and ignorance that large number of children, those inhabitants in those contours, because of the closeness or neglect of their parents, they grew too lacking in religion and civilization. This ecclesiastic, who has the name D. Bosco, took rent in some quarters and a small enclosure, he went to live in that site, and there opened a small Oratory under the invocation of the great bishop of Geneva, St. Francis de Sales; he tried to attract those poor young men who at first found themselves neglected and derelict; in the simple and modest Oratory he distributes to them the instruction that above all other disciplines is only necessary, religious instruction; he juxtaposes them to practice their duties, to exercise the true worship of God, to live together amicably and sociably with one another. Next to the Oratory there are schools where the first elements of letters and calculus are taught to that youth, there is also the aforementioned enclosure in which the youngsters, on holidays he tried to attract those poor young men who at first found themselves neglected and derelict; in the simple and modest Oratory he distributes to them the instruction that above all other disciplines is only necessary, religious instruction; he juxtaposes them to practice their duties, to exercise the true worship of God, to live together amicably and sociably with one another. Next to the Oratory there are schools where the first elements of letters and calculus are taught to that youth, there is also the aforementioned enclosure in which the youngsters, on holidays he tried to attract those poor young men who at first found themselves neglected and derelict; in the simple and modest Oratory he distributes to them the instruction that above all other disciplines is only necessary, religious instruction; he juxtaposes them to practice their duties, to exercise the true worship of God, to live together amicably and sociably with one another. Next to the Oratory there are schools where the first elements of letters and calculus are taught to that youth, there is also the aforementioned enclosure in which the youngsters, on holidays to exercise the true worship of God, to live together in a friendly and sociable way with one another. Next to the Oratory there are schools where the first elements of letters and calculus are taught to that youth, there is also the aforementioned enclosure in which the youngsters, on holidays to exercise the true worship of God, to live together in a friendly and sociable way with one another. Next to the Oratory there are schools where the first elements of letters and calculus are taught to that youth, there is also the aforementioned enclosure in which the youngsters, on holidays
+ «The Harmony of religion with civilization» 2 (1849), n. 40, Monday 2 April, pp. 158 159. '
"L'Armonia", a Catholic newspaper, at the beginning (4 July 1848) and towards the sunset of 1849, moderately conciliatory, then became, under the direction of Sanremo Teol. Giacomo Margotti, symbol and voice of intransigence. The intransigent orientation characterized "L'Unità Cattolica" even more, which Margotti founded in 1863, directing it until his death (1887). "Armonia" was born on the initiative of the theol. Guglielmo Audisio, of the bishop of Ivrea mons. Luigi Moreno, brother of the can. Ottavio, a friend of Don Bosco, and of the Marquis Birago di Vische and Gustavo di Cavour. First weekly, then three-weekly, from 1855 daily, she always paid favorable attention to Don Bosco's initiatives. This increased even more by "L'Unità Cattolica".
G. Bosco, Fragments and documents 49
and in the hours of recreation, they raise themselves with harmless games and innocent amusement, passing that time in the honest joy that is so beneficial to the health of body and mind, especially at that tender age. Among them is Don Bosco, who is constantly a teacher, a companion, a copy and a friend to them.
They are usually seen on holidays by four hundred young people gathered in that site which, not showing any appearance on the exterior, remains unobserved by many, while the good that is done there is immense. All those boys, most of whom would have grown up in sloth and vice, set off on virtue and work. In fact, their zealous tutor and friend search for some honest artisans for them with great commitment, allowing them to accept him as an apprentice of his art, and being a boy proposed by D. Bosco as one of his students presents to the shop owners a guarantee of morality which makes it easy for him to welcome him to them, so as to start him in the exercise of his profession. So.,
Let us add that, often being among those poor young people who, due to the death or ruin of their own parents, fall into absolute abandonment, many of these are also hospitalized in some existing rooms in those poor, over-worked houses, and also receive their sustenance for the time of their training, as long as with the help of their sweat they can maintain themselves.
In this charity hotel, on the day of the Annunciation, two members of the Danaro di San Pietro Opera Committee, called by the meritorious founder of that Oratory, were there. It was a matter of receiving an oblation that those good and exemplary youngsters had designed to do for the work itself. Having learned of the mournful events of Rome, and of being the common father of the faithful reduced to the condition of an exile, they spontaneously wanted to contribute with their offer to swell that tribute of venerable daughters, which in Turin one wishes to gather to depose him at the feet of the Vicar of Christ.
Entrati i delegati del Comitato nel modesto recinto, ove tanto bene si va compiendo, essi vennero dal direttore accolti colla più squisita cortesia; quindi non senza viva commozione del loro cuore essi si viddero accerchiati da quei ragazzi che in aria festiva loro fecero bella e lieta corona.
50 Pietro Braido
Due di questi tosto si avanzarono, e mentre l'uno sopra di un desco presentava i trentacinque franchi raccolti in mezzo a loro, l'altro pronunciava un semplice, ma ben sentito discorso, di cui presenteremo uno squarcio ai nostri lettori.
If ever our voices, the tender orator said, could at this moment reach the ear of the Holy Father, we would all like to speak like this at the foot of our feet: Blessed Father, this is the most fortunate moment of our life. We are a class of youngsters, who consider it their greatest fortune to be able to give a sign of veneration to Your Holiness. Very affectionate sons and daughters are protested, and despite the efforts of the malevolents to remove us from Catholic unity we declare that we recognize in Your Holiness the successor of St. Peter, the Vicar of Jesus Christ, to whom those who are not united must be eternally lost. We declare to be intimately persuaded that separated from you no one can belong to the true Church, we offer ourselves ready to spend all our possessions,
A gentle and sweet emotion made itself felt in the minds of the delegates on hearing these words, pronounced with an intelligent air and with a voice expressing the affection of a little boy, who carries the buckets of mortar and the bricks for the service of the masons, but nevertheless it shows to prove true noble and generous senses. They replied some brief words by declaring to those young men who boasted of having them socii in an act that is a sincere profession of that Catholic faith that so much sublimates the man of whatever state and condition he is. They then asked the young orator for a copy of his speech and that copy was later handed over to the Apostolic Nuncio who showed them singular approval, and protested that he wanted to send it to the Cardinal Pro-Secretary of State of the Supreme Pontiff,
For our part, we have believed it must have been somewhat lengthy to bring to the knowledge of the public a fact that seems to us worthy of being highly commendated.
G. Bosco, Fragments and documents 51
From "Il Conciliatore Torinese" (1849) +
THE ORATORY OF S. FRANCESCO DI SALES
If at the exit of this city by the gate of Susa, vagueness is born to someone to recreate himself under the avenue, which is on the right, and skirting the military quarters and the walls of the hospitals of San Luigi and de Pazzarelli, descend by he slanted as far as the fine palace, which he offered before him; then turning to miss, continue the delightful path for the lane that borders the walls of the various buildings nearby, a wooden gate appears a short distance away, so it entered an enclosure of a certain size. At the building long yes, and rather decent, but very low, and of a more rustic than civil aspect, which rising towards midnight, divides that enclosure into two parts, one much wider and worked like a vegetable garden, the another narrower and uncultivated, he of slight estima, this is the home of some gardeners, of which in fact these surroundings abound: but bringing the watchful eye to that humble building, to the various religious inscriptions, which are read there, to the campaniluzzo, which surmounted by a cross rises on the roof , to the notice: this is the house of the Lord, which stands above the door towards the west; though not without wonder, he cannot delay in realizing that here is a sacred Oratory. But how much more will his astonishment grow, where he asks from whom and for what purpose any such modest place is consecrated to the practices of religion; and he will be answered, that a humble priest provided with no other wealth that surmounted by a cross rises on the roof, to the notice: this is the house of the Lord, which stands above the door towards the west; though not without wonder, he cannot delay in realizing that here is a sacred Oratory. But how much more will his astonishment grow, where he asks from whom and for what purpose any such modest place is consecrated to the practices of religion; and he will be answered, that a humble priest provided with no other wealth that surmounted by a cross rises on the roof, to the notice: this is the house of the Lord, which stands above the door towards the west; though not without wonder, he cannot delay in realizing that here is a sacred Oratory. But how much more will his astonishment grow, where he asks from whom and for what purpose any such modest place is consecrated to the practices of religion; and he will be answered, that a humble priest provided with no other wealth
+ «The Turin Conciliator. Religious, political and literary journal »2 (1849), n. 42, Saturday 7 April. '
'"The Conciliatore Torinese", first bi-weekly, then three-weekly "religious, political, literary", was founded on the initiative of the canons of Turin Lorenzo Renaldi (nominated bishop of Pinerolo in July 1848) and Lorenzo Gastaldi, who was its director and manager. Built with the aim of "reconciling religion and civilization", it preserved an ecclesiological-political line inspired by Gioberti and Rosmini in the short life of fifteen months (15 July 1848-28 September 1849). Among the collaborators were Giobertiani Benedetto Negri, Francesco Cavalieri, Pietro Baricco, PG Rossi; rosminiani Lorenzo Gastaldi, Giuseppe Buroni, Carlo Gilardi (from the Istituto della Carità), Paolo Barone; less classifiable GA Bessone, Pier Giuseppe Berizzi, prof. G. Gerini. See G, TUNINEM, Lorenzo Gastaldi 1815-1883, vol. I Theologian, publicist, Rosminian, bishop of Saluzzo 1815-1871. Casale Monferrato, Edizioni Piemme 1983, pp. 57-88; F. TRANIELLO, conciliatory Catholicism. Religion and culture in the Lombard-Piedmontese Rosminian tradition (1825-1870). Milan, Marzorati 1970, pp. 168-175.
52 Pietro Braido
that of an immense charity, for several years five to six hundred youths have been gathering you to teach them in the Christian virtues, and at the same time make them children of God, and excellent citizens. This distinguished priest, full of that philanthropy, which does not derive from any other source than from the Catholic faith, was highly accustomed to seeing hundreds and hundreds of children, who were left to themselves, instead of going to Church to lecture you on holiness, they scattered in the squares, in the boulevards, in the countryside that surround the city, to waste all day in dangerous solace, and then returned to their houses more and more dissipated and irreligious and indocile.
The sight of so many garzoncelli, who for the neglect beyond all reprehensible ways of their parents, and of their masters, grew in the most crass ignorance of what matters most to man, exposed to all the corruptions that arise from idleness and from bad companies, and from the proverbial examples, the pricked so strongly in the heart, that he decided to put to you that remedy that he knew best. What then did the new disciple of Filippo Neri do? Advised by his zeal, armed with patience in all his trials, dressed in all the sweetness and humility, which he knew well to demand from his high company, turned to wandering around public holidays in the surroundings of Turin, and how many saw crocchi of young people intent on playing with them, approaching them, begging them to admit it to part of their games, after having joined somewhat with them, invite them to continue the game in a place that he held to this much more apt to amuse himself, than that he was not. He is easy to think with how many schemes his invitation has often been received, and how many repulsions he must have suffered: but his constancy and his sweetness gradually triumphed in a prodigious way: and the most unruly children, the youngsters more reckless, overcome by so much humility and by so much meekness of manner, allowed themselves to be led to the humble enclosure, which I have described to you, where converted a part of the building into a modest yes, but a very large chapel, the hours of the public holiday between the offices of religion and innocent amusement. The first young men who were called to you, savor the sweetness of piety, experience the ineffable pleasure of a soul,
G. Bosco, Fragments and documents 53
of the new oratory, shortly before you noticed a huge crowd of young people, with how much of the soul everyone thinks.
A beehive around which a swarm of bees is buzzing, while a large part of them is quietly working on honey, presents you with a true image of that sacred enclosure or holidays. In the streets that lead you, you meet at every step many young people, who carry you with more joy, who would not go to a feast: inside, for every part you see children playing around, divided into small brigades, and others hopping, others playing at the ball, others at the bowls, some playing at the swing, some at the tumbles, and those at the oak: while in the church others learn the catechism, others prepare themselves for the saints, and in the adjoining rooms to others. teaches reading and writing, arithmetic and calligraphy for others, singing for others. Several priests keep watch over that crowd composed of so many elements, agitated by so disparate inclinations, working to the fullest to turn their thoughts, affections, acts towards religion, and keeping watch, because in the hours destined to prayer and to the common education, all cease from the knights and gather in the oratory. And he is undoubtedly an inexpressible pleasure in seeing the docility with which all those young people, one of those badly initiated, now obey those ecclesiastics; the joy that is painted on their faces, the devotion with which they attend to the divine offices, they use to the Sacraments, they attend religious instructions, which even during the week are offered to those who need it, they intervene in spiritual exercises that are renewed every year for several days.
No father receives any more caresses from his sons, all of them are in his clothes, everyone wants to talk to him, everyone kisses his hand: if they see him in the city, they go out of the shops at once to revere him. His word has a prodigious virtue on the hearts of those souls still tender, to teach them, correct them, bend them to the good, educate them to virtue, and also fall in love with perfection. His humble home is a kindergarten that is always open at any time to any young man who uses him to survive the dangers of the corrupt world, to get rid of the claws of guilt, get advice, get help in some honest purpose. Not being able to understand in this oratory all the children who come to him, he had already for some months opened another out of the New door, to which he entrusted to the care of various priests already trained
54 Pietro Braido
Christian. Hail therefore, o new Philip, hello or dear priest: your example deh! you find many imitators in every city: they rise for every part of the priests, to press your footsteps: they open to the young men of the sacred enclosures, where piety surrounds itself with honest amusement; for only in this way will one be able to heal one of the deepest wounds of civil society and of the Church, which is the corruption of the young.
2 Lorenzo Gastaldi, firstborn of the lawyer Bartolomeo and Margherita Volpato, born in Turin on 8 March 1815; he completed his classical studies at the College of Carmine; at 14 he wears the clerical habit, he is admitted as external to the seminary and he attends the university, where he later obtains the diploma of Master of philosophy and liberal arts (1831), of bachelor (1833), dismissed (1835), doctor ( 1836) in theology; in 1838 he was co-opted in the college of theologians of the university's faculty of theology, He was ordained a priest by mgr. Fransoni, September 23, 1837. Meanwhile, he had adhered to the Rosminian thought, which he then defended strenuously and fairly until the end of his life. After a brief experience as director and manager of "Il Conciliatore Torinese" he turned to religious life, entering the Istituto della Carità (1851-1862), carrying out an intense missionary and teaching activity in England (1853-1862). Returned among the diocesan clergy, he became a canon of the SS. Trinity in the church of S. Lorenzo in Turin, engaging with remarkable results as a preacher of popular missions and spiritual exercises and a sacred writer. He was bishop of Saluzzo from 9 June 1867 to 27 October 1871. He was finally elevated to the archiepiscopal chair of Turin (1871-1883), where he died suddenly on 25 March, Easter day, 1883. See G. TuNNETTI, Lorenzo Gastaldi 1815-1883, 2 vol. Casale Monferrato, Edizioni Piemme 1983/1988. engaging with remarkable results as a preacher of popular missions and spiritual exercises and a sacred writer. He was bishop of Saluzzo from 9 June 1867 to 27 October 1871. He was finally elevated to the archiepiscopal chair of Turin (1871-1883), where he died suddenly on 25 March, Easter day, 1883. See G. TuNNETTI, Lorenzo Gastaldi 1815-1883, 2 vol. Casale Monferrato, Edizioni Piemme 1983/1988. engaging with remarkable results as a preacher of popular missions and spiritual exercises and a sacred writer. He was bishop of Saluzzo from 9 June 1867 to 27 October 1871. He was finally elevated to the archiepiscopal chair of Turin (1871-1883), where he died suddenly on 25 March, Easter day, 1883. See G. TuNNETTI, Lorenzo Gastaldi 1815-1883, 2 vol. Casale Monferrato, Edizioni Piemme 1983/1988.
G. Bosco, Fragments and documents 55
THE DECIMAL METRIC SYSTEM
REDUCED TO SIMPLICITY
for use by artisans and country people
The distinguished priest John Bosco, intent on the good of the class of the people, does not cease to work to the advantage of it by all those means which he knows the best. Filled with true philanthropy, of what is called Christian charity, words are not paid for but come to facts, and of these he can already show yes in abundance to deserve the affection and gratitude of his fellow citizens. Those who really care about the moral and civil progress of the people, who seek to educate him by the light of truth, and to train him in virtue, not to corrupt him, demoralize him, ignite passions and steal from him the only good he has, yes the simplicity of mind and heart and affection for religion, these want to be invited to tread the footsteps of Mr. D. Bosco. He opened, as this newspaper mentioned on the 6th of last April, a school of religion, elementary education, Christian morality and even civil. Spending all his time and all his strength on it without reserving anything for himself, he wants nothing more than the profit of his dear pupils and the consolation of working for the glory of God, and though he consumes all day long in m, several companies for young people who, for whatever reason, need to catechise them, administering their salts to them, applying them to some trade and looking for a master to whom they can be accommodated, reconciling them to their parents, yet find a few hours to write little books in their service. And since 1850 is approaching, in which the R. decree that orders is to be executed elementary education, Christian morality and even civil. Spending all his time and all his strength on it without reserving anything for himself, he wants nothing more than the profit of his dear pupils and the consolation of working for the glory of God, and though he consumes all day long in m, several companies for young people who, for whatever reason, need to catechise them, administering their salts to them, applying them to some trade and looking for a master to whom they can be accommodated, reconciling them to their parents, yet find a few hours to write little books in their service. And since 1850 is approaching, in which the R. decree that orders is to be executed elementary education, Christian morality and even civil. Spending all his time and all his strength on it without reserving anything for himself, he wants nothing more than the profit of his dear pupils and the consolation of working for the glory of God, and though he consumes all day long in m, several companies for young people who, for whatever reason, need to catechise them, administering their salts to them, applying them to some trade and looking for a master to whom they can be accommodated, reconciling them to their parents, yet find a few hours to write little books in their service. And since 1850 is approaching, in which the R. decree that orders is to be executed he wants nothing more than the profit of his dear pupils and the consolation of working for the glory of God, and though all day long he consumes the various enterprises for the sake of the young who, for whatever reason, need him by catechizing them, administering their salts to them, applying them to some trade and looking for a master to whom they can be accommodated, reconciling them to their parents, he still finds a few hours to write small books in their service. And since 1850 is approaching, in which the R. decree that orders is to be executed he wants nothing more than the profit of his dear pupils and the consolation of working for the glory of God, and though all day long he consumes the various enterprises for the sake of the young who, for whatever reason, need him by catechizing them, administering their salts to them, applying them to some trade and looking for a master to whom they can be accommodated, reconciling them to their parents, he still finds a few hours to write small books in their service. And since 1850 is approaching, in which the R. decree that orders is to be executed administering them the salts, applying them to some trade and looking for them a master to whom they are allotted, reconciling them to their parents, yet he still finds a few hours to write small books in their service. And since 1850 is approaching, in which the R. decree that orders is to be executed administering them the salts, applying them to some trade and looking for them a master to whom they are allotted, reconciling them to their parents, yet he still finds a few hours to write small books in their service. And since 1850 is approaching, in which the R. decree that orders is to be executed
+ «The Turin Conciliator. Religious, political and literary journal »2 (1849), n. 69, Saturday 9 June. '
'This is the review of the booklet The metric system reduced to simplicity preceded by the first four operations of arithmetic for use by artisans and country people by the priest Bosco Gio. Second edition improved and enhanced. Turin, 1849. For Gio. Battista Paravia and Comp. Tipografi-Librai under the arcades of the Town Hall, 80 p. "This second edition was improved and enhanced by more things suggested by the practice, and judged to be entirely necessary for the cognition and simplification of the new system" (Nota, p. 4). (The text can be found in anastatic edition in OE IV 1-80). For data and hypotheses on the first edition (1846), see P. STELLA, Don Bosco in the history of Catholic religiosity, vol. I, p, 232.
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the universal use of the metric system, so he saw the utmost importance that the people know as soon as possible this system, he thought to facilitate their cognition with the libretto mentioned above. The operetta seems to us well ordered and such as to achieve its purpose. The method used is easy, clear, popular: the material seems to be exhausted: all the measurements and all the weights of the ancient system are reduced to new, so that with very little effort even a poorly educated person can get used to this reduction. We therefore warmly recommend that brochure both for its intrinsic goodness and for the author's honor.
G. Bosco, Fragments and documents 57
Riunione del Comitato Centrale della «Società d'Istruzione e d'Educazione» del 3 maggio 1849. +
(...) L'ordine chiamava appresso le proposte per simile istituzione di scuole normali per le maestre nelle provincie. Ma il bel desiderio di segnalare alla stima della società, ed alla cognizione dei buoni tutti quegli istituti privati tenuti da persone generose, i quali senza rumore e quasi nell'ombra servono a educare un gran numero di fanciulli dell'uno e dell'altro sesso fece trarre fuori alla luce parecchie scuole ed esercitazioni ignote in gran parte, in un coi nomi dei loro benemeriti direttori, i quali pressochè tutti appartengono al clero torinese. L'adunanza fu commossa sentendo i ragguagli che venivano sulle bocche di vari soci, richiamati quasi l'uno dall'altro; e deliberò, che si facesse un cenno onorato di ciascuno nel giornale della società.
Il primo adunque che venne nominato fu il Teologo della Porta, Parroco di N.S. del Carmine, il quale già da qualche tempo ha istituita
+ «Giornale della Società d'Istruzione e d'Educazione» 1 (1849) maggio, p. 240.'
' Il Giornale della Società d'Istruzione e d'Educazione esce lungo il 1849, come continuazione de L'Educatore, mentre si struttura rapidamente la Società di istruzione e d'educazione (già costituita il 1° marzo), che lo fonda e gestisce: «un giornale che è vincolo de' comitati e de' soci sparsi ed è il pubblico rendiconto della Società al paese». A parte il primo anno, necessariamente irregolare, mediamente la rivista appare in fascicoli mensili di 64 pagine (in realtà sono 8 nel 1849, 12 nel 1850, 13 nel 1851, 11 nel 1852 con dimensioni differenti). Nei primi tre anni il materiale è distribuito nelle seguenti Parti: I. Studi critici scientifici, letterari, statistici relativi all'istruzione e all'educazione. II. Atti della Società. III. Atti ufficiali delle Università (1851: Atti ufficiali della Pubblica Istruzione). IV. Miscellanea, bibliografia e corrispondenza; nel quarto e ultimo: I. Storia dello stato e dei progressi dell'istruzione universitaria, secondaria, primaria e tecnica nell'interno ed all'estero. II. Lavori teorici e pratici sui quattro rami dell'istruzione pubblica e specialmente sulla primaria. III. Atti della Società e dei comitati. IV. Sunto degli atti ufficiali della pubblica istruzione.
For 1853 the Company decided to split the magazine into two weekly periodicals: The Institute, directed by prof. Domenico Berti, for technical and primary schools, and the Journal of Universities and Colleges for secondary schools and universities. See G. CORALLO, The Society of Education and Education and its activity, in "Review of pedagogy" 10 (1950) 70-87.
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a private school for teachers. The second was the Priest D. Francesco [= Giovanni] Cocchi deputy to the Annunziata, who teaches the girls in that parish, in that hour, which they alone have free from their work, which is after lunch; similar school to both sexes holds in the Oratory of S. Filippo in Vanchiglia all the holidays. Another praiseworthy was the priest, Don Bosco, who gathered nearly 300 children in the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales, where he catechized them, instructed them, and exercised them in gymnastic games.
Also the name of a similarly worthy priest of the provinces resounded in the meeting, and was that of the theol. Borelli di Castagnole who has a similar school of education and practice in his parish. The Vicar Foraneo of Busca Signor Teol was also remembered. Vacchetta, who helped by the industrious charity of the widowed lady Garro, gathered in the autumn of 1835 the poor children of both sexes left orphans and deprived of every means of subsistence from the terrible scourge of the Cholera-disease. Others ended up hinting once again at a meeting in Turin with the theologian priest Carpano, who established a school of education and various exercises at Porta Nuova. Professor Danna was appointed to these and other similar reports.
CRONICHETTA + by Casimiro Danna '
(...) While the Racheli the educational spirit spreads over the classes that can send their children to school, another non-generous person thinks of the children of those who are so poor that they cannot, or so ignorantly ignored that they neglect to give every glimmer of education, every feeling to their offspring dragging in the mud, "the last ring of the social chain". I mean the dome school
+ «Journal of the Society of Education and Education» 1 (1849) July, pp. 459-460.
2 Casimiro DANNA (1806-1884), from Mondovì as Garelli, author of scholastic texts of Italian language and literature, but also an expert on pedagogy. He was regent of the chair of pedagogy, established at the University of Turin in 1845; in 1847 he assumed the chair of Institutions of fine letters, while GA Rayneri was appointed to pedagogy.
G. Bosco, Fragments and documents 59
of Don Bosco, a priest whom I cannot name without feeling understood by the most sincere and profound veneration. Outside Porta Susa in that group of houses, which everyone knows under the common name of Valdocco, he established an oratory entitled of St. Francis de Sales. Not by chance and not in vain. Because more than the title, the spirit of that ardent apostle of the right of zeal that immeasurably blazes in his heart, transfuses into his institute this excellent priest, who has consecrated himself to lighten the pains of the miserable people, ennobling them in their thoughts. And it will be much praise to tell what he did, and do all the day showing how our religion is a religion of civilization. He gathers in the festive days, there in that solitary enclosure from 400 to 500 boys over the age of eight, to remove them from dangers and ramblings, and instruct them in the maxims of Christian morality. And this by keeping them in pleasant and honest recreations, after they have witnessed the rites and exercises of religious piety, he pontiff and minister, teacher and preacher, father and brother, with the most edifying sanctification tasks. They also teach the Sacred History and the ecclesiastical, the Catechism, the principles of arithmetic: he exercises them in the metric system and those who do not know, even in reading and writing.
All this for moral and civil education. But physics does not transpire, leaving in the courtyard next to the oratory and closed around everybody, that in gymnastic exercises, or amusing itself with crutches or the swing, with tiles or skittles grow, strengthen the vigor of the body. 1, the bait with which it attracts that numerous array beyond the prizes of some pious image, beyond the lotteries, and sometimes some collation, is the aspect always serene, and always vigilant in propagating in those young souls the light of truth and of mutuality love. Thinking about the evil he avoids, the vices he prevents, the virtues he sows, the good he bears, it seems incredible that his work could have impediments and setbacks. And for whom? on the part of those to whom many faults can be forgiven, but not ignorance; that education should repute the noblest part of the evangelical ministry; who should also thank Don Bosco. Because it is far from diverting the youngsters from religious practices, it is all aimed at instructing in them those who, abandoned by their parents, would never go to the parish, or going there could escape the beneficial influence of catechizers. The poverty of so many petty people makes their less precious souls appear in the eyes of the world, and sometimes some of the evangelical workers do not take such a thought to cultivate the it is all aimed at instructing those who, abandoned by their parents, would never go to the parish, or going there could escape the beneficial influence of the catechizers. The poverty of so many petty people makes their less precious souls appear in the eyes of the world, and sometimes some of the evangelical workers do not take such a thought to cultivate the it is all aimed at instructing those who, abandoned by their parents, would never go to the parish, or going there could escape the beneficial influence of the catechizers. The poverty of so many petty people makes their less precious souls appear in the eyes of the world, and sometimes some of the evangelical workers do not take such a thought to cultivate the
60 Pietro Braido
piety, maximum in the most populous cities, when it appears under torn garments. Therefore the bad seed of vices is in these, and while from the severe penalties promulgansi against the disorders infesting society, meanwhile inside their walls there are the criminals. For seven years now the institute of Don Bosco had begun, with more than regal wisdom he was protected by Carlo Alberto, who well recognized the immense profit that can bring to public morality. And so the turnout of the young goes away, growing in two. And another oratory known as S. Luigi, then it opened at Porta Nuova between the Viale de 'Platani and that of the Valentino headed by Mr. Teologo Carpano zealous pious and already worthy collaborator of him that we praise. One however is life, one the spirit, one the purpose of the two oratories.
But the one that gives the most to D. Bosco the right to gratitude to the city is the hospice, which there in the same house of the oratory, disclosed to the most indigent and ragged children. When he knows or encounters any more from the impoverished shabbiness, he no longer loses sight of him, leads him to his house, restores him, strips the sewers, puts on new clothes, gives him food and evening, until he finds him master and work knows how to procure an honorable sustenance for the future, and can take care of it with greater certainty the education of the mind and the heart. Some priests contribute to the many expenses that this priceless work requires. But most of it is supported by this true minister of the One, who said he was mild and recreated of troubled spirits. Or the imitable example that gives to others how to use riches! It is not always profitable to abandon in a sudden every rent of earthly good, which can in provident hands become an instrument of generous charity. Poverty lies in the alien soul so from the riches that one does not possess, as from those that one has.
G. Bosco, Fragments and documents 61
[Turin, anter. November 14, 1849]
The sac. Bosco Gio. Resident in this capital humbly exposes VSRM as he, in the desire to provide for the most abandoned youth, began to gather them in the festive days or in a place now in the other part of the city, always with the annuence of the civil and ecclesiastical authorities . Blessing the Lord, this work succeeded in establishing in Valdocco between Porta Palazzo and Porta Susina an oratory under the title of S. Fran [ces] of Sales which involved over five hundred young people, most of whom were released from prisons or in danger of go there. The place indicated above, which became too small due to the large number of young people in 1847, opened another new oratory under the title of St. Louis between the Viale de 'Platani and that of R. Valentino at Porta Nuova.
The present times showing that the abandoned youth find themselves in greater need of assistance both in terms of education and in terms of Religion the one of Vanchiglia begun and already for a year closed by the S. D, Cocchi Vicecurato of the SS. Announced under the title of the Guardian Angel.
In all these three places by means of sermons, catechisms and schools, love for work is constantly inculcated with respect to the authorities, to laws according to the principles of our Holy Catholic Religion.
There are also Sunday schools around the metric system for those who can intervene. Havvi also a hospice containing twenty-five beds to provide for the most urgent needs of such young people. The ordinary number of holidays for all speakers is close to one thousand.
So far everything has progressed with the help of some charities for
+ G. Bosco, Epistolario. Introduction, critical texts and notes by Francesco Motto, vol. I (1835-1863). Rome, LAS 1991, pp. 89-91.
Vittorio Emanuele II (1820-1878) had ascended the throne a few months before (23 March 1849), after the abdication of his father, Carlo Alberto (1798-1849), following the defeat of Novara.
Note the strong emphasis on the social dangerousness of the abandoned youth that the orators would take care of ("young people, most of whom left prison or in danger of going there") and the close link between assistance, education and religion.
62 Pietro Braido
sone, and with the help of a good number of ecclesiastical and even secular zealots.
Now the appellant, finding himself at the direction of these three Oratories, aggravated by the rent that among all three locals mounts at two thousand and four hundred francs, from the maintenance costs of the three respective chapels, in which all the sacred functions are carried out for the holidays, also aggravated from the daily expenses that the extreme misery of several children make indispensable, despite all his efforts the applicant finds himself in the hard position of not being able to continue.
He therefore begs VSRM to take a benign consideration of a work that he has already procured, and hopefully, he will find the well being of so many abandoned individuals, a work already repeatedly benefited by his August Parent, and grant that charitable subsidy that similarly case to the paternal goodness will be welcome.
What about grace etc.
the Supplicant [Sac. Gio. Bosco]
G. Bosco, Fragments and documents 63
Proposition of subsidy in favor of Fr. Gio. Bosco for three Oratorios
Turin, 6 December 1849
Ill.mo Sig. Sig. P [ad] ron Col [old] mo
I have no doubt, that this Ministry is already aware of the very specific and active zeal with which the priest Bosco Gioanni for some years has been working to instruct, and to gather young or abandoned boys or children, who are now wandering here now there for the contrade and the avenues of the capital make that show of self that everyone knows, and they know it with true rac [apr], and with dire predictions, which are corroborated by what I see and feel about such young people, when they are ungracefully arrested and taken to prisons.
All that Mr. D. Bosco exposes in the supplication favored by V [our] S [ignoria] Ill.ma in communication is of all truth. It would therefore be desirable for the government to take seriously the current and future fate of these youngsters: this would be a great service rendered not only to the city of Turin, so wretched in their manner, but to many fathers and mothers of families , and to the whole society of Piedmont; because the example of the capital would spread easily, and effectively in the provinces where there is no shortage of young people with true torment and scandal of the good.
+ Don Bosco's previous plea to Vittorio Emanuele II had been sent, according to the practice, to the Grand Chancellery, so that the first officer would ask the opinion of the holder of the General Apostolic Economato, who was then can. Ottavio Moreno. The favorable Report led the king to grant a subsidy of 400 lire, a rather conspicuous sum in relation to the monetary value of the time. See A. GIRAUDO, "Sacra Real Maestà" ..., in "Salesian Historical Researches" 13 (1994), pp. 302-303.
Ottavio Moreno (1779-1852), from Savona, canon of the cathedral of Turin, senator in 1849, occupied the post of general treasurer from 1836 to his death. We will find it again in the historical Nomen of the Oratory of S. Francesco di Sales to preside over the ceremony of laying the foundation stone of the church of S. Francesco di Sales on 20 July 1851.
64 Pietro Braido
Mr. D. Bosco does everything he can; but a poor priest does not have sufficient means for the most necessary expenditure, and trusts in Christian charity and also in that of the government which is also greatly interested in directing, and in ensuring the sufficient docility of a class that grows out of proportion, lives without a roof , without education, without restraint, launched at the seduction of those who offer them the pay, the price of shouting, of shouting, and I know something else.
Mr. Bosco, as he told me, wishes to be at least helped in the payment of the rent of the premises, which he occupies, and which he has destined to collect and to instruct, and to sometimes also pay a good number of such young people idlers: the rent they pay for the three places would cost two thousand and four hundred lire: the more there would be maintenance of the three chapels, which must necessarily be provided with various sacred, furnishings, in any case few, but at least decent.
If one does not help the south [said] priest declares that he can no longer hold himself at such expense; and he realizes that the charity of the benefactors is tired: he would arrive then as he arrived at the praiseworthy priest Cocchis, who for lack of means had to abandon a similar work to which he had been waiting successfully for some years, and from which he had to cease to load with debts.
I would therefore propose that S [ua] M [aestà] deign to grant the priest Bosco, for this time, the aid of four hundred liras meanwhile it is good to hope that the government will take to heart an object whose gravity grows every day, and which can have very sad consequences for the future.
I have the honor of returning to V [our] S [ignoria] Ill.ma supplication south [dictates] to reconfirming me with senses of the most distinct respect.
Of the S [ignoria] V [ostra] Ill.ma
Dev.mo Obb.mo Serv.re Ab [ate] Moreno
G. Bosco, Fragments and documents 65
[Turin], 20 February 1850
The priest Gioanni Bosco in the desire to procure for the most abandoned young people all those civil, religious and moral advantages that were possible for him during the year 1841 began to gather a given number in a place belonging to the church of St. Francis of Assisi . The circumstances of the site limited the number to seventy or eighty.
In the year 1844, the exponent, having been transferred to the pious work of the Refuge for reasons of employment, continued to welcome these young people, who were joined by several others up to three hundred. Inadequate of a suitable venue, the meeting now took place in one site now in another of this city, always with the approval of the civil and ecclesiastical authorities.
In 1846, the place where the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales in Valdocco was opened could be rented. There the youth's presence became greater, sometimes they numbered from six to seven hundred young people from twelve to twenty years of whom a large part came out of prisons or was in danger of going there.
Blessing the Lord this work, and the aforementioned Oratory became too narrow, on the end of 1847 another was opened at Porta Nuova under the title, of S. ILuigi.
Il bisogno dei tempi persuadendo vie più la necessità di educazione e di assistenza per li giovani abbandonati, nell'ottobre del 1849 fu in Vanchiglia riaperto quello dell'Angelo Custode principiato e già
+ G. Bosco, Epistolario. Introduzione, testi critici e note a cura di Francesco Motto, vol. (1835-1863). Roma, LAS 1991, pp. 96-98.
The Work of the Istruity Mendicity arose in Turin in 1743 on the initiative of a group of priests and lay people with the intention of gathering the poor of the city, instructing them in the catechism and helping them in the most urgent needs. Towards the end of the century the aim was to start the children of the poor at work and study, who would have consumed time in idleness and vagrancy. Thus came the institution of the "schools of Charity" for learning a trade. In the 1820s the Opera entrusted the Sisters of St. Joseph with the female schools (from April 1824) and the Brothers of the Christian Schools with the masculine ones (from 1829).
See G. CHIOSSO, Youth "poor and abandoned" in Turin in the nineteenth century. The case of the artisan students of the Menduita Istruita (1818-1861), in The commitment to education, edited by JM Prellezo. Rome, LAS 1991, pp. 375-402.
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for a year closed by the very zealous SD Cocchi Vicecurato of the SS. Annunziata. The total number of young people from all three of them is often one thousand.
By means of pleasant recreation enticed by some amusements, with catechisms, instructions and singing, many became sober, lovers of work and of Religion. There are also singing schools every night, and Sunday schools for those who can intervene, and some public essays were already given and the people who intervened were fully satisfied.
You also have a hospice to receive from twenty to thirty individuals and this for the particular cases of extreme need in which often one is found.
So far everything has progressed with the help of some charitable ecclesiastical and secular people. The priests, who are especially dedicated to this are ST Borrelli, T. Carpano, T. Vola, D. Ponte, D. Grassino, T. Murialdo, D. Giacomelli, T. Prof. Marengo.
The undersigned being in the direction of these three speakers, given the expenses of the rent that among all three premises mounts at two thousand and four hundred francs per year: he also waited for the maintenance costs of the three respective chapels in which all the functions are performed for the holidays and the expenses that even the grave need of some young people makes indispensable, are afraid of perhaps not being able to continue, because of the too frequent frequency of having to appeal to the people who so far benefited from these works.
Now the undersigned, seeing the origin, purpose and purpose of these Oratories to be the same as those of the work of the Educated Beggar, humbly invites the Ill.mi of the administration to take into consideration the overexposed and considering these Oratories as an appendix of the Istruita Mendicità grant those charitable aids that to the wisdom and goodness of the SS. LL. he will be judged benevolent, so that he can continue a work that has already procured and hopefully will bring more spiritual and even temporal well-being to many abandoned individuals of human society.
Hoping the favor etc.
D. Bosco Gio. Exponent
G. Bosco, Fragments and documents 67
Grant proposal. GENERAL ECONOMATE Royal Apostolic
Turin, 24 September 1851
[Ill.mo Sig. Minister],
There are four supplications, on which the Treasurer General has the honor of explaining to the Minister for Ecclesiastical Affairs his feeling according to the favoritogli excitement.
Three are presented by very zealous priests, who with extraordinary charity take care of the shelter, education, and education of poor maidens, and of poor boys, and young men, who abandoned themselves in the streets, and in the squares, to dissipation without any restraint is thrown into every manner of vice, and of turpitude: to sustain such zeal certainly not enough subsidies, which can be provided by the Treasury; but it matters that the government itself takes care of it, and assists it, promotes it with the means, which are more extended in its hands, and of which it can dispose.
It is a generation that grows and grows in vice; of a generation, which is already numerous, and is wandering and insolent, easy to every selection, ready for every prestige, and to every clamor the most unfortunate: those poor young men are imprisoned ... but what good is that imprisonment? What good is it? The writer, who for so many years went around the prisons can learn something.
+ The positive opinion of can. Ottavio Moreno, as far as Don Bosco is concerned, is related to a plea forwarded to Vittorio Emanuele in July 1851, to obtain an extraordinary subsidy for the construction of the church of S. Francesco di Sales. Don Bosco was granted an allocation of 10,000 lire 'to be paid by rateat, that is, L. 3 m. immediately, and the remaining ones as the municipal fund will have available funds ". Cfr., A. GIRAUDO, "Sacra Real Maestà" ..., in "Salesian Historical Researches" 13 (1994), pp. 176, 296-297, 307-310.
Theol. Gaspare Saccarelli (1818-1864) had founded in Borgo S. Donato, adjacent to Borgo Dora, where the oratory of San Francesco di Sales was located, a similar oratory for poor girls in order to catechize them, give them the opportunity to perform religious practices, teaching them to read, write and reckon, and keep them "in honest recreations" (A. GIRAUDO, "Sacra Real Maestà" ..., pp. 303-304).
68 Pietro Braido
Two priests arose to gather at first those boys, who at all abandoned were sleeping under the arcades, along the alleys, or on some door: some were backward in the voice, which you called them to have shelter and bread; others followed the hand, which benefited them under a roof: from here began the beautiful and truly priestly work of the two priests Cocchis, and Bosco, who rejoiced in naming, however the favorite appeals in communication speak for them.
The priest Cocchis shrank into a more circumscribed sphere, and he cultivated it with all zeal, with all charity, and with happy success; however, the General Treasurer does not doubt that he proposes the renewal of the grant of L. 800 as a relief for him.
The priest Gioanni Bosco launched himself into a wider field, and placed himself at the head of three youth meetings, placing them under the banner of religion, calling them, as already S. Filippo Neri, Oratori; the main one of these meetings is that which he maintains in the Valdocco region near this capital under the title of St. Frances de Sales: it is not to say of how much utility such a reunion succeeds, which is made every Sunday and a public holiday ever more numerous and exemplary, up to the time of construction.
Always presided over by the good priest Bosco assisted by some of his friends and confidant priests, who with all his commitment are zealous and charitable: between the week he considers those young people with him, who are most in need of education religious, beginning with the first elements of catechism: but to this first instruction it adds other elements, such as those of calligraphy, arithmetic, etc. intending to place them next at some craftsman or shopkeeper to learn a trade.
Sunday arrives, or the public holiday: then those young people who he placed in some shop or workshop all rush to the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales with brio and impatience, and there they gather around the loving D. I Bosco, to whom the spirit of gratitude and affection is shown to be full. There after the religious instruction, and the canticle of the divine laudi, we pass to the fun of gymnastics, of bowls, of the joust (albeit shapeless), to a simulacrum of military evolutions, and to many other amusements, which hold back the hilarity, the good harmony, and good customs; why is not a rude or dirty word heard; never an altercation; never an insolent and brazen shouting: everything is regulated by presence, by respect, and by the love that inspires the beneficent priest, who in his own narrowness,
Animated by success, which the priest Bosco is so happy to show, everything is in the desire to form a church in the room destined for the Oratory of St. Francis of Sales that is capable of containing a good number of young people who come there: it is called church, because the place where the sacred functions are now performed is not a church, but an oblong room, where it is difficult to last and hold between the breath and the heat. The desire of Mr. D. Bosco was seconded by the good and effective will of pious and beneficial people, and up to the master-master, to whom the manufacturing enterprise is entrusted.
The calculation of the necessary expenditure would rise to 25 lire [ila], the foundations that are laid, and work continues; except that money is now lacking, and in spite of the good will of the chief contractor, he would be forced to suspend the construction started with great regret of the active, and in his impatient charity D. Bosco.
He confides in the charity of S [ua] M [aestà] by means of the economic crate, but he does not ignore the narrowness of this fund, and the multiple weights, that the Gruvano therefore will not be able to not but be happy with that subsidy, which will be possible.
He does not disguise the writer, who thinks the usefulness of this institution is so dense in thought, that when the Treasurer's case was able to bear all the expense of the fabricated manufacture, he would not hesitate to propose it to the charity of S [ua] M [ aestà]: while the adult generation wants to be contained it imports to the governments that the generation that grows is educated, educated to the religion and the morality: the good or sad future of the society is all in the sanction, and in the practical execution of this principle: so the writer thinks.
Let therefore the excellent priest D. Bosco support and encourage in the religious, and eminently sociable his division, hoping that beneficial people will want to continue to assist the beautiful enterprise, and hoping above all else that the government [has] penetrated it too from the importance of supporting its high and enlightened principle, the General Treasurer would propose the subsidy of ten thousand lire to be distributed again, ie L. 3 m [ila] immediately, and the remaining sum in subsequent years in those months and in that time, which this fund will be able to share again with the commitment contract.
70 Pietro Braido
Following the example of the priests Bosco and Cocchis, Mr. teol. Saccarelli chaplain of S [ua] M [aestà] set about the meeting of poor maidens in a house, which he took away with his money to rent in the Borgo of S. Donato (it is possible that one does not think of manufacturing a parish church in a Borgo , that counting a population of over twenty thousand souls is at all without a church [?]), and that up to now it supported with oblations even pious persons, but mainly with its own bag.
Increasing the number of girls who flock to education and education, which is opened to them, he divided the worthy theol. Saccarelli to have a small church built, which does not so much serve the fulfillment of the religious duties of said girls, as to facilitate the inhabitants of that village the means of hearing a mass on public holidays.
From the very wording of the dispatch of the Minister of Ecclesiastical Affairs, he understands how he himself penetrated the importance and usefulness of such an establishment when you really come to be constituted. It would have been appropriate for Mr. teol. Saccarelli had hinted at the expense that would be necessary for the divided construction: however, he is known to have already begun the work, and which cannot progress due to lack of means.
To support and encourage the lost beneficial institute the General Treasurer would propose the subsidy of two thousand five hundred pounds, hoping that Mr. Teol. will later be able to give more enlightenment, and that other pious people will also want to assist him in the beautiful enterprise.
The memorial presented by Mr. Count Ceppi in his capacity as chairman of the commission instituted by the Delegate Council of this city to promote the various interests of the inhabitants of the Borgo Stura is finally presented.
He wanted the General Treasurer to bring together all these propositions in a single correspondence, because all the questions concern objects, which are of interest to the population of Turin, and therefore all could be the object of the attention of the government, and of his care.
He submits the General Treasurer to the wisdom of Mr. Minister
G. Bosco, Fragments and documents 71
for ecclesiastical affairs these propositions, and have the honor of returning the relative appeals.
L'Economo Generale Ab [ate] Moreno
To the Minister Secretary of State for Affairs Eccl.ci of Grace and Justice
72 Pietro Braido
* Turin, December 20, 1851
A modest work of charity was undertaken, ten years ago, in the district of this city under the title of Oratory of St. Francis de Sales, directed solely to the intellectual and moral good of that part of youth, which for neglect of parents, for the habit of perverse friends, or due to lack of means of fortune, it is exposed to continuous danger of corruption. Some people who love the good education of the people saw with pain every day the number of idle young people, and they are ill advised that living on the brink or fraud on the crossroads and on the square are a burden to society and often an instrument of every misfare. They also felt with a feeling of profound sadness many of those, who for a long time devoted themselves to the exercise of the arts and industries of the city, going on holidays consuming the subtle reward earned in the course of the week in play and intemperance, and wishing to remedy an evil from which they are afraid of terrible consequences, decided to open a house on Sunday where some could and others have all the leisure to satisfy religious duties, and at the same time receive an instruction, an address, a council to govern life in a Christian and honest way. An Oratory was therefore instituted dedicated to St. Francis de Sales with the means that he administered the charity of those generous, who usually wander in the things that concern the public well; he prepared himself for this purpose to celebrate religious services, and to give young people a moral and civil education;
+ G. Bosco, Epistolario. Introduction, critical texts and notes, edited by Francesco Motto, vol. I (1835-1863). Rome, LAS 1991, pp. 139-141.
The circular refers to the first of the large lotteries designed by Don Bosco for the financial support of his works. To this he dedicates significant pages to Giuseppe Bracco in an essay entitled Don Bosco and the institutions, in vol. I (Essays) of the Turin and Don Bosco opera (Turin, Historic Archive of the City of Turin 1989), pp. 130-133.
G. Bosco, Fragments and documents 73
It is difficult to say with what favor the invitation that was made to the youngsters without any publicity was received, and in that guise only that it is customary among family members, to agree every holiday in the Oratory; which encouraged him to enlarge the enclosure, and to introduce into it progress of those improvements, which an ingenious and prudent charity could suggest; then he began to teach first on Sundays, and then every evening in the winter season, reading, writing, the elements of arithmetic and the Italian language, and a special study was made to make those young people willing to use the use of legal measures, of which, being most involved in trades, they felt the greatest need.
Instill in their hearts the affection for relatives, fraternal benevolence, respect for authority, gratitude to benefactors, love for fatigue, and more than anything else to instruct their minds in Catholic and moral doctrines, portray them from the evil away, they infuse the holy fear of God, and in time accustom them to the observance of the religious precepts, these are the things, to which for two decades from zealous priests and lay people assiduous work is given and the greatest cures are consecrated. So while there are those who commendably strive to spread scientific light, to advance the arts, to prosper industries and to educate well-off youngsters in colleges and high schools, the modest Oratory of St. Francis de Sales is largely divided into religious and civil education to those,
Recognizing, however, in a short time, for the ever-increasing number of young people, the place which was intended for use as a chapel, and not wishing to leave a company so well under way, the promoters full of confidence in the generosity of their fellow citizens decided to put their hands to a broader and more suitable building for the purpose, and to ensure in this way the duration of a useful thing in an educational institution. Every delay was truncated, uncertainties were overcome, and the foundations of the new Oratory were courageously laid.
The oblations, the gifts, the encouragement of every fact did not fail until now, and so much progress was made in the work, which in the space of a few months could be used to form the roof.
74 Pietro Braido
But to complete the edifice the ordinary means are no longer enough, and the inexhaustible charity of the public must come to the aid of private charity. To this end, the undersigned promoters of the pious work turn to SV Ill.ma by invoking her competition, and proposing to her a means, which having already been successfully used in other praiseworthy institutions will certainly not fail at the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales. This medium consists of a lottery of objects, which the undersigned came to think of to undertake to make up for the costs of completing the new chapel, and to which the SV will want, there is no doubt, to lend its competition, reflecting to excellence of the work to which it is directed.
Whatever object you like to offer SV or silk, or wool, or metal, or wood, that is, the work of a respected artist, or a modest worker, or a hard-working artisan, or a charitable gentlewoman, everything will be accepted with gratitude, because in the matter of charity every little help is great, and because the tenders, even tenuous, of many together can suffice to accomplish the desired work.
The undersigned trust in the goodness of the SV, confident that the thought of contributing to the good education of the abandoned youth will not be able to avoid bending her heart to some subsidy. It is worthwhile to recommend to you the pious institute the singular benevolence with which people of every order and of every grade have promoted the establishment and favored the extension. Especially worthy of note is the vote issued by the first legislative body of the state, which after having taken it in benign consideration nominated a special commission to have precise details of it, and having learned of its usefulness, warmly recommended it to the King's Government. with unanimous vote by the Turin Municipality; the singular width, with which SM the King and SM
The undersigned make to SV Ill.ma advance thanks for the kind cooperation that you will want to pay for the successful outcome of the planned lottery, and ask you from heaven for every blessing.
At SV Ill.ma
Promoters and Promoters
1. History of the text
The story of the text describing the first meeting of the Minister Urbano Rattazzi 'with Don Bosco begins in 1882, when he reports in two episodes the Salesian Bulletin.2 No original manuscripts have been found or any mention referring to a similar visit in the Chronicles of different authors, preserved in the ASC.
Urbano Rattazzi was born in Alessandria in 1808 and died in Frosinone in 1873. A lawyer and a deputy in the subalpine parliament, for a time minister of public education, for two he was president of the council of ministers of the Italian kingdom, he talked a lot about himself in relationship both to the Roman question and to the relations between state and church, first in the Sardinian kingdom, then in the kingdom of Italy. Minister of Grace and Justice and Minister of the Interior in various Governments of the Kingdom of Sardinia and - after the unification of Italy - in the Ministry of La Marmora, carried out an intense activity directed to the reform of the judiciary, to regulate admission to the benefit of the advocacy of the lawyer of the poor, to modify the code of criminal procedure and above all to modify the penal code in force in the Sardinian kingdom. Among the many differences found between the penal code of 1839 and that of 1959, they concern those concerning young people under twenty-one years of age. The code of '39 and that of '59 are in agreement in asserting that the child of fourteen years, when he has acted without discernment, will not be subject to punishment. However, if it is a crime or a crime, the magistrates or courts will order the accused to be handed over to the family, which obliges them to educate him and to keep an eye on his conduct under penalty of damages (in 1959 there is even talk of a fine) . However, there is a big difference between the two codes. The one in 1939 provides for life imprisonment (a working penal colony) for the minor of fourteen who is not handed over to the family. For young people over 14, until the age of twenty-one, the penalty is served in prison, although with some reduction in duration with respect to that of adults. The 1959 Code, which bears the signature of Rattazzi, provides for all young people with social problems who are not handed over to the family the custody that is a house of education and industry, or the shelter in a public work establishment, if the defendant is less than fourteen years old. Custody and life imprisonment could not differ from each other only as far as the name was concerned, if custody was to be used for the re-education of the young. Serious pedagogical problems arose in the preparation of the housing regulations, of which the 1859 Code speaks. However, it seems, however, that the pressure of political events took Rattazzi from the
Cfr. BS 6 (1882) n. 10, oct., Pp. 166-172 and n. 11, nov., Pp. 179-182.
76 Antonio Ferreira da Silva
In the process of beatification of Don Bosco two witnesses explicitly talk about the visit of Urbano Rattazzi to the Oratory. D. Giulio Barberis (1847-1927), who had known Don Bosco when he was only seven years old and had entered the Oratory in 1861, affirms: «The Urban Minister Rattazzi had repeatedly witnessed the good that D. Bosco did, being come to visit the Oratory, to attend even some sermons of Don Bosco, observed with his eyes the change for the good of the young, known to him by the scum ... »(Positio super introductione causae, p. 300). Fr Giovanni Battista Francesia (1838-1930; entered the Oratory on 22 June 1852) instead assures that he was present at Valdocco on the day of Rattazzi's visit: "I was present at this conference" (Positio super introductione causae, p. 204). But will he have seen and recognized the minister? "It seems to me, he says on one of his good nights, that he saw that gentleman who tried to speak to Don Bosco and who manifested himself for Urbano Rattazzi, then so famous and the bold opponent of Count Cavour"?
Both testimonies are subsequent to the text of the BS.
2. The author
The text presented here is part of chapters VII and VIII of the second part of the History of the Oratory of St. Francis of Sales, published by D. Giovanni Bonetti, principal editor of the BS. It can therefore be assumed that he himself is the author of the text.4
Among his many writings - apologetic, hagiographic, ascetic - he is particularly interested here in the History of the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales.
Published in installments on the BS, it was then completed and collected in a volume entitled Five years of history of the Salesian Oratory.5
The purpose of the History of the Oratory was to give readers comprehensive information about the origin and nature of the Oratory, correcting errors and impressions spread here and there. "
The weaving of work, as well as the information provided by Don Bosco, contributed to those given by ancient students of the Oratory, internal and external, ecclesiastical and lay.
The publication begins in January 1879 and continues uninterrupted
'GB FRANCESIA, good night, autograph of DGB Francesia, by Eugenio
Valentini. Rome, PAS 1977, p. 29
See on him later on page 99, n. 9, a brief biographical profile.
Turin, Salesian Typography 1892.
Cf. BS 3 (1879) n. 1, Genn., P. 6.
G. Bosco, Conversation with U. Rattazzi 77
until August 1881. It resumes in October of the same year and continues until May 1882. The text relating to the outward journey of Urbano Rattazzi to the Oratory of Valdocco and to the subsequent interview is contained in the 10th and 11th dossiers (Oct. -nov.) of 1882. The publication of the History resumes in the numbers from March to July of 1883; concludes with the August 1886 episode.
3. Probable sources
The lack of texts prior to the re-enactment of the episode made by the BS at 28 years of age poses problems that go beyond the scope of this collection. However, as a contribution to their correct formulation, parallel texts have been collected, which are placed in the apparatus for a useful comparison with the published text. It seems that the reliability of Bonetti's story may be strengthened, yet read within the editorial context of the BS and not as a rigorous historical account.
The dialogue between Don Bosco and the master Francesco Bodrato, taken from the biographical notes of the priest D. Bodrato Francesco, whose manuscript text and proofs exist in ASC 275 BODRATO FRANCESCO, is quoted from the critical edition published in RSS 3 ( 1984) n. 2 (5), July-December, pp. 384-387. For G. Bosco, The Preventive System in Youth Education, on the other hand, follows the printed text prefixed to the Regulations for the houses of the Society of St. Francis de Sales (Turin, Salesian Typography 1877), in OE XXIX 99407 (= pp 3-13).
78 Antonio Ferreira da Silva
Leaving his politics aside, we note to the honor of Fr. It is true that the lawyer Rattazzi from Deputy and Minister always looked favorably on our Oratory and Hospice. He used to say that the Government was obliged to protect this institution, because it cooperated
5 effectively to diminish the tenants of the prisons, and to form wise citizens, while at the same time making them good Christians; and he himself gave the example. Then he encouraged Don Bosco in his work, sent subsidies, recommended young boys, and even went so far as to entrust him with a young cousin of his, named Cesare Rattazzi, so that
10 reduced it to good feelings and healthy advice. Whenever he went up to the Ministry he deigned to let D. Bosco know that he would have nothing to fear. These benevolent provisions he began to nurture from the moment he made personal acquaintance with Don Bosco, and in an incognito way he came to our Oratory. The fact is worthy of being
15 reported here.
It was a Sunday morning in April of the year 1854, around ten thirty. The youth of the Hospice with many others from the outside were for the second time in the Church; they had sung Mattutino and Lodi of the Office of the Blessed Virgin, having heard the Mass,
20 and D. Bosco climbed into the pulpit was telling a story of Ecclesiastical History, already begun some time ago. At that moment a gentleman enters through the external door of our Church, whom no one and neither did Don Bosco know. Hearing that he was preaching, he sat down on one of the benches prepared at the bottom for the faithful, and
25 stopped to listen until the end. Don Bosco had started there
+ BS 6 (1882) n. 10-11, Nov.-Nov .; 171-172, 179-180.
9 Cesare RATTAZZI, born in Alessandria in 1843, entered the Oratory in 1856 as a craftsman and remained there until February 1958.
25-30 Dopo aver predicato ai giovani per qualche anno sulle vite dei Papi, don Bosco le pubblicò nelle Letture Cattoliche. Nella Vita de' Sommi Pontefici S. Lino, S. Cleto e S. Clemente, Torino, Paravia 1857, don Bosco scrive: «Così quel governatore sebbene in cuor suo provasse ripugnanza nell'operare il male, tuttavia per timore di perdere l'amicizia del suo sovrano commise un'abbominevole ingiustizia mandando un uomo innocente alla dura e severa pena dell'esilio. Lungo e faticoso fu il viaggio
G. Bosco, Conversazione con U. Rattazzi 79
On Sunday, before narrating the life of St. Clement the Pope, and in that morning he told how the holy Pontiff in hatred of the Christian religion had been emperor Trajano sent into exile in the Chersonese, now called Crimea, where in that year began the war above mentioned. At the end of the story he used to question some of the young people, if he had any questions about it, or some morality could be drawn from the fact of history. In this way he forced us to be careful, and at the same time gave the narrative a more lively interest. So while doing that morning, he questioned one of the outside youths. He, contrary to every expectation, came up with an appropriate question, but inappropriate for the place, and for those times very dangerous. He said therefore: - «If the
p. 171 2 'col. Archbishop Fransoni? - To this unexpected question, Don Bosco replied without stopping: - "Here is not the place to say, if our Government has done well or badly to send our most revered Archbishop into exile; this is a fact that will be discussed at the time; but it is certain that in all the centuries and from the beginning of the Church the enemies of the Christian Religion have always targeted the Heads of the same, the Popes, the Bishops, the Priests, especially since they believe that they removed the pillars out of the way. edifice, and that the shepherd beat the sheep, and become an easy prey for ravening wolves.
that St. Clement had to go to the place of his exile called Chersonese Tauricus, today Crimea ... "(p. 78).
35 Era Giacinto ARNAuD, born in Turin in 1826. He entered the Valdocco Oratory as a craftsman in 1847 and came out in February 1956.
37 «It was still in the small Oratory, and I was very young. But I remember very well what the elder companion said and how unfortunate was Arnaud's remark about the arrest and exile of the Archbishop. of Turin Mons. Fransoni "(GB FRANCESTA, Good nights ..., p. 29.
41 "Honestly those who read the fact in the Bulletin or later in the Life of Don Bosco, it seemed strange to leave the companion; but not to us who still had the memory of that holy Archbishop so much our friend and of Don Bosco's work for the memory. Then Bishop Fransoni was the almost everyday target of our newspapers and especially of the Gazzetta del popolo. In the workshop, in the house, in the conversations one only talked about him and repeat what one had read in the newspaper that was to be the mouth of truth. Someone also from the Oratory was convinced that the Arch. Franzoni had conspired against his homeland and had been rightly punished "(GB FRANCESIA, Good nights ..., p. 29).
45-57 In the Life of the Supreme Pontiffs S. Ponziano, S. Antero and S. Fabiano, Turin, Paravia 1859, pp. 41-42, Don Bosco writes: "There were and still there are some who madly said: once the head is killed, the church must end. No, says God, do not fear the assaults of men, I will defend you, I will protect you and I will be with you every day: ecce ego vobiscum sum omnibus diebus [Mt 28,20]. Perhaps some Christians not very educated in the truths of faith will say: what will become of the Church when their own pastors are sent into exile or put to death? Let men also make their efforts; they will never be worth changing the decrees of God. A bishop is killed. God knows how to raise another. Is a Pope Sent into Exile? From there he governs the Holy Church. Will he be sentenced to death? Another tough thing happens, who with the same courage and fortitude undertakes the government of the Church, preaches the same Gospel, the same faith, the same law, the same baptism instituted by Our Lord Jesus Christ. So it was and will be for the future until the number of the elect is fulfilled ».
80 Antonio Ferreira da Silva
50 We therefore when we hear or read that this or that Pope, this or that Bishop, this or that Priest was condemned to a penalty, as for example. in exile, in prison and even in death, we must not immediately believe that he is really guilty as they say; because it could be in that place that he is one
55 a victim of his duty, be he a confessor of the faith, be a hero of the Church, as were the Apostles, as were the Martyrs, as were so many Popes, Bishops, Priests and simple faithful. And then we always keep in mind that the world, the Jewish people, Pilate condemned to death by cross the same divine Savior, as an ungodly blasphemer, and a
60 subversive of the people, while he was true Son of God, he had recommended obedience and submission to established powers, while he had ordered to give to Caesar what is Caesar's, and to God what belongs to God ".
Added some other words about the duty to keep strong in faith and
65 in devotion and respect to the Ministers of the Holy Church, Don Bosco descended from the pulpit, and we, recited the usual Pater and Ave in honor of St. Luigi Gonzaga, and sang the Praised always be the name of Jesus and Mary, we left the Chapel by the side door. Behind us came the unknown gentleman, who came into the courtyard and asked for
70 talk with D. Bosco. He had then gone up to his room and was accompanied by a young man. After the first pleasantries, a brief dialogue was heard between D. Bosco and Rattazzi, heard by the young man himself who, if
66-67 MB IV 401 speaks of a Poter, Ave and Gloria in s. Luigi, with the invocation Ab omni malo libera nos Domine. We do not know if this is the same practice of devotion to itself Luigi Gonzaga.
71-75 Cfr. MB IV 626-629.
G. Bosco, Conversation with U. Rattazzi 81
according to the usual of those times, not very blessed, after having introduced the lord, he had stopped there until D. Bosco mentioned that he should leave
well, because nothing was needed. This is the dialogue. 75
D. Bosco - Could I know with whom I have the honor of speaking? Rattazzi - With Rattazzi.
DB - With Rattazzi! That great Rattazzi (coul gran Ratass), Deputy, former President of the Chamber and now Minister of the King?
Rat. - In fact. 80
DB - So (smiling) I can prepare my wrists for handcuffs, and dispose myself to go to the shadow of the prison. Rat. - Why on earth?
DB - For what V. Excellence heard a little earlier in ours
Church, regarding Archbishop Archbishop. 85
p, 172 Rat. - Not at all. Leaving aside, if I was more or less
the boy's question was opportune, for her part she replied and managed very well, and no minister of the world could reproach him the least, though I believe that it is not appropriate to treat politics in the Church, much less with young people, who are they are not yet able to make the due appreciation, they do not have however to deny their convictions in front of anyone. It should also be added that in a Constitutional Government the Ministers are responsible for their actions, which can be syndicated by any citizen, and therefore also by Don Bosco. I myself, although not all the ideas and acts of Archbishop Fransoni challenge me, am pleased that the severe measure against him has not been taken under my Ministry.
DB - If that is so, Don Bosco concluded facetiously, so I can be sure that this time VE will not put me in too gattabuja, and will let me breathe the free air of Valdocco. Then let's move on to something else.
At this lepid debut he gave a serious talk almost after
78 In the Piedmontese dialect rat = topo; ratass = topaccio.
81-89 Among the changes proposed by Rattazzi to the Criminal Code and approved in that year by the Parliament, was the one that punished with the imprisonment and the addition of a fine, the ministers of the cult who, in public meeting in the exercising their ministry, they would give speeches containing censorship to the institutions or to the laws of the State. 89-93 See MO 219-220 and 217-218.
82 Antonio Ferreira da Silva
an hour; and Rattazzi with a skewer of questions to D. Bosco became
105 to say by thread and by sign the origin, the purpose, the progress, the fruit of the institution of the Oratory and the united Hospice; and as a good-hearted man he went so well impressed, that from that day, as we have mentioned above, and as we shall see again later, he became our lawyer and protector. For us this was a trait of spe
The cial providence, because the conditions of the times are becoming more difficult year by year, and since Rattazzi had very often had the hands of the Government, and since he remained an influential man, our Oratory had such support in him, without which he would perhaps have resent the very strong shocks, and also suffered serious damage. and
115 instead was the opposite. It seems that the Lord wanted to use him
to do us good, and not to let ourselves be harmed, just as at the same end under King Nebuchadnezzar he had served with the work of a powerful Minister for young Daniel and his companions. God never changes. He is always what provident Father. Happy those who love him and in him
120 confides. THE
Among the various questions that Mr. Rattazzi moved to Don Bosco Fr. 179 in the aforementioned conversation, one was around him by I i. with the. used to preserve order among many young people, who flocked to p. 179
the Oratory. 2 "col.
125 - The SV does not have his signs, the Minister asked, at least two
or three uniformed or disguised civic guards?
- I don't need any point, Excellency.
- Possible? But these young people of his are not unlike the youth of the whole world; they will still be at least unbridled, acattabratta, rissosi. What repressions, what punishments, therefore, do you use to stop them and to prevent confusion?
- Most of these young people are really awake of the
121-124 "During that day he asked for a particular audience with the Rev. D. Bosco and he got it in the same evening ... What we can assert is that one of the first themes of the conversation was the protests of admiration for the behavior of dependence and affection, and of sincere cordiality that had so struck the Bodrato, in that large number of boys, came therefore the questions on the system held by the Sacra ' Don Bosco in order to obtain such an extraordinary effect "- Cf. Dialogue between Don Bosco and the master Francesco Bodrato, pp. 384-385.
130-134 "What rule to keep in inflicting punishments? Where possible, punishment is never used ... »- Regulations for houses ..., p. 12.
G. Bosco, Conversation with U. Rattazzi 83
fourth, as they say; nevertheless, to prevent unrest, neither violence nor punishment of any kind is used here.
- This seems to me a mystery; please explain the mystery to me. 135
- Your Excellency does not ignore the fact that there are two systems of education; one is called the repressive system, the other is called the preventive system. The first aims to educate man by force, by repressing and punishing him, when he violated the law, when he committed the crime; the second seeks to educate him with gentleness, and therefore he helps him gently to observe the law itself, and he gives him the most suitable and effective means for that purpose; and this is precisely the system in force between us. First of all, here he endeavors to instill in the hearts of young people the holy fear of God; they are inspired by love of virtue and horror of vice, with the teaching of catechism and appropriate moral instruction; they address and support themselves in the way of good with appropriate and benevolent warnings, and especially with the practices of piety and religion. Beyond that they surround themselves as much as possible with
135 "... He felt the need and ardently desired to know the secret of such an extraordinary success of this education" - The dialogue between Don Bosco and the master Francesco Bodrato, p. 395.
136-138 "There are two systems in every age used in the education of youth: Preventive and Repressive" - Regulations for houses ..., p. 3.
138-140 "The Repressive system consists in letting the subjects know the law, and then supervising them to know the transgressors and inflict, where appropriate, the deserved punishment" - Rules for houses ..., pp. 3-4.
140-143 «Different and, I would say, the Preventive system is the opposite. It consists in making known the prescriptions and regulations of an Institute and then supervising in such a way that the pupils always have the watchful eye of the Director or of the assistants above them, who, as amorous fathers, speak, serve as a guide to every event, give advice and lovingly correct, which is to say: to put the students in the impossibility of committing shortcomings. This system rests entirely on reason, religion, and above kindness; therefore he excludes every violent punishment and tries to keep away the same light punishments »- Rules for houses ..., p. 4.
143-155 "When they come to let the souls of the principal mysteries of our religion penetrate, that all love reminds us of the love which God has brought to man, when it has come to make the strings of gratitude vibrate in their hearts which is due to the Lord, in exchange for the benefits that have so widely divided us, and when Reason has still made them convinced that those who want to be sincerely grateful to God, must listen to their precepts, observe the commandments and practice what we propose to keep us in the straight street. In short, when we have obtained from them the practice of good works with the frequency of the Sacraments, we also persuade ourselves that it is almost in the middle of the work "- The dialogue between Don Bosco and the master Francesco Bodrato, p. 386.
84 Antonio Ferreira da Silva
loving assistance in recreation, at school, at work; s'in
150 courage with words of benevolence, and as soon as they show that they forget their own duties, they remember themselves in a beautiful way and refer to sound advice. In a word all industries are used, which suggests Christian charity, so that they do good and flee from evil on the principle of an enlightened conscience supported by
- Certainly this is the most suitable method for educating reasonable creatures; but is he effective for all?
- For ninety out of a hundred this system achieves a comforting effect; on the other ten, however, it has such a beneficial influence, from
160 make them less stubborn and less dangerous; so I rarely need to chase away a young man as indomitable and incorrigible. Both in this Oratory, as in those of Porta Nuova and Vanchiglia, young people are presented or are sometimes led, who either by bad temper, or by
152-155 «The practice of this system is entirely supported by the words of s. Paul who says: Charitas patiens est, benigna est, omnia suffert, omnia sperat, omnia sustinet ... Reason and Religion are the instruments, which the educator must constantly use, teach them, practice them himself if he wants to be obeyed and obtain its purpose "- Rules for houses ..., p. 6. - "Religion in this system makes the office of the brake put in the mouth of the ardent steed that dominates and dominates it; the reason then is that of the bridle which by pressing on the bite produces the effect that one wants to obtain. Religion true, sincere religion that dominates the actions of youth, reason that rightly apply those saints dictates to the rule of all his actions, here they are in two words summarized the system I applied, of which she wishes to know the great secret "- The dialogue between Don Bosco and the master Francesco Bodrato, p. 387. 156-157 "Interrogavane D. Bosco, who took care of it with just two words. Do you see Mr. Bodrato wants to know the two powerful springs that support me in the exercise of my system? These are precisely those that have to adapt to rational beings, to beings made to know God, to love him, to serve him and then be able to go and enjoy him in Paradise. These two very powerful springs are Religion and Reason. The educator must be convinced that all or almost all of these dear young people have a natural intelligence to know the good that is done to them, and a sensitive heart easily open to gratitude "- The dialogue between Don Bosco and the master Francesco Bodrato, pp. 385- 386.
158-166 "Whatever the character, the nature, the moral state of a pupil at the time of his acceptance, relatives can live safely, that their child will not get worse, and you can give for sure that you will always get some improvement. Indeed certain children who for a long time were the scourge of relatives and even refused by correctional houses, cultivated according to these principles, changed character, character, gave themselves to a life of custom, and presently occupy honored offices in society, thus becoming the support of family, decorum of the country in which they reside »Regulations for houses ..., p. 11.
G. Bosco, Conversation with U. Rattazzi 85
docility, or even malice, were already the desperation of relatives and masters, and after a few weeks they no longer seemed to be given; from 165 wolves, so to speak, they turn into lambs.
- Too bad that the Government is not able to adopt such a method in its Penal Establishments, where hundreds of guards are needed to ban riots, and prisoners become daily
worst. The 170
p.180 - And what prevents the Government from following this system in the
1 «col. its criminal institutions? Religion is introduced; the appropriate time should be established for religious teaching and for practices of piety; give them the importance they deserve from the one who presides; let the Minister of God enter often, and let him remain freely with those poor, and let them hear a word of love and peace, and then the preventive method will be well and adopted. After some time the guards will have nothing or very little to do; but the Government will have the pride to give back to families and society many moral and useful members. Otherwise he will spend the money, in order to correct or punish for a time more or less along a large number of wretches and offenders, and when he has released them he will have to keep an eye on them,
Of this tenor D. Bosco pulled forward for a good time; and as from 1840 he knew the status of young and adult prisoners, because on the example of Mr. D. Cafasso and T. Borel he did
174-177 "These places of misfortune and misfortune are the most needy of the priestly ministry. But the difficulty of having access to it, the unhealthiness of the sites, the horror that there inspires every object make the sacred ministry there difficult »- G. Bosco, Biography of the priest Giuseppe Caffasso exposed in two funeral reasonings by the priest Bosco Giovanni. Turin, Paravia 1860, p. 81.
180-184 «III. The Repressive system can prevent a disorder, but it will hardly do the delinquents better "- Rules for houses ..., p. 5.
187 "At that time the priest D. Mattis, of happy memory, and T. Borsarelli, canon of the Metrop, worked with zeal and good success in the prisons. of St. John. Almost at the same time as D. Caffasso also began the T. Borrelli Gio., Rector of the refuge ». - G. Bosco, Biography of the priest Giuseppe Caffasso ... p. 81, n. 1 - D. Giuseppe Cafasso was born in Castelnuovo d'Asti in 1811. Priest in '33. According to the testimonies of Don Giuseppe Sassi and of the canon Pelletta in the Lent of 1835 he began his apostolate among the prisoners. - See the deposition of Canon G. Allamano in Positio super virtutibus, pp. 102-103 and Positio super introductione causae, p. 88. He succeeded the theologian Luigi Guala in the direction of the ecclesiastical boarding school of Turin in 1848. He died in 1860 and was canonized in 1947. Don Giovanni Borel was born in Turin. Still a cleric he was joined to the Palatine clergy. Degree in Theology. Appointed chaplain to His Majesty and to the royal chapel, he renounced it. Archbishop Fransoni assigned him as spiritual director of the Refuge and related institutions (1839-1873). He also distinguished himself for his charity towards the poor, for his work as prisoners and for the care of the sick in Borgo Dora and his surroundings. In the difficult years of the beginning of the Oratory, he was always a valid help to Don Bosco. He died in 1873 - See The Catholic Unity, 1873, n. 216, September 16, pp. 866.4-867.1. - As for Don Bosco, who entered the Ecclesiastical Boarding School in November 1841, he was invited by Don Cafasso to assist him in the work of the prisoners. Appointed chaplain to His Majesty and to the royal chapel, he renounced it. Archbishop Fransoni assigned him as spiritual director of the Refuge and related institutions (1839-1873). He also distinguished himself for his charity towards the poor, for his work as prisoners and for the care of the sick in Borgo Dora and his surroundings. In the difficult years of the beginning of the Oratory, he was always a valid help to Don Bosco. He died in 1873 - See The Catholic Unity, 1873, n. 216, September 16, pp. 866.4-867.1. - As for Don Bosco, who entered the Ecclesiastical Boarding School in November 1841, he was invited by Don Cafasso to assist him in the work of the prisoners. Appointed chaplain to His Majesty and to the royal chapel, he renounced it. Archbishop Fransoni assigned him as spiritual director of the Refuge and related institutions (1839-1873). He also distinguished himself for his charity towards the poor, for his work as prisoners and for the care of the sick in Borgo Dora and his surroundings. In the difficult years of the beginning of the Oratory, he was always a valid help to Don Bosco. He died in 1873 - See The Catholic Unity, 1873, n. 216, September 16, pp. 866.4-867.1. - As for Don Bosco, who entered the Ecclesiastical Boarding School in November 1841, he was invited by Don Cafasso to assist him in the work of the prisoners. He also distinguished himself for his charity towards the poor, for his work as prisoners and for the care of the sick in Borgo Dora and his surroundings. In the difficult years of the beginning of the Oratory, he was always a valid help to Don Bosco. He died in 1873 - See The Catholic Unity, 1873, n. 216, September 16, pp. 866.4-867.1. - As for Don Bosco, who entered the Ecclesiastical Boarding School in November 1841, he was invited by Don Cafasso to assist him in the work of the prisoners. He also distinguished himself for his charity towards the poor, for his work as prisoners and for the care of the sick in Borgo Dora and his surroundings. In the difficult years of the beginning of the Oratory, he was always a valid help to Don Bosco. He died in 1873 - See The Catholic Unity, 1873, n. 216, September 16, pp. 866.4-867.1. - As for Don Bosco, who entered the Ecclesiastical Boarding School in November 1841, he was invited by Don Cafasso to assist him in the work of the prisoners.
86 Antonio Ferreira da Silva
to those miserable frequent visits, so he was able to point out to the Minister of the Interior the efficacy of religion on their moral rehabilitation. To the
190 seeing the Priest of God, and he added, on hearing the word of comfort the prisoner recalls the blessed years, in which he attended the catechism, recalls the notices of the parish priest or of the Master, recognizes that if he fell in that place of punishment he it is, either because he stopped attending the Church, or because he did not put into practice the teachings he received; waves
195 recalling to mind these dear memories, he hears the heart more often than not, a tear cracks in his eyes, repents, suffers with resignation, resolves to improve his conduct, and, once his sentence has been served, returns to a society willing to refresh her with the data scandals. If instead the amiable aspect of Religion is taken from him and
200 sweetness of its maxims and its practices; if it is deprived of the conversations and advice of a friend of the soul, what will become of the poor in that hated enclosure? Never invited by a loving voice to lift the spirit beyond the earth; never animated to reflect that
190-199 "As soon as he began to negotiate and speak with that new kind of listeners, Fr. Caffasso was soon to realize that they had become unfortunate, indeed abrogated; but that their misfortune derived rather from lack of religious instruction, than from its own malice. He speaks to them of religion and is listened to; offers to return and is with expected pleasure »- G. Bosco, Biography of the priest Giuseppe Caffasso ..., pp. 82-83.
199-214 "Then looking for the cause of so much depravity in those miserable young men, he seemed to find her in their departure from religious practices on holidays. Convinced of this, Don Bosco went on to say: Who knows if these boys had had a friend, that he had taken loving care of them, had assisted them and instructed them in Religion on feast days, who knows if they would not have kept away from the badly done, and if they would not have avoided coming and returning to these places of punishment? Would it not be of the highest importance for Religion and the civil Society to attempt to prove it for the future to the advantage of hundreds and thousands of others? "- History of the Oratory of St. Francis de Sales, BS 3 ( 1879) n. 1, January, p. 8 - It may be useful to know the thought of Don Bosco, exposed to the Salesian cooperators of S. Beningo Canavese, on this problem and in these years, consult the BS 4 (1880) n. 7, July, pp. 12-13.
G. Bosco, Conversation with U. Rattazzi 87
sinning has offended not only the laws of the State, but God, the Supreme Legislator; never excited to ask him for forgiveness, nor comforted to suffer his temporal punishment in place of the eternal, which he wants to forgive, he in his miserable condition will see nothing but the ill grace of an adverse fortune; so instead of wetting his chains with tears of repentance, he will bite them with ill-concealed anger; instead of proposing life's amendment, he will insist on his evil; from his 210 companions of punishment he will learn new malice, and with them he will combine the way to commit a crime more wisely, not to fall into the hands of justice, but not to improve and become a good citizen.
Don Bosco, having taken the favorable opportunity, signaled to the Minister the usefulness of the preventive system, especially in public schools and schools
p. 180 houses of education, where you have to cultivate even virgin souls of
2 "with crime; animi, who meekly bend to the voice of persuasion and love. I know well, after concluding Don Bosco, that promoting this system is not a task devolved to the dicastery of Your Excellency, but a reflection of it, but a word of his will always have great weight in the deliberations of the Minister of Public Education.
Mr. Rattazzi listened with great interest to these and other observations by Don Bosco; he was fully convinced of the goodness of the system in use in the Oratorios, and promised that for his part he would cause him to harm everyone else in government institutes. If he did not always keep his word, the reason was that even Rattazzi sometimes lacked the courage to demonstrate and defend his religious convictions.
215-219 "Then when these holy principles of the Christian Catholic Religion have taken root in these tender hearts, it is very easy to reinvigorate them and make them fit to produce excellent fruits by applying them to the daily actions of life by opportune continuous reasoning, which insensibly make their way into those souls who, almost without noticing, will get used to flee from evil and do good »The dialogue between Don Bosco and the master Francesco Bodrato, pp. 386-387.